summaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
-rw-r--r--CHANGES.md8
-rw-r--r--Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.hs14
-rw-r--r--Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.txt53
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.12
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.info400
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.txt185
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-web.12
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-web.info332
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-web.txt118
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger.170
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger.info2557
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger.txt1048
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.52
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.info582
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.txt207
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.52
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.info1079
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.txt461
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.52
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.info36
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.txt2
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.52
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.info67
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.txt20
-rw-r--r--hledger.170
-rw-r--r--hledger.cabal18
-rw-r--r--hledger.info2557
-rw-r--r--hledger.txt1048
28 files changed, 5873 insertions, 5071 deletions
diff --git a/CHANGES.md b/CHANGES.md
index f544ca2..22bc8df 100644
--- a/CHANGES.md
+++ b/CHANGES.md
@@ -1,6 +1,14 @@
User-visible changes in the hledger command line tool and library.
+# 1.20.4 2021-01-29
+
+- aregister: ignore a depth limit, as in 1.19 (#1468).
+ In 1.20-1.20.3, aregister had stopped showing transactions in subaccounts
+ below a depth limit. Now it properly shows all subaccount transactions,
+ ensuring that the register's final total matches a balance report with
+ similar arguments.
+
# 1.20.3 2021-01-14
- When searching for price chains during valuation/currency conversion:
diff --git a/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.hs b/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.hs
index 19f06aa..b67ea8c 100644
--- a/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.hs
+++ b/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.hs
@@ -87,16 +87,16 @@ aregister opts@CliOpts{rawopts_=rawopts,reportspec_=rspec} j = do
-- gather report options
inclusive = True -- tree_ ropts
thisacctq = Acct $ (if inclusive then accountNameToAccountRegex else accountNameToAccountOnlyRegex) acct
- rspec' = rspec{ rsQuery=simplifyQuery $ And [queryFromFlags ropts, argsquery]
- , rsOpts=ropts'
- }
- ropts' = ropts
- { -- remove a depth limit for reportq, as in RegisterScreen, I forget why XXX
+ ropts' = (rsOpts rspec) {
+ -- ignore any depth limit, as in postingsReport; allows register's total to match balance reports (cf #1468)
depth_=Nothing
-- always show historical balance
, balancetype_= HistoricalBalance
}
- ropts = rsOpts rspec
+ -- and regenerate the ReportSpec, making sure to use the above
+ rspec' = rspec{ rsQuery=simplifyQuery $ And [queryFromFlags ropts', argsquery]
+ , rsOpts=ropts'
+ }
reportq = And [rsQuery rspec', excludeforecastq (isJust $ forecast_ ropts')]
where
-- As in RegisterScreen, why ? XXX
@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@ aregister opts@CliOpts{rawopts_=rawopts,reportspec_=rspec} j = do
-- run the report
-- TODO: need to also pass the queries so we can choose which date to render - move them into the report ?
(balancelabel,items) = accountTransactionsReport rspec' j reportq thisacctq
- items' = (if empty_ ropts then id else filter (not . mixedAmountLooksZero . fifth6)) $
+ items' = (if empty_ ropts' then id else filter (not . mixedAmountLooksZero . fifth6)) $
reverse items
-- select renderer
render | fmt=="json" = (++"\n") . T.unpack . TL.toStrict . encodeToLazyText . toJSON
diff --git a/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.txt b/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.txt
index fd4e26d..ffdbbda 100644
--- a/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.txt
+++ b/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.txt
@@ -1,35 +1,52 @@
aregister, areg
-Show transactions affecting a particular account, and the account's
-running balance.
+
+Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account, with
+each line item representing one transaction.
_FLAGS
-aregister shows the transactions affecting a particular account (and its
-subaccounts), from the point of view of that account. Each line shows:
+aregister shows the transactions affecting a particular account and its
+subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole transaction - as
+in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other accounting apps.
+
+Note this is unlike the register command, which shows individual
+postings and does not always show a single account or a historical
+balance.
-- the transaction's (or posting's, see below) date
-- the names of the other account(s) involved
-- the net change to this account's balance
-- the account's historical running balance (including balance from
- transactions before the report start date).
+A reminder, "historical" balances include any balance from transactions
+before the report start date, so (if opening balances are recorded
+correctly) aregister will show the real-world balances of an account, as
+you would see in a bank statement.
-With aregister, each line represents a whole transaction - as in
-hledger-ui, hledger-web, and your bank statement. By contrast, the
-register command shows individual postings, across all accounts. You
-might prefer aregister for reconciling with real-world asset/liability
-accounts, and register for reviewing detailed revenues/expenses.
+As a quick rule of thumb, use aregister for reconciling real-world
+asset/liability accounts and register for reviewing detailed
+revenues/expenses.
-An account must be specified as the first argument, which should be the
-full account name or an account pattern (regular expression). aregister
-will show transactions in this account (the first one matched) and any
-of its subaccounts.
+aregister shows the register for just one account (and its subaccounts).
+This account must be specified as the first argument. You can write
+either the full account name, or a case-insensitive regular expression
+which will select the alphabetically first matched account. (Eg if you
+have assets:aaa:checking and assets:bbb:checking accounts,
+hledger areg checking would select assets:aaa:checking.)
Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transactions
shown.
+Each aregister line item shows:
+
+- the transaction's date (or the relevant posting's date if different,
+ see below)
+- the names of all the other account(s) involved in this transaction
+ (probably abbreviated)
+- the total change to this account's balance from this transaction
+- the account's historical running balance after this transaction.
+
Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default; add
the -E/--empty flag to show them.
+aregister ignores a depth limit, so its final total will always match a
+balance report with similar arguments.
+
This command also supports the output destination and output format
options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and json.
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.1 b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.1
index 75b732f..396e1c7 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.1
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.1
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-.TH "HLEDGER-UI" "1" "December 2020" "hledger-ui-1.20.3 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER-UI" "1" "December 2020" "hledger-ui-1.20.4 " "hledger User Manuals"
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.info b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.info
index 40663b9..e9ed098 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.info
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.info
@@ -1,35 +1,36 @@
-This is hledger-ui.info, produced by makeinfo version 6.7 from stdin.
+This is hledger-ui/hledger-ui.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.8
+from stdin.

-File: hledger-ui.info, Node: Top, Next: OPTIONS, Up: (dir)
+File: hledger-ui.info, Node: Top, Up: (dir)
hledger-ui(1)
*************
A terminal interface (TUI) for the hledger accounting tool.
- 'hledger-ui [OPTIONS] [QUERYARGS]'
-'hledger ui -- [OPTIONS] [QUERYARGS]'
+ `hledger-ui [OPTIONS] [QUERYARGS]'
+`hledger ui -- [OPTIONS] [QUERYARGS]'
hledger is a reliable, cross-platform set of programs for tracking
money, time, or any other commodity, using double-entry accounting and a
-simple, editable file format. hledger is inspired by and largely
+simple, editable file format. hledger is inspired by and largely
compatible with ledger(1).
hledger-ui is hledger's terminal interface, providing an efficient
full-window text UI for viewing accounts and transactions, and some
-limited data entry capability. It is easier than hledger's command-line
+limited data entry capability. It is easier than hledger's command-line
interface, and sometimes quicker and more convenient than the web
interface.
Like hledger, it reads data from one or more files in hledger
-journal, timeclock, timedot, or CSV format specified with '-f', or
-'$LEDGER_FILE', or '$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
-'C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal'). For more about this see hledger(1),
+journal, timeclock, timedot, or CSV format specified with `-f', or
+`$LEDGER_FILE', or `$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
+`C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal'). For more about this see hledger(1),
hledger_journal(5) etc.
Unlike hledger, hledger-ui hides all future-dated transactions by
-default. They can be revealed, along with any rule-generated periodic
+default. They can be revealed, along with any rule-generated periodic
transactions, by pressing the F key (or starting with -forecast) to
enable "forecast mode".
@@ -48,143 +49,140 @@ File: hledger-ui.info, Node: OPTIONS, Next: KEYS, Prev: Top, Up: Top
1 OPTIONS
*********
-Note: if invoking hledger-ui as a hledger subcommand, write '--' before
+Note: if invoking hledger-ui as a hledger subcommand, write `--' before
options as shown above.
Any QUERYARGS are interpreted as a hledger search query which filters
the data.
-'--watch'
-
+`--watch'
watch for data and date changes and reload automatically
-'--theme=default|terminal|greenterm'
+`--theme=default|terminal|greenterm'
use this custom display theme
-'--register=ACCTREGEX'
+`--register=ACCTREGEX'
start in the (first) matched account's register screen
-'--change'
+`--change'
show period balances (changes) at startup instead of historical
balances
-'-l --flat'
+`-l --flat'
show accounts as a flat list (default)
-'-t --tree'
+`-t --tree'
show accounts as a tree
hledger input options:
-'-f FILE --file=FILE'
-
- use a different input file. For stdin, use - (default:
- '$LEDGER_FILE' or '$HOME/.hledger.journal')
-'--rules-file=RULESFILE'
+`-f FILE --file=FILE'
+ use a different input file. For stdin, use - (default:
+ `$LEDGER_FILE' or `$HOME/.hledger.journal')
+`--rules-file=RULESFILE'
Conversion rules file to use when reading CSV (default: FILE.rules)
-'--separator=CHAR'
+`--separator=CHAR'
Field separator to expect when reading CSV (default: ',')
-'--alias=OLD=NEW'
+`--alias=OLD=NEW'
rename accounts named OLD to NEW
-'--anon'
+`--anon'
anonymize accounts and payees
-'--pivot FIELDNAME'
+`--pivot FIELDNAME'
use some other field or tag for the account name
-'-I --ignore-assertions'
+`-I --ignore-assertions'
disable balance assertion checks (note: does not disable balance
assignments)
-'-s --strict'
+`-s --strict'
do extra error checking (check that all posted accounts are
declared)
hledger reporting options:
-'-b --begin=DATE'
-
+`-b --begin=DATE'
include postings/txns on or after this date
-'-e --end=DATE'
+`-e --end=DATE'
include postings/txns before this date
-'-D --daily'
+`-D --daily'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by day
-'-W --weekly'
+`-W --weekly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by week
-'-M --monthly'
+`-M --monthly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by month
-'-Q --quarterly'
+`-Q --quarterly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by quarter
-'-Y --yearly'
+`-Y --yearly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by year
-'-p --period=PERIODEXP'
+`-p --period=PERIODEXP'
set start date, end date, and/or reporting interval all at once
using period expressions syntax
-'--date2'
+`--date2'
match the secondary date instead (see command help for other
effects)
-'-U --unmarked'
+`-U --unmarked'
include only unmarked postings/txns (can combine with -P or -C)
-'-P --pending'
+`-P --pending'
include only pending postings/txns
-'-C --cleared'
+`-C --cleared'
include only cleared postings/txns
-'-R --real'
+`-R --real'
include only non-virtual postings
-'-NUM --depth=NUM'
+`-NUM --depth=NUM'
hide/aggregate accounts or postings more than NUM levels deep
-'-E --empty'
+`-E --empty'
show items with zero amount, normally hidden (and vice-versa in
hledger-ui/hledger-web)
-'-B --cost'
+`-B --cost'
convert amounts to their cost/selling amount at transaction time
-'-V --market'
+`-V --market'
convert amounts to their market value in default valuation
commodities
-'-X --exchange=COMM'
+`-X --exchange=COMM'
convert amounts to their market value in commodity COMM
-'--value'
+`--value'
convert amounts to cost or market value, more flexibly than
-B/-V/-X
-'--infer-value'
+`--infer-value'
with -V/-X/-value, also infer market prices from transactions
-'--auto'
+`--auto'
apply automated posting rules to modify transactions.
-'--forecast'
+`--forecast'
generate future transactions from periodic transaction rules, for
- the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui, also
+ the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui, also
make ordinary future transactions visible.
-'--color=WHEN (or --colour=WHEN)'
+`--color=WHEN (or --colour=WHEN)'
Should color-supporting commands use ANSI color codes in text
output. 'auto' (default): whenever stdout seems to be a
color-supporting terminal. 'always' or 'yes': always, useful eg
- when piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
+ when piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
NO_COLOR environment variable overrides this.
When a reporting option appears more than once in the command line,
@@ -194,19 +192,18 @@ the last one takes precedence.
hledger help options:
-'-h --help'
-
+`-h --help'
show general usage (or after COMMAND, command usage)
-'--version'
+`--version'
show version
-'--debug[=N]'
+`--debug[=N]'
show debug output (levels 1-9, default: 1)
A @FILE argument will be expanded to the contents of FILE, which
-should contain one command line option/argument per line. (To prevent
-this, insert a '--' argument before.)
+should contain one command line option/argument per line. (To prevent
+this, insert a `--' argument before.)

File: hledger-ui.info, Node: KEYS, Next: SCREENS, Prev: OPTIONS, Up: Top
@@ -214,94 +211,94 @@ File: hledger-ui.info, Node: KEYS, Next: SCREENS, Prev: OPTIONS, Up: Top
2 KEYS
******
-'?' shows a help dialog listing all keys. (Some of these also appear in
-the quick help at the bottom of each screen.) Press '?' again (or
-'ESCAPE', or 'LEFT', or 'q') to close it. The following keys work on
+`?' shows a help dialog listing all keys. (Some of these also appear in
+the quick help at the bottom of each screen.) Press `?' again (or
+`ESCAPE', or `LEFT', or `q') to close it. The following keys work on
most screens:
- The cursor keys navigate: 'right' (or 'enter') goes deeper, 'left'
-returns to the previous screen, 'up'/'down'/'page up'/'page
-down'/'home'/'end' move up and down through lists. Emacs-style
-('ctrl-p'/'ctrl-n'/'ctrl-f'/'ctrl-b') movement keys are also supported
+ The cursor keys navigate: `right' (or `enter') goes deeper, `left'
+returns to the previous screen, `up'/`down'/`page up'/`page
+down'/`home'/`end' move up and down through lists. Emacs-style
+(`ctrl-p'/`ctrl-n'/`ctrl-f'/`ctrl-b') movement keys are also supported
(but not vi-style keys, since hledger-1.19, sorry!). A tip: movement
speed is limited by your keyboard repeat rate, to move faster you may
-want to adjust it. (If you're on a mac, the karabiner app is one way to
+want to adjust it. (If you're on a mac, the karabiner app is one way to
do that.)
With shift pressed, the cursor keys adjust the report period,
limiting the transactions to be shown (by default, all are shown).
-'shift-down/up' steps downward and upward through these standard report
-period durations: year, quarter, month, week, day. Then,
-'shift-left/right' moves to the previous/next period. 'T' sets the
-report period to today. With the '--watch' option, when viewing a
+`shift-down/up' steps downward and upward through these standard report
+period durations: year, quarter, month, week, day. Then,
+`shift-left/right' moves to the previous/next period. `T' sets the
+report period to today. With the `--watch' option, when viewing a
"current" period (the current day, week, month, quarter, or year), the
-period will move automatically to track the current date. To set a
-non-standard period, you can use '/' and a 'date:' query.
+period will move automatically to track the current date. To set a
+non-standard period, you can use `/' and a `date:' query.
- '/' lets you set a general filter query limiting the data shown,
-using the same query terms as in hledger and hledger-web. While editing
-the query, you can use CTRL-a/e/d/k, BS, cursor keys; press 'ENTER' to
-set it, or 'ESCAPE'to cancel. There are also keys for quickly adjusting
+ `/' lets you set a general filter query limiting the data shown,
+using the same query terms as in hledger and hledger-web. While editing
+the query, you can use CTRL-a/e/d/k, BS, cursor keys; press `ENTER' to
+set it, or `ESCAPE'to cancel. There are also keys for quickly adjusting
some common filters like account depth and transaction status (see
-below). 'BACKSPACE' or 'DELETE' removes all filters, showing all
+below). `BACKSPACE' or `DELETE' removes all filters, showing all
transactions.
As mentioned above, by default hledger-ui hides future transactions -
both ordinary transactions recorded in the journal, and periodic
-transactions generated by rule. 'F' toggles forecast mode, in which
+transactions generated by rule. `F' toggles forecast mode, in which
future/forecasted transactions are shown.
- 'ESCAPE' resets the UI state and jumps back to the top screen,
-restoring the app's initial state at startup. Or, it cancels minibuffer
+ `ESCAPE' resets the UI state and jumps back to the top screen,
+restoring the app's initial state at startup. Or, it cancels minibuffer
data entry or the help dialog.
- 'CTRL-l' redraws the screen and centers the selection if possible
+ `CTRL-l' redraws the screen and centers the selection if possible
(selections near the top won't be centered, since we don't scroll above
the top).
- 'g' reloads from the data file(s) and updates the current screen and
-any previous screens. (With large files, this could cause a noticeable
+ `g' reloads from the data file(s) and updates the current screen and
+any previous screens. (With large files, this could cause a noticeable
pause.)
- 'I' toggles balance assertion checking. Disabling balance assertions
+ `I' toggles balance assertion checking. Disabling balance assertions
temporarily can be useful for troubleshooting.
- 'a' runs command-line hledger's add command, and reloads the updated
-file. This allows some basic data entry.
+ `a' runs command-line hledger's add command, and reloads the updated
+file. This allows some basic data entry.
- 'A' is like 'a', but runs the hledger-iadd tool, which provides a
-terminal interface. This key will be available if 'hledger-iadd' is
+ `A' is like `a', but runs the hledger-iadd tool, which provides a
+terminal interface. This key will be available if `hledger-iadd' is
installed in $path.
- 'E' runs $HLEDGER_UI_EDITOR, or $EDITOR, or a default ('emacsclient
--a "" -nw') on the journal file. With some editors (emacs, vi), the
+ `E' runs $HLEDGER_UI_EDITOR, or $EDITOR, or a default (`emacsclient
+-a "" -nw') on the journal file. With some editors (emacs, vi), the
cursor will be positioned at the current transaction when invoked from
the register and transaction screens, and at the error location (if
possible) when invoked from the error screen.
- 'B' toggles cost mode, showing amounts in their transaction price's
-commodity (like toggling the '-B/--cost' flag).
+ `B' toggles cost mode, showing amounts in their transaction price's
+commodity (like toggling the `-B/--cost' flag).
- 'V' toggles value mode, showing amounts' current market value in
-their default valuation commodity (like toggling the '-V/--market'
-flag). Note, "current market value" means the value on the report end
-date if specified, otherwise today. To see the value on another date,
-you can temporarily set that as the report end date. Eg: to see a
+ `V' toggles value mode, showing amounts' current market value in
+their default valuation commodity (like toggling the `-V/--market'
+flag). Note, "current market value" means the value on the report end
+date if specified, otherwise today. To see the value on another date,
+you can temporarily set that as the report end date. Eg: to see a
transaction as it was valued on july 30, go to the accounts or register
-screen, press '/', and add 'date:-7/30' to the query.
+screen, press `/', and add `date:-7/30' to the query.
At most one of cost or value mode can be active at once.
There's not yet any visual reminder when cost or value mode is
-active; for now pressing 'b' 'b' 'v' should reliably reset to normal
+active; for now pressing `b' `b' `v' should reliably reset to normal
mode.
- With '--watch' active, if you save an edit to the journal file while
-viewing the transaction screen in cost or value mode, the 'B'/'V' keys
-will stop working. To work around, press 'g' to force a manual reload,
+ With `--watch' active, if you save an edit to the journal file while
+viewing the transaction screen in cost or value mode, the `B'/`V' keys
+will stop working. To work around, press `g' to force a manual reload,
or exit the transaction screen.
- 'q' quits the application.
+ `q' quits the application.
Additional screen-specific keys are described below.
@@ -324,48 +321,47 @@ File: hledger-ui.info, Node: Accounts screen, Next: Register screen, Up: SCRE
3.1 Accounts screen
===================
-This is normally the first screen displayed. It lists accounts and
-their balances, like hledger's balance command. By default, it shows
-all accounts and their latest ending balances (including the balances of
-subaccounts). If you specify a query on the command line, it shows just
+This is normally the first screen displayed. It lists accounts and their
+balances, like hledger's balance command. By default, it shows all
+accounts and their latest ending balances (including the balances of
+subaccounts). If you specify a query on the command line, it shows just
the matched accounts and the balances from matched transactions.
- Account names are shown as a flat list by default; press 't' to
-toggle tree mode. In list mode, account balances are exclusive of
+ Account names are shown as a flat list by default; press `t' to
+toggle tree mode. In list mode, account balances are exclusive of
subaccounts, except where subaccounts are hidden by a depth limit (see
-below). In tree mode, all account balances are inclusive of
-subaccounts.
+below). In tree mode, all account balances are inclusive of subaccounts.
- To see less detail, press a number key, '1' to '9', to set a depth
-limit. Or use '-' to decrease and '+'/'=' to increase the depth limit.
-'0' shows even less detail, collapsing all accounts to a single total.
-To remove the depth limit, set it higher than the maximum account depth,
-or press 'ESCAPE'.
+ To see less detail, press a number key, `1' to `9', to set a depth
+limit. Or use `-' to decrease and `+'/`=' to increase the depth limit.
+`0' shows even less detail, collapsing all accounts to a single total.
+To remove the depth limit, set it higher than the maximum account
+depth, or press `ESCAPE'.
- 'H' toggles between showing historical balances or period balances.
+ `H' toggles between showing historical balances or period balances.
Historical balances (the default) are ending balances at the end of the
report period, taking into account all transactions before that date
(filtered by the filter query if any), including transactions before the
-start of the report period. In other words, historical balances are
-what you would see on a bank statement for that account (unless
-disturbed by a filter query). Period balances ignore transactions
-before the report start date, so they show the change in balance during
-the report period. They are more useful eg when viewing a time log.
-
- 'U' toggles filtering by unmarked status, including or excluding
-unmarked postings in the balances. Similarly, 'P' toggles pending
-postings, and 'C' toggles cleared postings. (By default, balances
+start of the report period. In other words, historical balances are what
+you would see on a bank statement for that account (unless disturbed by
+a filter query). Period balances ignore transactions before the report
+start date, so they show the change in balance during the report period.
+They are more useful eg when viewing a time log.
+
+ `U' toggles filtering by unmarked status, including or excluding
+unmarked postings in the balances. Similarly, `P' toggles pending
+postings, and `C' toggles cleared postings. (By default, balances
include all postings; if you activate one or two status filters, only
those postings are included; and if you activate all three, the filter
is removed.)
- 'R' toggles real mode, in which virtual postings are ignored.
+ `R' toggles real mode, in which virtual postings are ignored.
- 'Z' toggles nonzero mode, in which only accounts with nonzero
+ `Z' toggles nonzero mode, in which only accounts with nonzero
balances are shown (hledger-ui shows zero items by default, unlike
command-line hledger).
- Press 'right' or 'enter' to view an account's transactions register.
+ Press `right' or `enter' to view an account's transactions register.

File: hledger-ui.info, Node: Register screen, Next: Transaction screen, Prev: Accounts screen, Up: SCREENS
@@ -374,44 +370,46 @@ File: hledger-ui.info, Node: Register screen, Next: Transaction screen, Prev:
===================
This screen shows the transactions affecting a particular account, like
-a check register. Each line represents one transaction and shows:
+a check register. Each line represents one transaction and shows:
- * the other account(s) involved, in abbreviated form. (If there are
- both real and virtual postings, it shows only the accounts affected
- by real postings.)
+ * the other account(s) involved, in abbreviated form. (If there are
+ both real and virtual postings, it shows only the accounts
+ affected by real postings.)
* the overall change to the current account's balance; positive for
an inflow to this account, negative for an outflow.
* the running historical total or period total for the current
- account, after the transaction. This can be toggled with 'H'.
- Similar to the accounts screen, the historical total is affected by
- transactions (filtered by the filter query) before the report start
- date, while the period total is not. If the historical total is
- not disturbed by a filter query, it will be the running historical
- balance you would see on a bank register for the current account.
+ account, after the transaction. This can be toggled with `H'.
+ Similar to the accounts screen, the historical total is affected
+ by transactions (filtered by the filter query) before the report
+ start date, while the period total is not. If the historical total
+ is not disturbed by a filter query, it will be the running
+ historical balance you would see on a bank register for the
+ current account.
+
Transactions affecting this account's subaccounts will be included in
the register if the accounts screen is in tree mode, or if it's in list
mode but this account has subaccounts which are not shown due to a depth
-limit. In other words, the register always shows the transactions
-contributing to the balance shown on the accounts screen. Tree
-mode/list mode can be toggled with 't' here also.
+limit. In other words, the register always shows the transactions
+contributing to the balance shown on the accounts screen. Tree mode/list
+mode can be toggled with `t' here also.
- 'U' toggles filtering by unmarked status, showing or hiding unmarked
-transactions. Similarly, 'P' toggles pending transactions, and 'C'
-toggles cleared transactions. (By default, transactions with all
+ `U' toggles filtering by unmarked status, showing or hiding unmarked
+transactions. Similarly, `P' toggles pending transactions, and `C'
+toggles cleared transactions. (By default, transactions with all
statuses are shown; if you activate one or two status filters, only
those transactions are shown; and if you activate all three, the filter
is removed.)
- 'R' toggles real mode, in which virtual postings are ignored.
+ `R' toggles real mode, in which virtual postings are ignored.
- 'Z' toggles nonzero mode, in which only transactions posting a
+ `Z' toggles nonzero mode, in which only transactions posting a
nonzero change are shown (hledger-ui shows zero items by default, unlike
command-line hledger).
- Press 'right' (or 'enter') to view the selected transaction in
+ Press `right' (or `enter') to view the selected transaction in
detail.

@@ -429,11 +427,11 @@ description, comments, along with all of its account postings are shown.
Simple transactions have two postings, but there can be more (or in
certain cases, fewer).
- 'up' and 'down' will step through all transactions listed in the
-previous account register screen. In the title bar, the numbers in
-parentheses show your position within that account register. They will
+ `up' and `down' will step through all transactions listed in the
+previous account register screen. In the title bar, the numbers in
+parentheses show your position within that account register. They will
vary depending on which account register you came from (remember most
-transactions appear in multiple account registers). The #N number
+transactions appear in multiple account registers). The #N number
preceding them is the transaction's position within the complete
unfiltered journal, which is a more stable id (at least until the next
reload).
@@ -445,8 +443,8 @@ File: hledger-ui.info, Node: Error screen, Prev: Transaction screen, Up: SCRE
================
This screen will appear if there is a problem, such as a parse error,
-when you press g to reload. Once you have fixed the problem, press g
-again to reload and resume normal operation. (Or, you can press escape
+when you press g to reload. Once you have fixed the problem, press g
+again to reload and resume normal operation. (Or, you can press escape
to cancel the reload attempt.)

@@ -455,27 +453,28 @@ File: hledger-ui.info, Node: ENVIRONMENT, Next: FILES, Prev: SCREENS, Up: To
4 ENVIRONMENT
*************
-*COLUMNS* The screen width to use. Default: the full terminal width.
+*COLUMNS* The screen width to use. Default: the full terminal width.
- *LEDGER_FILE* The journal file path when not specified with '-f'.
-Default: '~/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
-'C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').
+ *LEDGER_FILE* The journal file path when not specified with `-f'.
+Default: `~/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
+`C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').
- A typical value is '~/DIR/YYYY.journal', where DIR is a
-version-controlled finance directory and YYYY is the current year. Or
-'~/DIR/current.journal', where current.journal is a symbolic link to
+ A typical value is `~/DIR/YYYY.journal', where DIR is a
+version-controlled finance directory and YYYY is the current year. Or
+`~/DIR/current.journal', where current.journal is a symbolic link to
YYYY.journal.
- On Mac computers, you can set this and other environment variables in
-a more thorough way that also affects applications started from the GUI
-(say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a
-'~/.MacOSX/environment.plist' file containing
+ On Mac computers, you can set this and other environment variables
+in a more thorough way that also affects applications started from the
+GUI (say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a
+`~/.MacOSX/environment.plist' file containing
+
{
"LEDGER_FILE" : "~/finance/current.journal"
}
- To see the effect you may need to 'killall Dock', or reboot.
+ To see the effect you may need to `killall Dock', or reboot.

File: hledger-ui.info, Node: FILES, Next: BUGS, Prev: ENVIRONMENT, Up: Top
@@ -484,9 +483,9 @@ File: hledger-ui.info, Node: FILES, Next: BUGS, Prev: ENVIRONMENT, Up: Top
*******
Reads data from one or more files in hledger journal, timeclock,
-timedot, or CSV format specified with '-f', or '$LEDGER_FILE', or
-'$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
-'C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').
+timedot, or CSV format specified with `-f', or `$LEDGER_FILE', or
+`$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
+`C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').

File: hledger-ui.info, Node: BUGS, Prev: FILES, Up: Top
@@ -494,18 +493,18 @@ File: hledger-ui.info, Node: BUGS, Prev: FILES, Up: Top
6 BUGS
******
-The need to precede options with '--' when invoked from hledger is
+The need to precede options with `--' when invoked from hledger is
awkward.
- '-f-' doesn't work (hledger-ui can't read from stdin).
+ `-f-' doesn't work (hledger-ui can't read from stdin).
- '-V' affects only the accounts screen.
+ `-V' affects only the accounts screen.
- When you press 'g', the current and all previous screens are
-regenerated, which may cause a noticeable pause with large files. Also
+ When you press `g', the current and all previous screens are
+regenerated, which may cause a noticeable pause with large files. Also
there is no visual indication that this is in progress.
- '--watch' is not yet fully robust. It works well for normal usage,
+ `--watch' is not yet fully robust. It works well for normal usage,
but many file changes in a short time (eg saving the file thousands of
times with an editor macro) can cause problems at least on OSX. Symptoms
include: unresponsive UI, periodic resetting of the cursor position,
@@ -514,30 +513,31 @@ and possibly a small but persistent build-up of CPU usage until the
program is restarted.
Also, if you are viewing files mounted from another machine,
-'--watch' requires that both machine clocks are roughly in step.
+`--watch' requires that both machine clocks are roughly in step.
+

Tag Table:
-Node: Top71
-Node: OPTIONS1434
-Ref: #options1531
-Node: KEYS5598
-Ref: #keys5693
-Node: SCREENS10012
-Ref: #screens10117
-Node: Accounts screen10207
-Ref: #accounts-screen10335
-Node: Register screen12550
-Ref: #register-screen12705
-Node: Transaction screen14702
-Ref: #transaction-screen14860
-Node: Error screen15730
-Ref: #error-screen15852
-Node: ENVIRONMENT16096
-Ref: #environment16210
-Node: FILES17017
-Ref: #files17116
-Node: BUGS17329
-Ref: #bugs17406
+Node: Top82
+Node: OPTIONS1425
+Ref: #options1522
+Node: KEYS5583
+Ref: #keys5678
+Node: SCREENS9974
+Ref: #screens10079
+Node: Accounts screen10169
+Ref: #accounts-screen10297
+Node: Register screen12501
+Ref: #register-screen12656
+Node: Transaction screen14651
+Ref: #transaction-screen14809
+Node: Error screen15676
+Ref: #error-screen15798
+Node: ENVIRONMENT16040
+Ref: #environment16154
+Node: FILES16959
+Ref: #files17058
+Node: BUGS17271
+Ref: #bugs17348

End Tag Table
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.txt b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.txt
index 458100d..82c5ba3 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.txt
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.txt
@@ -28,8 +28,8 @@ DESCRIPTION
C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal). For more about this see hledger(1),
hledger_journal(5) etc.
- Unlike hledger, hledger-ui hides all future-dated transactions by de-
- fault. They can be revealed, along with any rule-generated periodic
+ Unlike hledger, hledger-ui hides all future-dated transactions by
+ default. They can be revealed, along with any rule-generated periodic
transactions, by pressing the F key (or starting with --forecast) to
enable "forecast mode".
@@ -85,8 +85,8 @@ OPTIONS
assignments)
-s --strict
- do extra error checking (check that all posted accounts are de-
- clared)
+ do extra error checking (check that all posted accounts are
+ declared)
hledger reporting options:
@@ -116,8 +116,8 @@ OPTIONS
using period expressions syntax
--date2
- match the secondary date instead (see command help for other ef-
- fects)
+ match the secondary date instead (see command help for other
+ effects)
-U --unmarked
include only unmarked postings/txns (can combine with -P or -C)
@@ -142,14 +142,14 @@ OPTIONS
convert amounts to their cost/selling amount at transaction time
-V --market
- convert amounts to their market value in default valuation com-
+ convert amounts to their market value in default valuation com-
modities
-X --exchange=COMM
convert amounts to their market value in commodity COMM
--value
- convert amounts to cost or market value, more flexibly than
+ convert amounts to cost or market value, more flexibly than
-B/-V/-X
--infer-value
@@ -158,15 +158,15 @@ OPTIONS
--auto apply automated posting rules to modify transactions.
--forecast
- generate future transactions from periodic transaction rules,
- for the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui,
+ generate future transactions from periodic transaction rules,
+ for the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui,
also make ordinary future transactions visible.
--color=WHEN (or --colour=WHEN)
- Should color-supporting commands use ANSI color codes in text
- output. 'auto' (default): whenever stdout seems to be a color-
- supporting terminal. 'always' or 'yes': always, useful eg when
- piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
+ Should color-supporting commands use ANSI color codes in text
+ output. 'auto' (default): whenever stdout seems to be a color-
+ supporting terminal. 'always' or 'yes': always, useful eg when
+ piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
NO_COLOR environment variable overrides this.
When a reporting option appears more than once in the command line, the
@@ -186,91 +186,91 @@ OPTIONS
show debug output (levels 1-9, default: 1)
A @FILE argument will be expanded to the contents of FILE, which should
- contain one command line option/argument per line. (To prevent this,
+ contain one command line option/argument per line. (To prevent this,
insert a -- argument before.)
KEYS
- ? shows a help dialog listing all keys. (Some of these also appear in
+ ? shows a help dialog listing all keys. (Some of these also appear in
the quick help at the bottom of each screen.) Press ? again (or ESCAPE,
or LEFT, or q) to close it. The following keys work on most screens:
The cursor keys navigate: right (or enter) goes deeper, left returns to
- the previous screen, up/down/page up/page down/home/end move up and
+ the previous screen, up/down/page up/page down/home/end move up and
down through lists. Emacs-style (ctrl-p/ctrl-n/ctrl-f/ctrl-b) movement
- keys are also supported (but not vi-style keys, since hledger-1.19,
- sorry!). A tip: movement speed is limited by your keyboard repeat
- rate, to move faster you may want to adjust it. (If you're on a mac,
+ keys are also supported (but not vi-style keys, since hledger-1.19,
+ sorry!). A tip: movement speed is limited by your keyboard repeat
+ rate, to move faster you may want to adjust it. (If you're on a mac,
the karabiner app is one way to do that.)
- With shift pressed, the cursor keys adjust the report period, limiting
- the transactions to be shown (by default, all are shown). shift-
- down/up steps downward and upward through these standard report period
- durations: year, quarter, month, week, day. Then, shift-left/right
- moves to the previous/next period. T sets the report period to today.
- With the --watch option, when viewing a "current" period (the current
+ With shift pressed, the cursor keys adjust the report period, limiting
+ the transactions to be shown (by default, all are shown). shift-
+ down/up steps downward and upward through these standard report period
+ durations: year, quarter, month, week, day. Then, shift-left/right
+ moves to the previous/next period. T sets the report period to today.
+ With the --watch option, when viewing a "current" period (the current
day, week, month, quarter, or year), the period will move automatically
to track the current date. To set a non-standard period, you can use /
and a date: query.
- / lets you set a general filter query limiting the data shown, using
- the same query terms as in hledger and hledger-web. While editing the
- query, you can use CTRL-a/e/d/k, BS, cursor keys; press ENTER to set
+ / lets you set a general filter query limiting the data shown, using
+ the same query terms as in hledger and hledger-web. While editing the
+ query, you can use CTRL-a/e/d/k, BS, cursor keys; press ENTER to set
it, or ESCAPEto cancel. There are also keys for quickly adjusting some
- common filters like account depth and transaction status (see below).
+ common filters like account depth and transaction status (see below).
BACKSPACE or DELETE removes all filters, showing all transactions.
- As mentioned above, by default hledger-ui hides future transactions -
+ As mentioned above, by default hledger-ui hides future transactions -
both ordinary transactions recorded in the journal, and periodic trans-
- actions generated by rule. F toggles forecast mode, in which fu-
- ture/forecasted transactions are shown.
+ actions generated by rule. F toggles forecast mode, in which
+ future/forecasted transactions are shown.
- ESCAPE resets the UI state and jumps back to the top screen, restoring
- the app's initial state at startup. Or, it cancels minibuffer data en-
- try or the help dialog.
+ ESCAPE resets the UI state and jumps back to the top screen, restoring
+ the app's initial state at startup. Or, it cancels minibuffer data
+ entry or the help dialog.
CTRL-l redraws the screen and centers the selection if possible (selec-
- tions near the top won't be centered, since we don't scroll above the
+ tions near the top won't be centered, since we don't scroll above the
top).
- g reloads from the data file(s) and updates the current screen and any
- previous screens. (With large files, this could cause a noticeable
+ g reloads from the data file(s) and updates the current screen and any
+ previous screens. (With large files, this could cause a noticeable
pause.)
- I toggles balance assertion checking. Disabling balance assertions
+ I toggles balance assertion checking. Disabling balance assertions
temporarily can be useful for troubleshooting.
- a runs command-line hledger's add command, and reloads the updated
+ a runs command-line hledger's add command, and reloads the updated
file. This allows some basic data entry.
- A is like a, but runs the hledger-iadd tool, which provides a terminal
- interface. This key will be available if hledger-iadd is installed in
+ A is like a, but runs the hledger-iadd tool, which provides a terminal
+ interface. This key will be available if hledger-iadd is installed in
$path.
- E runs $HLEDGER_UI_EDITOR, or $EDITOR, or a default (emacsclient -a ""
- -nw) on the journal file. With some editors (emacs, vi), the cursor
- will be positioned at the current transaction when invoked from the
- register and transaction screens, and at the error location (if possi-
+ E runs $HLEDGER_UI_EDITOR, or $EDITOR, or a default (emacsclient -a ""
+ -nw) on the journal file. With some editors (emacs, vi), the cursor
+ will be positioned at the current transaction when invoked from the
+ register and transaction screens, and at the error location (if possi-
ble) when invoked from the error screen.
- B toggles cost mode, showing amounts in their transaction price's com-
+ B toggles cost mode, showing amounts in their transaction price's com-
modity (like toggling the -B/--cost flag).
- V toggles value mode, showing amounts' current market value in their
- default valuation commodity (like toggling the -V/--market flag).
- Note, "current market value" means the value on the report end date if
- specified, otherwise today. To see the value on another date, you can
- temporarily set that as the report end date. Eg: to see a transaction
- as it was valued on july 30, go to the accounts or register screen,
+ V toggles value mode, showing amounts' current market value in their
+ default valuation commodity (like toggling the -V/--market flag).
+ Note, "current market value" means the value on the report end date if
+ specified, otherwise today. To see the value on another date, you can
+ temporarily set that as the report end date. Eg: to see a transaction
+ as it was valued on july 30, go to the accounts or register screen,
press /, and add date:-7/30 to the query.
At most one of cost or value mode can be active at once.
- There's not yet any visual reminder when cost or value mode is active;
+ There's not yet any visual reminder when cost or value mode is active;
for now pressing b b v should reliably reset to normal mode.
- With --watch active, if you save an edit to the journal file while
+ With --watch active, if you save an edit to the journal file while
viewing the transaction screen in cost or value mode, the B/V keys will
- stop working. To work around, press g to force a manual reload, or
+ stop working. To work around, press g to force a manual reload, or
exit the transaction screen.
q quits the application.
@@ -279,22 +279,23 @@ KEYS
SCREENS
Accounts screen
- This is normally the first screen displayed. It lists accounts and
- their balances, like hledger's balance command. By default, it shows
- all accounts and their latest ending balances (including the balances
- of subaccounts). If you specify a query on the command line, it shows
+ This is normally the first screen displayed. It lists accounts and
+ their balances, like hledger's balance command. By default, it shows
+ all accounts and their latest ending balances (including the balances
+ of subaccounts). If you specify a query on the command line, it shows
just the matched accounts and the balances from matched transactions.
- Account names are shown as a flat list by default; press t to toggle
- tree mode. In list mode, account balances are exclusive of subac-
- counts, except where subaccounts are hidden by a depth limit (see be-
- low). In tree mode, all account balances are inclusive of subaccounts.
+ Account names are shown as a flat list by default; press t to toggle
+ tree mode. In list mode, account balances are exclusive of subac-
+ counts, except where subaccounts are hidden by a depth limit (see
+ below). In tree mode, all account balances are inclusive of subac-
+ counts.
To see less detail, press a number key, 1 to 9, to set a depth limit.
Or use - to decrease and +/= to increase the depth limit. 0 shows even
less detail, collapsing all accounts to a single total. To remove the
- depth limit, set it higher than the maximum account depth, or press ES-
- CAPE.
+ depth limit, set it higher than the maximum account depth, or press
+ ESCAPE.
H toggles between showing historical balances or period balances. His-
torical balances (the default) are ending balances at the end of the
@@ -302,15 +303,15 @@ SCREENS
(filtered by the filter query if any), including transactions before
the start of the report period. In other words, historical balances
are what you would see on a bank statement for that account (unless
- disturbed by a filter query). Period balances ignore transactions be-
- fore the report start date, so they show the change in balance during
+ disturbed by a filter query). Period balances ignore transactions
+ before the report start date, so they show the change in balance during
the report period. They are more useful eg when viewing a time log.
U toggles filtering by unmarked status, including or excluding unmarked
postings in the balances. Similarly, P toggles pending postings, and C
toggles cleared postings. (By default, balances include all postings;
- if you activate one or two status filters, only those postings are in-
- cluded; and if you activate all three, the filter is removed.)
+ if you activate one or two status filters, only those postings are
+ included; and if you activate all three, the filter is removed.)
R toggles real mode, in which virtual postings are ignored.
@@ -354,33 +355,33 @@ SCREENS
R toggles real mode, in which virtual postings are ignored.
- Z toggles nonzero mode, in which only transactions posting a nonzero
- change are shown (hledger-ui shows zero items by default, unlike com-
+ Z toggles nonzero mode, in which only transactions posting a nonzero
+ change are shown (hledger-ui shows zero items by default, unlike com-
mand-line hledger).
Press right (or enter) to view the selected transaction in detail.
Transaction screen
- This screen shows a single transaction, as a general journal entry,
- similar to hledger's print command and journal format (hledger_jour-
+ This screen shows a single transaction, as a general journal entry,
+ similar to hledger's print command and journal format (hledger_jour-
nal(5)).
- The transaction's date(s) and any cleared flag, transaction code, de-
- scription, comments, along with all of its account postings are shown.
- Simple transactions have two postings, but there can be more (or in
- certain cases, fewer).
+ The transaction's date(s) and any cleared flag, transaction code,
+ description, comments, along with all of its account postings are
+ shown. Simple transactions have two postings, but there can be more
+ (or in certain cases, fewer).
- up and down will step through all transactions listed in the previous
- account register screen. In the title bar, the numbers in parentheses
- show your position within that account register. They will vary de-
- pending on which account register you came from (remember most transac-
- tions appear in multiple account registers). The #N number preceding
+ up and down will step through all transactions listed in the previous
+ account register screen. In the title bar, the numbers in parentheses
+ show your position within that account register. They will vary
+ depending on which account register you came from (remember most trans-
+ actions appear in multiple account registers). The #N number preceding
them is the transaction's position within the complete unfiltered jour-
nal, which is a more stable id (at least until the next reload).
Error screen
- This screen will appear if there is a problem, such as a parse error,
- when you press g to reload. Once you have fixed the problem, press g
+ This screen will appear if there is a problem, such as a parse error,
+ when you press g to reload. Once you have fixed the problem, press g
again to reload and resume normal operation. (Or, you can press escape
to cancel the reload attempt.)
@@ -388,17 +389,17 @@ ENVIRONMENT
COLUMNS The screen width to use. Default: the full terminal width.
LEDGER_FILE The journal file path when not specified with -f. Default:
- ~/.hledger.journal (on windows, perhaps C:/Users/USER/.hledger.jour-
+ ~/.hledger.journal (on windows, perhaps C:/Users/USER/.hledger.jour-
nal).
- A typical value is ~/DIR/YYYY.journal, where DIR is a version-con-
- trolled finance directory and YYYY is the current year. Or ~/DIR/cur-
+ A typical value is ~/DIR/YYYY.journal, where DIR is a version-con-
+ trolled finance directory and YYYY is the current year. Or ~/DIR/cur-
rent.journal, where current.journal is a symbolic link to YYYY.journal.
On Mac computers, you can set this and other environment variables in a
more thorough way that also affects applications started from the GUI
- (say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a ~/.MacOSX/en-
- vironment.plist file containing
+ (say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a
+ ~/.MacOSX/environment.plist file containing
{
"LEDGER_FILE" : "~/finance/current.journal"
@@ -459,4 +460,4 @@ SEE ALSO
-hledger-ui-1.20.3 December 2020 HLEDGER-UI(1)
+hledger-ui-1.20.4 December 2020 HLEDGER-UI(1)
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.1 b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.1
index ba12e29..2d4e762 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.1
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.1
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-.TH "HLEDGER-WEB" "1" "December 2020" "hledger-web-1.20.3 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER-WEB" "1" "December 2020" "hledger-web-1.20.4 " "hledger User Manuals"
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.info b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.info
index 24832db..dafdd72 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.info
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.info
@@ -1,39 +1,39 @@
-This is hledger-web.info, produced by makeinfo version 6.7 from stdin.
+This is hledger-web/hledger-web.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.8
+from stdin.

-File: hledger-web.info, Node: Top, Next: OPTIONS, Up: (dir)
+File: hledger-web.info, Node: Top, Up: (dir)
hledger-web(1)
**************
A web interface (WUI) for the hledger accounting tool.
- 'hledger-web [OPTIONS]'
-'hledger web -- [OPTIONS]'
+ `hledger-web [OPTIONS]'
+`hledger web -- [OPTIONS]'
hledger is a reliable, cross-platform set of programs for tracking
money, time, or any other commodity, using double-entry accounting and a
-simple, editable file format. hledger is inspired by and largely
+simple, editable file format. hledger is inspired by and largely
compatible with ledger(1).
- hledger-web is hledger's web interface. It starts a simple web
+ hledger-web is hledger's web interface. It starts a simple web
application for browsing and adding transactions, and optionally opens
-it in a web browser window if possible. It provides a more
-user-friendly UI than the hledger CLI or hledger-ui interface, showing
-more at once (accounts, the current account register, balance charts)
-and allowing history-aware data entry, interactive searching, and
-bookmarking.
+it in a web browser window if possible. It provides a more user-friendly
+UI than the hledger CLI or hledger-ui interface, showing more at once
+(accounts, the current account register, balance charts) and allowing
+history-aware data entry, interactive searching, and bookmarking.
hledger-web also lets you share a ledger with multiple users, or even
-the public web. There is no access control, so if you need that you
-should put it behind a suitable web proxy. As a small protection
-against data loss when running an unprotected instance, it writes a
-numbered backup of the main journal file (only ?) on every edit.
+the public web. There is no access control, so if you need that you
+should put it behind a suitable web proxy. As a small protection against
+data loss when running an unprotected instance, it writes a numbered
+backup of the main journal file (only ?) on every edit.
Like hledger, it reads data from one or more files in hledger
-journal, timeclock, timedot, or CSV format specified with '-f', or
-'$LEDGER_FILE', or '$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
-'C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal'). For more about this see hledger(1),
+journal, timeclock, timedot, or CSV format specified with `-f', or
+`$LEDGER_FILE', or `$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
+`C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal'). For more about this see hledger(1),
hledger_journal(5) etc.
* Menu:
@@ -54,165 +54,162 @@ File: hledger-web.info, Node: OPTIONS, Next: PERMISSIONS, Prev: Top, Up: Top
*********
Command-line options and arguments may be used to set an initial filter
-on the data. These filter options are not shown in the web UI, but it
+on the data. These filter options are not shown in the web UI, but it
will be applied in addition to any search query entered there.
- Note: if invoking hledger-web as a hledger subcommand, write '--'
+ Note: if invoking hledger-web as a hledger subcommand, write `--'
before options, as shown in the synopsis above.
-'--serve'
-
+`--serve'
serve and log requests, don't browse or auto-exit
-'--serve-api'
+`--serve-api'
like -serve, but serve only the JSON web API, without the
server-side web UI
-'--host=IPADDR'
+`--host=IPADDR'
listen on this IP address (default: 127.0.0.1)
-'--port=PORT'
+`--port=PORT'
listen on this TCP port (default: 5000)
-'--socket=SOCKETFILE'
+`--socket=SOCKETFILE'
use a unix domain socket file to listen for requests instead of a
- TCP socket. Implies '--serve'. It can only be used if the
- operating system can provide this type of socket.
-'--base-url=URL'
+ TCP socket. Implies `--serve'. It can only be used if the operating
+ system can provide this type of socket.
+`--base-url=URL'
set the base url (default: http://IPADDR:PORT). You would change
this when sharing over the network, or integrating within a larger
website.
-'--file-url=URL'
- set the static files url (default: BASEURL/static). hledger-web
+`--file-url=URL'
+ set the static files url (default: BASEURL/static). hledger-web
normally serves static files itself, but if you wanted to serve
- them from another server for efficiency, you would set the url with
- this.
-'--capabilities=CAP[,CAP..]'
+ them from another server for efficiency, you would set the url
+ with this.
+`--capabilities=CAP[,CAP..]'
enable the view, add, and/or manage capabilities (default:
view,add)
-'--capabilities-header=HTTPHEADER'
+`--capabilities-header=HTTPHEADER'
read capabilities to enable from a HTTP header, like
X-Sandstorm-Permissions (default: disabled)
-'--test'
- run hledger-web's tests and exit. hspec test runner args may
+`--test'
+ run hledger-web's tests and exit. hspec test runner args may
follow a -, eg: hledger-web -test - -help
hledger input options:
-'-f FILE --file=FILE'
-
- use a different input file. For stdin, use - (default:
- '$LEDGER_FILE' or '$HOME/.hledger.journal')
-'--rules-file=RULESFILE'
+`-f FILE --file=FILE'
+ use a different input file. For stdin, use - (default:
+ `$LEDGER_FILE' or `$HOME/.hledger.journal')
+`--rules-file=RULESFILE'
Conversion rules file to use when reading CSV (default: FILE.rules)
-'--separator=CHAR'
+`--separator=CHAR'
Field separator to expect when reading CSV (default: ',')
-'--alias=OLD=NEW'
+`--alias=OLD=NEW'
rename accounts named OLD to NEW
-'--anon'
+`--anon'
anonymize accounts and payees
-'--pivot FIELDNAME'
+`--pivot FIELDNAME'
use some other field or tag for the account name
-'-I --ignore-assertions'
+`-I --ignore-assertions'
disable balance assertion checks (note: does not disable balance
assignments)
-'-s --strict'
+`-s --strict'
do extra error checking (check that all posted accounts are
declared)
hledger reporting options:
-'-b --begin=DATE'
-
+`-b --begin=DATE'
include postings/txns on or after this date
-'-e --end=DATE'
+`-e --end=DATE'
include postings/txns before this date
-'-D --daily'
+`-D --daily'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by day
-'-W --weekly'
+`-W --weekly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by week
-'-M --monthly'
+`-M --monthly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by month
-'-Q --quarterly'
+`-Q --quarterly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by quarter
-'-Y --yearly'
+`-Y --yearly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by year
-'-p --period=PERIODEXP'
+`-p --period=PERIODEXP'
set start date, end date, and/or reporting interval all at once
using period expressions syntax
-'--date2'
+`--date2'
match the secondary date instead (see command help for other
effects)
-'-U --unmarked'
+`-U --unmarked'
include only unmarked postings/txns (can combine with -P or -C)
-'-P --pending'
+`-P --pending'
include only pending postings/txns
-'-C --cleared'
+`-C --cleared'
include only cleared postings/txns
-'-R --real'
+`-R --real'
include only non-virtual postings
-'-NUM --depth=NUM'
+`-NUM --depth=NUM'
hide/aggregate accounts or postings more than NUM levels deep
-'-E --empty'
+`-E --empty'
show items with zero amount, normally hidden (and vice-versa in
hledger-ui/hledger-web)
-'-B --cost'
+`-B --cost'
convert amounts to their cost/selling amount at transaction time
-'-V --market'
+`-V --market'
convert amounts to their market value in default valuation
commodities
-'-X --exchange=COMM'
+`-X --exchange=COMM'
convert amounts to their market value in commodity COMM
-'--value'
+`--value'
convert amounts to cost or market value, more flexibly than
-B/-V/-X
-'--infer-value'
+`--infer-value'
with -V/-X/-value, also infer market prices from transactions
-'--auto'
+`--auto'
apply automated posting rules to modify transactions.
-'--forecast'
+`--forecast'
generate future transactions from periodic transaction rules, for
- the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui, also
+ the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui, also
make ordinary future transactions visible.
-'--color=WHEN (or --colour=WHEN)'
+`--color=WHEN (or --colour=WHEN)'
Should color-supporting commands use ANSI color codes in text
output. 'auto' (default): whenever stdout seems to be a
color-supporting terminal. 'always' or 'yes': always, useful eg
- when piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
+ when piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
NO_COLOR environment variable overrides this.
When a reporting option appears more than once in the command line,
@@ -222,56 +219,56 @@ the last one takes precedence.
hledger help options:
-'-h --help'
-
+`-h --help'
show general usage (or after COMMAND, command usage)
-'--version'
+`--version'
show version
-'--debug[=N]'
+`--debug[=N]'
show debug output (levels 1-9, default: 1)
A @FILE argument will be expanded to the contents of FILE, which
-should contain one command line option/argument per line. (To prevent
-this, insert a '--' argument before.)
+should contain one command line option/argument per line. (To prevent
+this, insert a `--' argument before.)
By default, hledger-web starts the web app in "transient mode" and
-also opens it in your default web browser if possible. In this mode the
+also opens it in your default web browser if possible. In this mode the
web app will keep running for as long as you have it open in a browser
window, and will exit after two minutes of inactivity (no requests and
-no browser windows viewing it). With '--serve', it just runs the web
-app without exiting, and logs requests to the console. With
-'--serve-api', only the JSON web api (see below) is served, with the
+no browser windows viewing it). With `--serve', it just runs the web
+app without exiting, and logs requests to the console. With
+`--serve-api', only the JSON web api (see below) is served, with the
usual HTML server-side web UI disabled.
By default the server listens on IP address 127.0.0.1, accessible
-only to local requests. You can use '--host' to change this, eg '--host
+only to local requests. You can use `--host' to change this, eg `--host
0.0.0.0' to listen on all configured addresses.
- Similarly, use '--port' to set a TCP port other than 5000, eg if you
+ Similarly, use `--port' to set a TCP port other than 5000, eg if you
are running multiple hledger-web instances.
- Both of these options are ignored when '--socket' is used. In this
-case, it creates an 'AF_UNIX' socket file at the supplied path and uses
-that for communication. This is an alternative way of running multiple
-hledger-web instances behind a reverse proxy that handles authentication
-for different users. The path can be derived in a predictable way, eg
-by using the username within the path. As an example, 'nginx' as
-reverse proxy can use the variable '$remote_user' to derive a path from
-the username used in a HTTP basic authentication. The following
-'proxy_pass' directive allows access to all 'hledger-web' instances that
-created a socket in '/tmp/hledger/':
+ Both of these options are ignored when `--socket' is used. In this
+case, it creates an `AF_UNIX' socket file at the supplied path and uses
+that for communication. This is an alternative way of running multiple
+hledger-web instances behind a reverse proxy that handles
+authentication for different users. The path can be derived in a
+predictable way, eg by using the username within the path. As an
+example, `nginx' as reverse proxy can use the variable `$remote_user'
+to derive a path from the username used in a HTTP basic authentication.
+The following `proxy_pass' directive allows access to all `hledger-web'
+instances that created a socket in `/tmp/hledger/':
+
proxy_pass http://unix:/tmp/hledger/${remote_user}.socket;
- You can use '--base-url' to change the protocol, hostname, port and
+ You can use `--base-url' to change the protocol, hostname, port and
path that appear in hyperlinks, useful eg for integrating hledger-web
-within a larger website. The default is 'http://HOST:PORT/' using the
-server's configured host address and TCP port (or 'http://HOST' if PORT
+within a larger website. The default is `http://HOST:PORT/' using the
+server's configured host address and TCP port (or `http://HOST' if PORT
is 80).
- With '--file-url' you can set a different base url for static files,
+ With `--file-url' you can set a different base url for static files,
eg for better caching or cookie-less serving on high performance
websites.
@@ -286,28 +283,32 @@ journal and to add new transactions, but not to change existing data.
You can restrict who can reach it by
- * setting the IP address it listens on (see '--host' above). By
+ * setting the IP address it listens on (see `--host' above). By
default it listens on 127.0.0.1, accessible to all users on the
local machine.
+
* putting it behind an authenticating proxy, using eg apache or nginx
+
* custom firewall rules
You can restrict what the users who reach it can do, by
- * using the '--capabilities=CAP[,CAP..]' flag when you start it,
- enabling one or more of the following capabilities. The default
- value is 'view,add':
- * 'view' - allows viewing the journal file and all included
+ * using the `--capabilities=CAP[,CAP..]' flag when you start it,
+ enabling one or more of the following capabilities. The default
+ value is `view,add':
+ * `view' - allows viewing the journal file and all included
files
- * 'add' - allows adding new transactions to the main journal
+
+ * `add' - allows adding new transactions to the main journal
file
- * 'manage' - allows editing, uploading or downloading the main
+
+ * `manage' - allows editing, uploading or downloading the main
or included files
- * using the '--capabilities-header=HTTPHEADER' flag to specify a HTTP
- header from which it will read capabilities to enable. hledger-web
+ * using the `--capabilities-header=HTTPHEADER' flag to specify a HTTP
+ header from which it will read capabilities to enable. hledger-web
on Sandstorm uses the X-Sandstorm-Permissions header to integrate
- with Sandstorm's permissions. This is disabled by default.
+ with Sandstorm's permissions. This is disabled by default.

File: hledger-web.info, Node: EDITING UPLOADING DOWNLOADING, Next: RELOADING, Prev: PERMISSIONS, Up: Top
@@ -315,8 +316,8 @@ File: hledger-web.info, Node: EDITING UPLOADING DOWNLOADING, Next: RELOADING,
3 EDITING, UPLOADING, DOWNLOADING
*********************************
-If you enable the 'manage' capability mentioned above, you'll see a new
-"spanner" button to the right of the search form. Clicking this will
+If you enable the `manage' capability mentioned above, you'll see a new
+"spanner" button to the right of the search form. Clicking this will
let you edit, upload, or download the journal file or any files it
includes.
@@ -325,13 +326,13 @@ visitor) can alter or wipe the data files.
Normally whenever a file is changed in this way, hledger-web saves a
numbered backup (assuming file permissions allow it, the disk is not
-full, etc.) hledger-web is not aware of version control systems,
+full, etc.) hledger-web is not aware of version control systems,
currently; if you use one, you'll have to arrange to commit the changes
yourself (eg with a cron job or a file watcher like entr).
Changes which would leave the journal file(s) unparseable or
non-valid (eg with failing balance assertions) are prevented.
-(Probably. This needs re-testing.)
+(Probably. This needs re-testing.)

File: hledger-web.info, Node: RELOADING, Next: JSON API, Prev: EDITING UPLOADING DOWNLOADING, Up: Top
@@ -341,7 +342,7 @@ File: hledger-web.info, Node: RELOADING, Next: JSON API, Prev: EDITING UPLOAD
hledger-web detects changes made to the files by other means (eg if you
edit it directly, outside of hledger-web), and it will show the new data
-when you reload the page or navigate to a new page. If a change makes a
+when you reload the page or navigate to a new page. If a change makes a
file unparseable, hledger-web will display an error message until the
file has been fixed.
@@ -355,14 +356,16 @@ File: hledger-web.info, Node: JSON API, Next: ENVIRONMENT, Prev: RELOADING,
**********
In addition to the web UI, hledger-web also serves a JSON API that can
-be used to get data or add new transactions. If you want the JSON API
-only, you can use the '--serve-api' flag. Eg:
+be used to get data or add new transactions. If you want the JSON API
+only, you can use the `--serve-api' flag. Eg:
+
$ hledger-web -f examples/sample.journal --serve-api
...
You can get JSON data from these routes:
+
/version
/accountnames
/transactions
@@ -375,6 +378,7 @@ $ hledger-web -f examples/sample.journal --serve-api
command). (hledger-web's JSON does not include newlines, here we use
python to prettify it):
+
$ curl -s http://127.0.0.1:5000/accountnames | python -m json.tool
[
"assets",
@@ -394,6 +398,7 @@ $ curl -s http://127.0.0.1:5000/accountnames | python -m json.tool
Or all transactions:
+
$ curl -s http://127.0.0.1:5000/transactions | python -m json.tool
[
{
@@ -415,24 +420,25 @@ $ curl -s http://127.0.0.1:5000/transactions | python -m json.tool
Most of the JSON corresponds to hledger's data types; for details of
what the fields mean, see the Hledger.Data.Json haddock docs and click
-on the various data types, eg Transaction. And for a higher level
+on the various data types, eg Transaction. And for a higher level
understanding, see the journal manual.
In some cases there is outer JSON corresponding to a "Report" type.
-To understand that, go to the Hledger.Web.Handler.MiscR haddock and look
-at the source for the appropriate handler to see what it returns. Eg
-for '/accounttransactions' it's getAccounttransactionsR, returning a
-"'accountTransactionsReport ...'". Looking up the haddock for that we
+To understand that, go to the Hledger.Web.Handler.MiscR haddock and
+look at the source for the appropriate handler to see what it returns.
+Eg for `/accounttransactions' it's getAccounttransactionsR, returning a
+"`accountTransactionsReport ...'". Looking up the haddock for that we
can see that /accounttransactions returns an AccountTransactionsReport,
which consists of a report title and a list of
AccountTransactionsReportItem (etc).
You can add a new transaction to the journal with a PUT request to
-'/add', if hledger-web was started with the 'add' capability (enabled by
-default). The payload must be the full, exact JSON representation of a
-hledger transaction (partial data won't do). You can get sample JSON
-from hledger-web's '/transactions' or '/accounttransactions', or you can
-export it with hledger-lib, eg like so:
+`/add', if hledger-web was started with the `add' capability (enabled
+by default). The payload must be the full, exact JSON representation of
+a hledger transaction (partial data won't do). You can get sample JSON
+from hledger-web's `/transactions' or `/accounttransactions', or you
+can export it with hledger-lib, eg like so:
+
.../hledger$ stack ghci hledger-lib
>>> writeJsonFile "txn.json" (head $ jtxns samplejournal)
@@ -441,6 +447,7 @@ export it with hledger-lib, eg like so:
Here's how it looks as of hledger-1.17 (remember, this JSON
corresponds to hledger's Transaction and related data types):
+
{
"tcomment": "",
"tpostings": [
@@ -527,9 +534,10 @@ corresponds to hledger's Transaction and related data types):
"tstatus": "Unmarked"
}
- And here's how to test adding it with curl. This should add a new
+ And here's how to test adding it with curl. This should add a new
entry to your journal:
+
$ curl http://127.0.0.1:5000/add -X PUT -H 'Content-Type: application/json' --data-binary @txn.json

@@ -538,25 +546,26 @@ File: hledger-web.info, Node: ENVIRONMENT, Next: FILES, Prev: JSON API, Up:
6 ENVIRONMENT
*************
-*LEDGER_FILE* The journal file path when not specified with '-f'.
-Default: '~/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
-'C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').
+*LEDGER_FILE* The journal file path when not specified with `-f'.
+Default: `~/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
+`C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').
- A typical value is '~/DIR/YYYY.journal', where DIR is a
-version-controlled finance directory and YYYY is the current year. Or
-'~/DIR/current.journal', where current.journal is a symbolic link to
+ A typical value is `~/DIR/YYYY.journal', where DIR is a
+version-controlled finance directory and YYYY is the current year. Or
+`~/DIR/current.journal', where current.journal is a symbolic link to
YYYY.journal.
- On Mac computers, you can set this and other environment variables in
-a more thorough way that also affects applications started from the GUI
-(say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a
-'~/.MacOSX/environment.plist' file containing
+ On Mac computers, you can set this and other environment variables
+in a more thorough way that also affects applications started from the
+GUI (say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a
+`~/.MacOSX/environment.plist' file containing
+
{
"LEDGER_FILE" : "~/finance/current.journal"
}
- To see the effect you may need to 'killall Dock', or reboot.
+ To see the effect you may need to `killall Dock', or reboot.

File: hledger-web.info, Node: FILES, Next: BUGS, Prev: ENVIRONMENT, Up: Top
@@ -565,9 +574,9 @@ File: hledger-web.info, Node: FILES, Next: BUGS, Prev: ENVIRONMENT, Up: Top
*******
Reads data from one or more files in hledger journal, timeclock,
-timedot, or CSV format specified with '-f', or '$LEDGER_FILE', or
-'$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
-'C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').
+timedot, or CSV format specified with `-f', or `$LEDGER_FILE', or
+`$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
+`C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').

File: hledger-web.info, Node: BUGS, Prev: FILES, Up: Top
@@ -575,10 +584,10 @@ File: hledger-web.info, Node: BUGS, Prev: FILES, Up: Top
8 BUGS
******
-The need to precede options with '--' when invoked from hledger is
+The need to precede options with `--' when invoked from hledger is
awkward.
- '-f-' doesn't work (hledger-web can't read from stdin).
+ `-f-' doesn't work (hledger-web can't read from stdin).
Query arguments and some hledger options are ignored.
@@ -586,24 +595,25 @@ awkward.
Does not work well on small screens.
+

Tag Table:
-Node: Top72
-Node: OPTIONS1707
-Ref: #options1812
-Node: PERMISSIONS8911
-Ref: #permissions9050
-Node: EDITING UPLOADING DOWNLOADING10262
-Ref: #editing-uploading-downloading10443
-Node: RELOADING11277
-Ref: #reloading11411
-Node: JSON API11844
-Ref: #json-api11958
-Node: ENVIRONMENT17448
-Ref: #environment17564
-Node: FILES18297
-Ref: #files18397
-Node: BUGS18610
-Ref: #bugs18688
+Node: Top84
+Node: OPTIONS1696
+Ref: #options1801
+Node: PERMISSIONS8880
+Ref: #permissions9019
+Node: EDITING UPLOADING DOWNLOADING10231
+Ref: #editing-uploading-downloading10412
+Node: RELOADING11243
+Ref: #reloading11377
+Node: JSON API11809
+Ref: #json-api11923
+Node: ENVIRONMENT17412
+Ref: #environment17528
+Node: FILES18260
+Ref: #files18360
+Node: BUGS18573
+Ref: #bugs18651

End Tag Table
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.txt b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.txt
index 73d2d23..ea808a4 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.txt
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.txt
@@ -19,9 +19,9 @@ DESCRIPTION
hledger-web is hledger's web interface. It starts a simple web appli-
cation for browsing and adding transactions, and optionally opens it in
a web browser window if possible. It provides a more user-friendly UI
- than the hledger CLI or hledger-ui interface, showing more at once (ac-
- counts, the current account register, balance charts) and allowing his-
- tory-aware data entry, interactive searching, and bookmarking.
+ than the hledger CLI or hledger-ui interface, showing more at once
+ (accounts, the current account register, balance charts) and allowing
+ history-aware data entry, interactive searching, and bookmarking.
hledger-web also lets you share a ledger with multiple users, or even
the public web. There is no access control, so if you need that you
@@ -58,8 +58,8 @@ OPTIONS
--socket=SOCKETFILE
use a unix domain socket file to listen for requests instead of
- a TCP socket. Implies --serve. It can only be used if the op-
- erating system can provide this type of socket.
+ a TCP socket. Implies --serve. It can only be used if the
+ operating system can provide this type of socket.
--base-url=URL
set the base url (default: http://IPADDR:PORT). You would
@@ -109,8 +109,8 @@ OPTIONS
assignments)
-s --strict
- do extra error checking (check that all posted accounts are de-
- clared)
+ do extra error checking (check that all posted accounts are
+ declared)
hledger reporting options:
@@ -140,8 +140,8 @@ OPTIONS
using period expressions syntax
--date2
- match the secondary date instead (see command help for other ef-
- fects)
+ match the secondary date instead (see command help for other
+ effects)
-U --unmarked
include only unmarked postings/txns (can combine with -P or -C)
@@ -166,14 +166,14 @@ OPTIONS
convert amounts to their cost/selling amount at transaction time
-V --market
- convert amounts to their market value in default valuation com-
+ convert amounts to their market value in default valuation com-
modities
-X --exchange=COMM
convert amounts to their market value in commodity COMM
--value
- convert amounts to cost or market value, more flexibly than
+ convert amounts to cost or market value, more flexibly than
-B/-V/-X
--infer-value
@@ -182,15 +182,15 @@ OPTIONS
--auto apply automated posting rules to modify transactions.
--forecast
- generate future transactions from periodic transaction rules,
- for the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui,
+ generate future transactions from periodic transaction rules,
+ for the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui,
also make ordinary future transactions visible.
--color=WHEN (or --colour=WHEN)
- Should color-supporting commands use ANSI color codes in text
- output. 'auto' (default): whenever stdout seems to be a color-
- supporting terminal. 'always' or 'yes': always, useful eg when
- piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
+ Should color-supporting commands use ANSI color codes in text
+ output. 'auto' (default): whenever stdout seems to be a color-
+ supporting terminal. 'always' or 'yes': always, useful eg when
+ piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
NO_COLOR environment variable overrides this.
When a reporting option appears more than once in the command line, the
@@ -210,44 +210,44 @@ OPTIONS
show debug output (levels 1-9, default: 1)
A @FILE argument will be expanded to the contents of FILE, which should
- contain one command line option/argument per line. (To prevent this,
+ contain one command line option/argument per line. (To prevent this,
insert a -- argument before.)
By default, hledger-web starts the web app in "transient mode" and also
opens it in your default web browser if possible. In this mode the web
app will keep running for as long as you have it open in a browser win-
- dow, and will exit after two minutes of inactivity (no requests and no
- browser windows viewing it). With --serve, it just runs the web app
- without exiting, and logs requests to the console. With --serve-api,
- only the JSON web api (see below) is served, with the usual HTML
+ dow, and will exit after two minutes of inactivity (no requests and no
+ browser windows viewing it). With --serve, it just runs the web app
+ without exiting, and logs requests to the console. With --serve-api,
+ only the JSON web api (see below) is served, with the usual HTML
server-side web UI disabled.
- By default the server listens on IP address 127.0.0.1, accessible only
- to local requests. You can use --host to change this, eg --host
+ By default the server listens on IP address 127.0.0.1, accessible only
+ to local requests. You can use --host to change this, eg --host
0.0.0.0 to listen on all configured addresses.
- Similarly, use --port to set a TCP port other than 5000, eg if you are
+ Similarly, use --port to set a TCP port other than 5000, eg if you are
running multiple hledger-web instances.
Both of these options are ignored when --socket is used. In this case,
- it creates an AF_UNIX socket file at the supplied path and uses that
- for communication. This is an alternative way of running multiple
- hledger-web instances behind a reverse proxy that handles authentica-
- tion for different users. The path can be derived in a predictable
+ it creates an AF_UNIX socket file at the supplied path and uses that
+ for communication. This is an alternative way of running multiple
+ hledger-web instances behind a reverse proxy that handles authentica-
+ tion for different users. The path can be derived in a predictable
way, eg by using the username within the path. As an example, nginx as
- reverse proxy can use the variable $remote_user to derive a path from
- the username used in a HTTP basic authentication. The following
- proxy_pass directive allows access to all hledger-web instances that
+ reverse proxy can use the variable $remote_user to derive a path from
+ the username used in a HTTP basic authentication. The following
+ proxy_pass directive allows access to all hledger-web instances that
created a socket in /tmp/hledger/:
proxy_pass http://unix:/tmp/hledger/${remote_user}.socket;
- You can use --base-url to change the protocol, hostname, port and path
+ You can use --base-url to change the protocol, hostname, port and path
that appear in hyperlinks, useful eg for integrating hledger-web within
- a larger website. The default is http://HOST:PORT/ using the server's
+ a larger website. The default is http://HOST:PORT/ using the server's
configured host address and TCP port (or http://HOST if PORT is 80).
- With --file-url you can set a different base url for static files, eg
+ With --file-url you can set a different base url for static files, eg
for better caching or cookie-less serving on high performance websites.
PERMISSIONS
@@ -257,8 +257,8 @@ PERMISSIONS
You can restrict who can reach it by
o setting the IP address it listens on (see --host above). By default
- it listens on 127.0.0.1, accessible to all users on the local ma-
- chine.
+ it listens on 127.0.0.1, accessible to all users on the local
+ machine.
o putting it behind an authenticating proxy, using eg apache or nginx
@@ -274,8 +274,8 @@ PERMISSIONS
o add - allows adding new transactions to the main journal file
- o manage - allows editing, uploading or downloading the main or in-
- cluded files
+ o manage - allows editing, uploading or downloading the main or
+ included files
o using the --capabilities-header=HTTPHEADER flag to specify a HTTP
header from which it will read capabilities to enable. hledger-web
@@ -285,8 +285,8 @@ PERMISSIONS
EDITING, UPLOADING, DOWNLOADING
If you enable the manage capability mentioned above, you'll see a new
"spanner" button to the right of the search form. Clicking this will
- let you edit, upload, or download the journal file or any files it in-
- cludes.
+ let you edit, upload, or download the journal file or any files it
+ includes.
Note, unlike any other hledger command, in this mode you (or any visi-
tor) can alter or wipe the data files.
@@ -305,8 +305,8 @@ RELOADING
hledger-web detects changes made to the files by other means (eg if you
edit it directly, outside of hledger-web), and it will show the new
data when you reload the page or navigate to a new page. If a change
- makes a file unparseable, hledger-web will display an error message un-
- til the file has been fixed.
+ makes a file unparseable, hledger-web will display an error message
+ until the file has been fixed.
(Note: if you are viewing files mounted from another machine, make sure
that both machine clocks are roughly in step.)
@@ -373,15 +373,15 @@ JSON API
Most of the JSON corresponds to hledger's data types; for details of
what the fields mean, see the Hledger.Data.Json haddock docs and click
- on the various data types, eg Transaction. And for a higher level un-
- derstanding, see the journal manual.
+ on the various data types, eg Transaction. And for a higher level
+ understanding, see the journal manual.
In some cases there is outer JSON corresponding to a "Report" type. To
understand that, go to the Hledger.Web.Handler.MiscR haddock and look
at the source for the appropriate handler to see what it returns. Eg
- for /accounttransactions it's getAccounttransactionsR, returning a "ac-
- countTransactionsReport ...". Looking up the haddock for that we can
- see that /accounttransactions returns an AccountTransactionsReport,
+ for /accounttransactions it's getAccounttransactionsR, returning a
+ "accountTransactionsReport ...". Looking up the haddock for that we
+ can see that /accounttransactions returns an AccountTransactionsReport,
which consists of a report title and a list of AccountTransactionsRe-
portItem (etc).
@@ -485,8 +485,8 @@ JSON API
"tstatus": "Unmarked"
}
- And here's how to test adding it with curl. This should add a new en-
- try to your journal:
+ And here's how to test adding it with curl. This should add a new
+ entry to your journal:
$ curl http://127.0.0.1:5000/add -X PUT -H 'Content-Type: application/json' --data-binary @txn.json
@@ -500,9 +500,9 @@ ENVIRONMENT
rent.journal, where current.journal is a symbolic link to YYYY.journal.
On Mac computers, you can set this and other environment variables in a
- more thorough way that also affects applications started from the GUI
- (say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a ~/.MacOSX/en-
- vironment.plist file containing
+ more thorough way that also affects applications started from the GUI
+ (say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a
+ ~/.MacOSX/environment.plist file containing
{
"LEDGER_FILE" : "~/finance/current.journal"
@@ -511,13 +511,13 @@ ENVIRONMENT
To see the effect you may need to killall Dock, or reboot.
FILES
- Reads data from one or more files in hledger journal, timeclock, time-
- dot, or CSV format specified with -f, or $LEDGER_FILE, or
- $HOME/.hledger.journal (on windows, perhaps
+ Reads data from one or more files in hledger journal, timeclock, time-
+ dot, or CSV format specified with -f, or $LEDGER_FILE, or
+ $HOME/.hledger.journal (on windows, perhaps
C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal).
BUGS
- The need to precede options with -- when invoked from hledger is awk-
+ The need to precede options with -- when invoked from hledger is awk-
ward.
-f- doesn't work (hledger-web can't read from stdin).
@@ -531,7 +531,7 @@ BUGS
REPORTING BUGS
- Report bugs at http://bugs.hledger.org (or on the #hledger IRC channel
+ Report bugs at http://bugs.hledger.org (or on the #hledger IRC channel
or hledger mail list)
@@ -552,4 +552,4 @@ SEE ALSO
-hledger-web-1.20.3 December 2020 HLEDGER-WEB(1)
+hledger-web-1.20.4 December 2020 HLEDGER-WEB(1)
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger.1 b/embeddedfiles/hledger.1
index b4e15f1..a04baec 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger.1
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger.1
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
.\"t
-.TH "HLEDGER" "1" "December 2020" "hledger-1.20.3 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER" "1" "December 2020" "hledger-1.20.4 " "hledger User Manuals"
@@ -2690,41 +2690,59 @@ aregister, areg
.PD 0
.P
.PD
-Show transactions affecting a particular account, and the account\[aq]s
-running balance.
+.PP
+Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account, with
+each line item representing one transaction.
.PP
\f[C]aregister\f[R] shows the transactions affecting a particular
-account (and its subaccounts), from the point of view of that account.
-Each line shows:
+account and its subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole
+transaction - as in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other
+accounting apps.
+.PP
+Note this is unlike the \f[C]register\f[R] command, which shows
+individual postings and does not always show a single account or a
+historical balance.
+.PP
+A reminder, \[dq]historical\[dq] balances include any balance from
+transactions before the report start date, so (if opening balances are
+recorded correctly) \f[C]aregister\f[R] will show the real-world
+balances of an account, as you would see in a bank statement.
+.PP
+As a quick rule of thumb, use \f[C]aregister\f[R] for reconciling
+real-world asset/liability accounts and \f[C]register\f[R] for reviewing
+detailed revenues/expenses.
+.PP
+\f[C]aregister\f[R] shows the register for just one account (and its
+subaccounts).
+This account must be specified as the first argument.
+You can write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive
+regular expression which will select the alphabetically first matched
+account.
+(Eg if you have \f[C]assets:aaa:checking\f[R] and
+\f[C]assets:bbb:checking\f[R] accounts, \f[C]hledger areg checking\f[R]
+would select \f[C]assets:aaa:checking\f[R].)
+.PP
+Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transactions
+shown.
+.PP
+Each \f[C]aregister\f[R] line item shows:
.IP \[bu] 2
-the transaction\[aq]s (or posting\[aq]s, see below) date
+the transaction\[aq]s date (or the relevant posting\[aq]s date if
+different, see below)
.IP \[bu] 2
-the names of the other account(s) involved
+the names of all the other account(s) involved in this transaction
+(probably abbreviated)
.IP \[bu] 2
-the net change to this account\[aq]s balance
+the total change to this account\[aq]s balance from this transaction
.IP \[bu] 2
-the account\[aq]s historical running balance (including balance from
-transactions before the report start date).
-.PP
-With \f[C]aregister\f[R], each line represents a whole transaction - as
-in hledger-ui, hledger-web, and your bank statement.
-By contrast, the \f[C]register\f[R] command shows individual postings,
-across all accounts.
-You might prefer \f[C]aregister\f[R] for reconciling with real-world
-asset/liability accounts, and \f[C]register\f[R] for reviewing detailed
-revenues/expenses.
-.PP
-An account must be specified as the first argument, which should be the
-full account name or an account pattern (regular expression).
-aregister will show transactions in this account (the first one matched)
-and any of its subaccounts.
-.PP
-Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transactions
-shown.
+the account\[aq]s historical running balance after this transaction.
.PP
Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default; add
the \f[C]-E/--empty\f[R] flag to show them.
.PP
+\f[C]aregister\f[R] ignores a depth limit, so its final total will
+always match a balance report with similar arguments.
+.PP
This command also supports the output destination and output format
options The output formats supported are \f[C]txt\f[R], \f[C]csv\f[R],
and \f[C]json\f[R].
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger.info b/embeddedfiles/hledger.info
index 4aba1cc..e036864 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger.info
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger.info
@@ -1,7 +1,8 @@
-This is hledger.info, produced by makeinfo version 6.7 from stdin.
+This is hledger/hledger.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.8 from
+stdin.

-File: hledger.info, Node: Top, Next: COMMON TASKS, Up: (dir)
+File: hledger.info, Node: Top, Up: (dir)
hledger(1)
**********
@@ -9,36 +10,37 @@ hledger(1)
A command-line accounting tool for both power users and folks new to
accounting.
- 'hledger'
+ `hledger'
- 'hledger [-f FILE] COMMAND [OPTIONS] [ARGS]'
+ `hledger [-f FILE] COMMAND [OPTIONS] [ARGS]'
- 'hledger [-f FILE] ADDONCMD -- [OPTIONS] [ARGS]'
+ `hledger [-f FILE] ADDONCMD -- [OPTIONS] [ARGS]'
hledger is a reliable, cross-platform set of programs for tracking
money, time, or any other commodity, using double-entry accounting and a
-simple, editable file format. hledger is inspired by and largely
+simple, editable file format. hledger is inspired by and largely
compatible with ledger(1).
This is hledger's command-line interface (there are also terminal and
-web interfaces). Its basic function is to read a plain text file
+web interfaces). Its basic function is to read a plain text file
describing financial transactions (in accounting terms, a general
journal) and print useful reports on standard output, or export them as
CSV. hledger can also read some other file formats such as CSV files,
-translating them to journal format. Additionally, hledger lists other
+translating them to journal format. Additionally, hledger lists other
hledger-* executables found in the user's $PATH and can invoke them as
subcommands.
hledger reads data from one or more files in hledger journal,
-timeclock, timedot, or CSV format specified with '-f', or
-'$LEDGER_FILE', or '$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
-'C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal'). If using '$LEDGER_FILE', note this
-must be a real environment variable, not a shell variable. You can
-specify standard input with '-f-'.
+timeclock, timedot, or CSV format specified with `-f', or
+`$LEDGER_FILE', or `$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
+`C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal'). If using `$LEDGER_FILE', note this
+must be a real environment variable, not a shell variable. You can
+specify standard input with `-f-'.
Transactions are dated movements of money between two (or more) named
accounts, and are recorded with journal entries like this:
+
2015/10/16 bought food
expenses:food $10
assets:cash
@@ -46,14 +48,14 @@ accounts, and are recorded with journal entries like this:
For more about this format, see hledger_journal(5).
Most users use a text editor to edit the journal, usually with an
-editor mode such as ledger-mode for added convenience. hledger's
+editor mode such as ledger-mode for added convenience. hledger's
interactive add command is another way to record new transactions.
hledger never changes existing transactions.
To get started, you can either save some entries like the above in
-'~/.hledger.journal', or run 'hledger add' and follow the prompts. Then
-try some commands like 'hledger print' or 'hledger balance'. Run
-'hledger' with no arguments for a list of commands.
+`~/.hledger.journal', or run `hledger add' and follow the prompts. Then
+try some commands like `hledger print' or `hledger balance'. Run
+`hledger' with no arguments for a list of commands.
* Menu:
@@ -93,6 +95,7 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Getting help, Next: Constructing command lines, Up:
1.1 Getting help
================
+
$ hledger # show available commands
$ hledger --help # show common options
$ hledger CMD --help # show common and command options, and command help
@@ -101,7 +104,7 @@ $ hledger help hledger # show hledger manual as info/man/text (auto-chosen)
$ hledger help journal --man # show the journal manual as a man page
$ hledger help --help # show more detailed help for the help command
- Find more docs, chat, mail list, reddit, issue tracker:
+Find more docs, chat, mail list, reddit, issue tracker:
https://hledger.org#help-feedback

@@ -110,19 +113,23 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Constructing command lines, Next: Starting a journal
1.2 Constructing command lines
==============================
-hledger has an extensive and powerful command line interface. We strive
+hledger has an extensive and powerful command line interface. We strive
to keep it simple and ergonomic, but you may run into one of the
-confusing real world details described in OPTIONS, below. If that
+confusing real world details described in OPTIONS, below. If that
happens, here are some tips that may help:
* command-specific options must go after the command (it's fine to
- put all options there) ('hledger CMD OPTS ARGS')
+ put all options there) (`hledger CMD OPTS ARGS')
+
* running add-on executables directly simplifies command line parsing
- ('hledger-ui OPTS ARGS')
+ (`hledger-ui OPTS ARGS')
+
* enclose "problematic" args in single quotes
+
* if needed, also add a backslash to hide regular expression
metacharacters from the shell
- * to see how a misbehaving command is being parsed, add '--debug=2'.
+
+ * to see how a misbehaving command is being parsed, add `--debug=2'.

File: hledger.info, Node: Starting a journal file, Next: Setting opening balances, Prev: Constructing command lines, Up: COMMON TASKS
@@ -131,17 +138,19 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Starting a journal file, Next: Setting opening balan
===========================
hledger looks for your accounting data in a journal file,
-'$HOME/.hledger.journal' by default:
+`$HOME/.hledger.journal' by default:
+
$ hledger stats
The hledger journal file "/Users/simon/.hledger.journal" was not found.
Please create it first, eg with "hledger add" or a text editor.
Or, specify an existing journal file with -f or LEDGER_FILE.
- You can override this by setting the 'LEDGER_FILE' environment
-variable. It's a good practice to keep this important file under
-version control, and to start a new file each year. So you could do
-something like this:
+ You can override this by setting the `LEDGER_FILE' environment
+variable. It's a good practice to keep this important file under version
+control, and to start a new file each year. So you could do something
+like this:
+
$ mkdir ~/finance
$ cd ~/finance
@@ -152,7 +161,7 @@ $ echo "export LEDGER_FILE=$HOME/finance/2020.journal" >> ~/.bashrc
$ source ~/.bashrc
$ hledger stats
Main file : /Users/simon/finance/2020.journal
-Included files :
+Included files :
Transactions span : to (0 days)
Last transaction : none
Transactions : 0 (0.0 per day)
@@ -170,21 +179,22 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Setting opening balances, Next: Recording transactio
============================
Pick a starting date for which you can look up the balances of some
-real-world assets (bank accounts, wallet..) and liabilities (credit
+real-world assets (bank accounts, wallet..) and liabilities (credit
cards..).
To avoid a lot of data entry, you may want to start with just one or
two accounts, like your checking account or cash wallet; and pick a
-recent starting date, like today or the start of the week. You can
+recent starting date, like today or the start of the week. You can
always come back later and add more accounts and older transactions, eg
going back to january 1st.
Add an opening balances transaction to the journal, declaring the
-balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
+balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
* The first way: open the journal in any text editor and save an
entry like this:
+
2020-01-01 * opening balances
assets:bank:checking $1000 = $1000
assets:bank:savings $2000 = $2000
@@ -195,7 +205,7 @@ balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
These are start-of-day balances, ie whatever was in the account at
the end of the previous day.
- The * after the date is an optional status flag. Here it means
+ The * after the date is an optional status flag. Here it means
"cleared & confirmed".
The currency symbols are optional, but usually a good idea as
@@ -204,9 +214,10 @@ balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
The = amounts are optional balance assertions, providing extra
error checking.
- * The second way: run 'hledger add' and follow the prompts to record
+ * The second way: run `hledger add' and follow the prompts to record
a similar transaction:
+
$ hledger add
Adding transactions to journal file /Users/simon/finance/2020.journal
Any command line arguments will be used as defaults.
@@ -227,7 +238,7 @@ balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
Account 4: liabilities:creditcard
Amount 4 [$-3100]: $-50
Account 5: equity:opening/closing balances
- Amount 5 [$-3050]:
+ Amount 5 [$-3050]:
Account 6 (or . or enter to finish this transaction): .
2020-01-01 * opening balances
assets:bank:checking $1000
@@ -235,14 +246,16 @@ balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
assets:cash $100
liabilities:creditcard $-50
equity:opening/closing balances $-3050
-
- Save this transaction to the journal ? [y]:
+
+ Save this transaction to the journal ? [y]:
Saved.
Starting the next transaction (. or ctrl-D/ctrl-C to quit)
Date [2020-01-01]: .
+
If you're using version control, this could be a good time to commit
-the journal. Eg:
+the journal. Eg:
+
$ git commit -m 'initial balances' 2020.journal
@@ -260,6 +273,7 @@ convert CSV data downloaded from your bank.
Here are some simple transactions, see the hledger_journal(5) manual
and hledger.org for more ideas:
+
2020/1/10 * gift received
assets:cash $20
income:gifts
@@ -282,49 +296,52 @@ Periodically you should reconcile - compare your hledger-reported
balances against external sources of truth, like bank statements or your
bank's website - to be sure that your ledger accurately represents the
real-world balances (and, that the real-world institutions have not made
-a mistake!). This gets easy and fast with (1) practice and (2)
-frequency. If you do it daily, it can take 2-10 minutes. If you let it
+a mistake!). This gets easy and fast with (1) practice and (2)
+frequency. If you do it daily, it can take 2-10 minutes. If you let it
pile up, expect it to take longer as you hunt down errors and
discrepancies.
A typical workflow:
- 1. Reconcile cash. Count what's in your wallet. Compare with what
- hledger reports ('hledger bal cash'). If they are different, try
- to remember the missing transaction, or look for the error in the
- already-recorded transactions. A register report can be helpful
- ('hledger reg cash'). If you can't find the error, add an
- adjustment transaction. Eg if you have $105 after the above, and
+ 1. Reconcile cash. Count what's in your wallet. Compare with what
+ hledger reports (`hledger bal cash'). If they are different, try to
+ remember the missing transaction, or look for the error in the
+ already-recorded transactions. A register report can be helpful
+ (`hledger reg cash'). If you can't find the error, add an
+ adjustment transaction. Eg if you have $105 after the above, and
can't explain the missing $2, it could be:
+
2020-01-16 * adjust cash
assets:cash $-2 = $105
expenses:misc
- 2. Reconcile checking. Log in to your bank's website. Compare
- today's (cleared) balance with hledger's cleared balance ('hledger
- bal checking -C'). If they are different, track down the error or
- record the missing transaction(s) or add an adjustment transaction,
- similar to the above. Unlike the cash case, you can usually
- compare the transaction history and running balance from your bank
- with the one reported by 'hledger reg checking -C'. This will be
- easier if you generally record transaction dates quite similar to
- your bank's clearing dates.
+ 2. Reconcile checking. Log in to your bank's website. Compare today's
+ (cleared) balance with hledger's cleared balance (`hledger bal
+ checking -C'). If they are different, track down the error or
+ record the missing transaction(s) or add an adjustment
+ transaction, similar to the above. Unlike the cash case, you can
+ usually compare the transaction history and running balance from
+ your bank with the one reported by `hledger reg checking -C'. This
+ will be easier if you generally record transaction dates quite
+ similar to your bank's clearing dates.
3. Repeat for other asset/liability accounts.
+
Tip: instead of the register command, use hledger-ui to see a
-live-updating register while you edit the journal: 'hledger-ui --watch
+live-updating register while you edit the journal: `hledger-ui --watch
--register checking -C'
After reconciling, it could be a good time to mark the reconciled
transactions' status as "cleared and confirmed", if you want to track
-that, by adding the '*' marker. Eg in the paycheck transaction above,
-insert '*' between '2020-01-15' and 'paycheck'
+that, by adding the `*' marker. Eg in the paycheck transaction above,
+insert `*' between `2020-01-15' and `paycheck'
If you're using version control, this can be another good time to
commit:
+
$ git commit -m 'txns' 2020.journal

@@ -337,6 +354,7 @@ Here are some basic reports.
Show all transactions:
+
$ hledger print
2020-01-01 * opening balances
assets:bank:checking $1000
@@ -363,6 +381,7 @@ $ hledger print
Show account names, and their hierarchy:
+
$ hledger accounts --tree
assets
bank
@@ -382,6 +401,7 @@ liabilities
Show all account totals:
+
$ hledger balance
$4105 assets
$4000 bank
@@ -402,6 +422,7 @@ $ hledger balance
Show only asset and liability balances, as a flat list, limited to
depth 2:
+
$ hledger bal assets liabilities --flat -2
$4000 assets:bank
$105 assets:cash
@@ -412,56 +433,59 @@ $ hledger bal assets liabilities --flat -2
Show the same thing without negative numbers, formatted as a simple
balance sheet:
+
$ hledger bs --flat -2
Balance Sheet 2020-01-16
- || 2020-01-16
+ || 2020-01-16
========================++============
- Assets ||
+ Assets ||
------------------------++------------
- assets:bank || $4000
- assets:cash || $105
+ assets:bank || $4000
+ assets:cash || $105
------------------------++------------
- || $4105
+ || $4105
========================++============
- Liabilities ||
+ Liabilities ||
------------------------++------------
- liabilities:creditcard || $50
+ liabilities:creditcard || $50
------------------------++------------
- || $50
+ || $50
========================++============
- Net: || $4055
+ Net: || $4055
- The final total is your "net worth" on the end date. (Or use 'bse'
+ The final total is your "net worth" on the end date. (Or use `bse'
for a full balance sheet with equity.)
Show income and expense totals, formatted as an income statement:
-hledger is
+
+hledger is
Income Statement 2020-01-01-2020-01-16
- || 2020-01-01-2020-01-16
+ || 2020-01-01-2020-01-16
===============++=======================
- Revenues ||
+ Revenues ||
---------------++-----------------------
- income:gifts || $20
- income:salary || $1000
+ income:gifts || $20
+ income:salary || $1000
---------------++-----------------------
- || $1020
+ || $1020
===============++=======================
- Expenses ||
+ Expenses ||
---------------++-----------------------
- expenses:food || $13
- expenses:misc || $2
+ expenses:food || $13
+ expenses:misc || $2
---------------++-----------------------
- || $15
+ || $15
===============++=======================
- Net: || $1005
+ Net: || $1005
The final total is your net income during this period.
Show transactions affecting your wallet, with running total:
+
$ hledger register cash
2020-01-01 opening balances assets:cash $100 $100
2020-01-10 gift received assets:cash $20 $120
@@ -470,6 +494,7 @@ $ hledger register cash
Show weekly posting counts as a bar chart:
+
$ hledger activity -W
2019-12-30 *****
2020-01-06 ****
@@ -483,10 +508,10 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Migrating to a new file, Prev: Reporting, Up: COMMO
At the end of the year, you may want to continue your journal in a new
file, so that old transactions don't slow down or clutter your reports,
-and to help ensure the integrity of your accounting history. See the
+and to help ensure the integrity of your accounting history. See the
close command.
- If using version control, don't forget to 'git add' the new file.
+ If using version control, don't forget to `git add' the new file.

File: hledger.info, Node: OPTIONS, Next: COMMANDS, Prev: COMMON TASKS, Up: Top
@@ -522,131 +547,128 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: General options, Next: Command options, Up: OPTIONS
===================
To see general usage help, including general options which are supported
-by most hledger commands, run 'hledger -h'.
+by most hledger commands, run `hledger -h'.
General help options:
-'-h --help'
-
+`-h --help'
show general usage (or after COMMAND, command usage)
-'--version'
+`--version'
show version
-'--debug[=N]'
+`--debug[=N]'
show debug output (levels 1-9, default: 1)
General input options:
-'-f FILE --file=FILE'
-
- use a different input file. For stdin, use - (default:
- '$LEDGER_FILE' or '$HOME/.hledger.journal')
-'--rules-file=RULESFILE'
+`-f FILE --file=FILE'
+ use a different input file. For stdin, use - (default:
+ `$LEDGER_FILE' or `$HOME/.hledger.journal')
+`--rules-file=RULESFILE'
Conversion rules file to use when reading CSV (default: FILE.rules)
-'--separator=CHAR'
+`--separator=CHAR'
Field separator to expect when reading CSV (default: ',')
-'--alias=OLD=NEW'
+`--alias=OLD=NEW'
rename accounts named OLD to NEW
-'--anon'
+`--anon'
anonymize accounts and payees
-'--pivot FIELDNAME'
+`--pivot FIELDNAME'
use some other field or tag for the account name
-'-I --ignore-assertions'
+`-I --ignore-assertions'
disable balance assertion checks (note: does not disable balance
assignments)
-'-s --strict'
+`-s --strict'
do extra error checking (check that all posted accounts are
declared)
General reporting options:
-'-b --begin=DATE'
-
+`-b --begin=DATE'
include postings/txns on or after this date
-'-e --end=DATE'
+`-e --end=DATE'
include postings/txns before this date
-'-D --daily'
+`-D --daily'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by day
-'-W --weekly'
+`-W --weekly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by week
-'-M --monthly'
+`-M --monthly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by month
-'-Q --quarterly'
+`-Q --quarterly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by quarter
-'-Y --yearly'
+`-Y --yearly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by year
-'-p --period=PERIODEXP'
+`-p --period=PERIODEXP'
set start date, end date, and/or reporting interval all at once
using period expressions syntax
-'--date2'
+`--date2'
match the secondary date instead (see command help for other
effects)
-'-U --unmarked'
+`-U --unmarked'
include only unmarked postings/txns (can combine with -P or -C)
-'-P --pending'
+`-P --pending'
include only pending postings/txns
-'-C --cleared'
+`-C --cleared'
include only cleared postings/txns
-'-R --real'
+`-R --real'
include only non-virtual postings
-'-NUM --depth=NUM'
+`-NUM --depth=NUM'
hide/aggregate accounts or postings more than NUM levels deep
-'-E --empty'
+`-E --empty'
show items with zero amount, normally hidden (and vice-versa in
hledger-ui/hledger-web)
-'-B --cost'
+`-B --cost'
convert amounts to their cost/selling amount at transaction time
-'-V --market'
+`-V --market'
convert amounts to their market value in default valuation
commodities
-'-X --exchange=COMM'
+`-X --exchange=COMM'
convert amounts to their market value in commodity COMM
-'--value'
+`--value'
convert amounts to cost or market value, more flexibly than
-B/-V/-X
-'--infer-value'
+`--infer-value'
with -V/-X/-value, also infer market prices from transactions
-'--auto'
+`--auto'
apply automated posting rules to modify transactions.
-'--forecast'
+`--forecast'
generate future transactions from periodic transaction rules, for
- the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui, also
+ the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui, also
make ordinary future transactions visible.
-'--color=WHEN (or --colour=WHEN)'
+`--color=WHEN (or --colour=WHEN)'
Should color-supporting commands use ANSI color codes in text
output. 'auto' (default): whenever stdout seems to be a
color-supporting terminal. 'always' or 'yes': always, useful eg
- when piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
+ when piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
NO_COLOR environment variable overrides this.
When a reporting option appears more than once in the command line,
@@ -661,14 +683,14 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Command options, Next: Command arguments, Prev: Gen
===================
To see options for a particular command, including command-specific
-options, run: 'hledger COMMAND -h'.
+options, run: `hledger COMMAND -h'.
Command-specific options must be written after the command name, eg:
-'hledger print -x'.
+`hledger print -x'.
Additionally, if the command is an add-on, you may need to put its
-options after a double-hyphen, eg: 'hledger ui -- --watch'. Or, you can
-run the add-on executable directly: 'hledger-ui --watch'.
+options after a double-hyphen, eg: `hledger ui -- --watch'. Or, you can
+run the add-on executable directly: `hledger-ui --watch'.

File: hledger.info, Node: Command arguments, Next: Queries, Prev: Command options, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -680,32 +702,36 @@ Most hledger commands accept arguments after the command name, which are
often a query, filtering the data in some way.
You can save a set of command line options/arguments in a file, and
-then reuse them by writing '@FILENAME' as a command line argument. Eg:
-'hledger bal @foo.args'. (To prevent this, eg if you have an argument
-that begins with a literal '@', precede it with '--', eg: 'hledger bal
+then reuse them by writing `@FILENAME' as a command line argument. Eg:
+`hledger bal @foo.args'. (To prevent this, eg if you have an argument
+that begins with a literal `@', precede it with `--', eg: `hledger bal
-- @ARG').
Inside the argument file, each line should contain just one option or
-argument. Avoid the use of spaces, except inside quotes (or you'll see
-a confusing error). Between a flag and its argument, use = (or
-nothing). Bad:
+argument. Avoid the use of spaces, except inside quotes (or you'll see a
+confusing error). Between a flag and its argument, use = (or nothing).
+Bad:
+
assets depth:2
-X USD
Good:
+
assets
depth:2
-X=USD
For special characters (see below), use one less level of quoting
-than you would at the command prompt. Bad:
+than you would at the command prompt. Bad:
+
-X"$"
Good:
+
-X$
See also: Save frequently used options.
@@ -717,107 +743,109 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Queries, Next: Special characters in arguments and q
===========
One of hledger's strengths is being able to quickly report on precise
-subsets of your data. Most commands accept an optional query
-expression, written as arguments after the command name, to filter the
-data by date, account name or other criteria. The syntax is similar to
-a web search: one or more space-separated search terms, quotes to
-enclose whitespace, prefixes to match specific fields, a not: prefix to
-negate the match.
+subsets of your data. Most commands accept an optional query expression,
+written as arguments after the command name, to filter the data by date,
+account name or other criteria. The syntax is similar to a web search:
+one or more space-separated search terms, quotes to enclose whitespace,
+prefixes to match specific fields, a not: prefix to negate the match.
We do not yet support arbitrary boolean combinations of search terms;
instead most commands show transactions/postings/accounts which match
(or negatively match):
* any of the description terms AND
+
* any of the account terms AND
+
* any of the status terms AND
+
* all the other terms.
The print command instead shows transactions which:
* match any of the description terms AND
+
* have any postings matching any of the positive account terms AND
- * have no postings matching any of the negative account terms AND
- * match all the other terms.
- The following kinds of search terms can be used. Remember these can
-also be prefixed with *'not:'*, eg to exclude a particular subaccount.
+ * have no postings matching any of the negative account terms AND
-*'REGEX', 'acct:REGEX'*
+ * match all the other terms.
- match account names by this regular expression. (With no prefix,
- 'acct:' is assumed.) same as above
+ The following kinds of search terms can be used. Remember these can
+also be prefixed with *`not:'*, eg to exclude a particular subaccount.
-*'amt:N, amt:<N, amt:<=N, amt:>N, amt:>=N'*
+*`REGEX', `acct:REGEX'*
+ match account names by this regular expression. (With no prefix,
+ `acct:' is assumed.) same as above
+*`amt:N, amt:<N, amt:<=N, amt:>N, amt:>=N'*
match postings with a single-commodity amount that is equal to,
less than, or greater than N. (Multi-commodity amounts are not
- tested, and will always match.) The comparison has two modes: if N
+ tested, and will always match.) The comparison has two modes: if N
is preceded by a + or - sign (or is 0), the two signed numbers are
- compared. Otherwise, the absolute magnitudes are compared,
+ compared. Otherwise, the absolute magnitudes are compared,
ignoring sign.
-*'code:REGEX'*
+*`code:REGEX'*
match by transaction code (eg check number)
-*'cur:REGEX'*
+*`cur:REGEX'*
match postings or transactions including any amounts whose
currency/commodity symbol is fully matched by REGEX. (For a partial
- match, use '.*REGEX.*'). Note, to match characters which are
- regex-significant, like the dollar sign ('$'), you need to prepend
- '\'. And when using the command line you need to add one more
- level of quoting to hide it from the shell, so eg do: 'hledger
- print cur:'\$'' or 'hledger print cur:\\$'.
-*'desc:REGEX'*
+ match, use `.*REGEX.*'). Note, to match characters which are
+ regex-significant, like the dollar sign (`$'), you need to prepend
+ `\'. And when using the command line you need to add one more level
+ of quoting to hide it from the shell, so eg do: `hledger print
+ cur:'\$'' or `hledger print cur:\\$'.
+*`desc:REGEX'*
match transaction descriptions.
-*'date:PERIODEXPR'*
- match dates within the specified period. PERIODEXPR is a period
- expression (with no report interval). Examples: 'date:2016',
- 'date:thismonth', 'date:2000/2/1-2/15', 'date:lastweek-'. If the
- '--date2' command line flag is present, this matches secondary
+*`date:PERIODEXPR'*
+ match dates within the specified period. PERIODEXPR is a period
+ expression (with no report interval). Examples: `date:2016',
+ `date:thismonth', `date:2000/2/1-2/15', `date:lastweek-'. If the
+ `--date2' command line flag is present, this matches secondary
dates instead.
-*'date2:PERIODEXPR'*
+*`date2:PERIODEXPR'*
match secondary dates within the specified period.
-*'depth:N'*
+*`depth:N'*
match (or display, depending on command) accounts at or above this
depth
-*'note:REGEX'*
- match transaction notes (part of description right of '|', or whole
- description when there's no '|')
-*'payee:REGEX'*
+*`note:REGEX'*
+ match transaction notes (part of description right of `|', or whole
+ description when there's no `|')
+*`payee:REGEX'*
match transaction payee/payer names (part of description left of
- '|', or whole description when there's no '|')
-*'real:, real:0'*
+ `|', or whole description when there's no `|')
+*`real:, real:0'*
match real or virtual postings respectively
-*'status:, status:!, status:*'*
+*`status:, status:!, status:*'*
match unmarked, pending, or cleared transactions respectively
-*'tag:REGEX[=REGEX]'*
- match by tag name, and optionally also by tag value. Note a tag:
- query is considered to match a transaction if it matches any of the
- postings. Also remember that postings inherit the tags of their
- parent transaction.
+*`tag:REGEX[=REGEX]'*
+ match by tag name, and optionally also by tag value. Note a tag:
+ query is considered to match a transaction if it matches any of
+ the postings. Also remember that postings inherit the tags of
+ their parent transaction.
The following special search term is used automatically in
hledger-web, only:
-*'inacct:ACCTNAME'*
-
+*`inacct:ACCTNAME'*
tells hledger-web to show the transaction register for this
- account. Can be filtered further with 'acct' etc.
+ account. Can be filtered further with `acct' etc.
Some of these can also be expressed as command-line options (eg
-'depth:2' is equivalent to '--depth 2'). Generally you can mix options
+`depth:2' is equivalent to `--depth 2'). Generally you can mix options
and query arguments, and the resulting query will be their intersection
-(perhaps excluding the '-p/--period' option).
+(perhaps excluding the `-p/--period' option).

File: hledger.info, Node: Special characters in arguments and queries, Next: Unicode characters, Prev: Queries, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -827,11 +855,11 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Special characters in arguments and queries, Next: U
In shell command lines, option and argument values which contain
"problematic" characters, ie spaces, and also characters significant to
-your shell such as '<', '>', '(', ')', '|' and '$', should be escaped by
-enclosing them in quotes or by writing backslashes before the
-characters. Eg:
+your shell such as `<', `>', `(', `)', `|' and `$', should be escaped
+by enclosing them in quotes or by writing backslashes before the
+characters. Eg:
- 'hledger register -p 'last year' "accounts receivable
+ `hledger register -p 'last year' "accounts receivable
(receivable|payable)" amt:\>100'.
* Menu:
@@ -847,15 +875,15 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: More escaping, Next: Even more escaping, Up: Specia
-------------------
Characters significant both to the shell and in regular expressions may
-need one extra level of escaping. These include parentheses, the pipe
-symbol and the dollar sign. Eg, to match the dollar symbol, bash users
+need one extra level of escaping. These include parentheses, the pipe
+symbol and the dollar sign. Eg, to match the dollar symbol, bash users
should do:
- 'hledger balance cur:'\$''
+ `hledger balance cur:'\$''
or:
- 'hledger balance cur:\\$'
+ `hledger balance cur:\\$'

File: hledger.info, Node: Even more escaping, Next: Less escaping, Prev: More escaping, Up: Special characters in arguments and queries
@@ -863,23 +891,23 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Even more escaping, Next: Less escaping, Prev: More
2.5.2 Even more escaping
------------------------
-When hledger runs an add-on executable (eg you type 'hledger ui',
-hledger runs 'hledger-ui'), it de-escapes command-line options and
-arguments once, so you might need to _triple_-escape. Eg in bash,
+When hledger runs an add-on executable (eg you type `hledger ui',
+hledger runs `hledger-ui'), it de-escapes command-line options and
+arguments once, so you might need to _triple_-escape. Eg in bash,
running the ui command and matching the dollar sign, it's:
- 'hledger ui cur:'\\$''
+ `hledger ui cur:'\\$''
or:
- 'hledger ui cur:\\\\$'
+ `hledger ui cur:\\\\$'
If you asked why _four_ slashes above, this may help:
-unescaped: '$'
-escaped: '\$'
-double-escaped: '\\$'
-triple-escaped: '\\\\$'
+unescaped: `$'
+escaped: `\$'
+double-escaped: `\\$'
+triple-escaped: `\\\\$'
(The number of backslashes in fish shell is left as an exercise for
the reader.)
@@ -887,7 +915,7 @@ the reader.)
You can always avoid the extra escaping for add-ons by running the
add-on directly:
- 'hledger-ui cur:\\$'
+ `hledger-ui cur:\\$'

File: hledger.info, Node: Less escaping, Prev: Even more escaping, Up: Special characters in arguments and queries
@@ -897,10 +925,10 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Less escaping, Prev: Even more escaping, Up: Specia
Inside an argument file, or in the search field of hledger-ui or
hledger-web, or at a GHCI prompt, you need one less level of escaping
-than at the command line. And backslashes may work better than quotes.
+than at the command line. And backslashes may work better than quotes.
Eg:
- 'ghci> :main balance cur:\$'
+ `ghci> :main balance cur:\$'

File: hledger.info, Node: Unicode characters, Next: Input files, Prev: Special characters in arguments and queries, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -917,12 +945,13 @@ hledger is expected to handle non-ascii characters correctly:
* they should be displayed correctly by all hledger tools, and
on-screen alignment should be preserved.
- This requires a well-configured environment. Here are some tips:
+
+ This requires a well-configured environment. Here are some tips:
* A system locale must be configured, and it must be one that can
- decode the characters being used. In bash, you can set a locale
- like this: 'export LANG=en_US.UTF-8'. There are some more details
- in Troubleshooting. This step is essential - without it, hledger
+ decode the characters being used. In bash, you can set a locale
+ like this: `export LANG=en_US.UTF-8'. There are some more details
+ in Troubleshooting. This step is essential - without it, hledger
will quit on encountering a non-ascii character (as with all
GHC-compiled programs).
@@ -936,11 +965,12 @@ hledger is expected to handle non-ascii characters correctly:
double width (for report alignment)
* on Windows, for best results you should run hledger in the same
- kind of environment in which it was built. Eg hledger built in the
+ kind of environment in which it was built. Eg hledger built in the
standard CMD.EXE environment (like the binaries on our download
page) might show display problems when run in a cygwin or msys
terminal, and vice versa. (See eg #961).
+

File: hledger.info, Node: Input files, Next: Strict mode, Prev: Unicode characters, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -948,18 +978,21 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Input files, Next: Strict mode, Prev: Unicode chara
===============
hledger reads transactions from a data file (and the add command writes
-to it). By default this file is '$HOME/.hledger.journal' (or on
-Windows, something like 'C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal'). You can
-override this with the '$LEDGER_FILE' environment variable:
+to it). By default this file is `$HOME/.hledger.journal' (or on
+Windows, something like `C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal'). You can
+override this with the `$LEDGER_FILE' environment variable:
+
$ setenv LEDGER_FILE ~/finance/2016.journal
$ hledger stats
- or with the '-f/--file' option:
+ or with the `-f/--file' option:
+
$ hledger -f /some/file stats
- The file name '-' (hyphen) means standard input:
+ The file name `-' (hyphen) means standard input:
+
$ cat some.journal | hledger -f-
@@ -968,40 +1001,43 @@ in any of the supported file formats, which currently are:
Reader: Reads: Used for file
extensions:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
-'journal'hledger journal files and some Ledger '.journal' '.j'
- journals, for transactions '.hledger' '.ledger'
-'timeclock'timeclock files, for precise time '.timeclock'
- logging
-'timedot'timedot files, for approximate time '.timedot'
- logging
-'csv' comma/semicolon/tab/other-separated '.csv' '.ssv' '.tsv'
- values, for data import
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+`journal'hledger journal files and some Ledger `.journal' `.j'
+ journals, for transactions `.hledger' `.ledger'
+`timeclock'timeclock files, for precise time `.timeclock'
+ logging
+`timedot'timedot files, for approximate time `.timedot'
+ logging
+`csv' comma/semicolon/tab/other-separated `.csv' `.ssv' `.tsv'
+ values, for data import
hledger detects the format automatically based on the file extensions
-shown above. If it can't recognise the file extension, it assumes
-'journal' format. So for non-journal files, it's important to use a
+shown above. If it can't recognise the file extension, it assumes
+`journal' format. So for non-journal files, it's important to use a
recognised file extension, so as to either read successfully or to show
relevant error messages.
When you can't ensure the right file extension, not to worry: you can
force a specific reader/format by prefixing the file path with the
-format and a colon. Eg to read a .dat file as csv:
+format and a colon. Eg to read a .dat file as csv:
+
$ hledger -f csv:/some/csv-file.dat stats
$ echo 'i 2009/13/1 08:00:00' | hledger print -ftimeclock:-
- You can specify multiple '-f' options, to read multiple files as one
-big journal. There are some limitations with this:
+ You can specify multiple `-f' options, to read multiple files as one
+big journal. There are some limitations with this:
* directives in one file will not affect the other files
+
* balance assertions will not see any account balances from previous
files
If you need either of those things, you can
* use a single parent file which includes the others
- * or concatenate the files into one before reading, eg: 'cat
+
+ * or concatenate the files into one before reading, eg: `cat
a.journal b.journal | hledger -f- CMD'.

@@ -1010,19 +1046,22 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Strict mode, Next: Output destination, Prev: Input
2.8 Strict mode
===============
-hledger checks input files for valid data. By default, the most
+hledger checks input files for valid data. By default, the most
important errors are detected, while still accepting easy journal files
without a lot of declarations:
* Are the input files parseable, with valid syntax ?
+
* Are all transactions balanced ?
+
* Do all balance assertions pass ?
- With the '-s'/'--strict' flag, additional checks are performed:
+ With the `-s'/`--strict' flag, additional checks are performed:
- * Are all accounts posted to, declared with an 'account' directive ?
+ * Are all accounts posted to, declared with an `account' directive ?
(Account error checking)
- * Are all commodities declared with a 'commodity' directive ?
+
+ * Are all commodities declared with a `commodity' directive ?
(Commodity error checking)
See also: https://hledger.org/checking-for-errors.html
@@ -1035,14 +1074,16 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Output destination, Next: Output format, Prev: Stri
2.9 Output destination
======================
-hledger commands send their output to the terminal by default. You can
+hledger commands send their output to the terminal by default. You can
of course redirect this, eg into a file, using standard shell syntax:
+
$ hledger print > foo.txt
Some commands (print, register, stats, the balance commands) also
-provide the '-o/--output-file' option, which does the same thing without
-needing the shell. Eg:
+provide the `-o/--output-file' option, which does the same thing
+without needing the shell. Eg:
+
$ hledger print -o foo.txt
$ hledger print -o - # write to stdout (the default)
@@ -1054,38 +1095,42 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Output format, Next: Regular expressions, Prev: Out
==================
Some commands (print, register, the balance commands) offer a choice of
-output format. In addition to the usual plain text format ('txt'),
-there are CSV ('csv'), HTML ('html'), JSON ('json') and SQL ('sql').
-This is controlled by the '-O/--output-format' option:
+output format. In addition to the usual plain text format (`txt'),
+there are CSV (`csv'), HTML (`html'), JSON (`json') and SQL (`sql').
+This is controlled by the `-O/--output-format' option:
+
$ hledger print -O csv
- or, by a file extension specified with '-o/--output-file':
+ or, by a file extension specified with `-o/--output-file':
+
$ hledger balancesheet -o foo.html # write HTML to foo.html
- The '-O' option can be used to override the file extension if needed:
+ The `-O' option can be used to override the file extension if needed:
+
$ hledger balancesheet -o foo.txt -O html # write HTML to foo.txt
Some notes about JSON output:
* This feature is marked experimental, and not yet much used; you
- should expect our JSON to evolve. Real-world feedback is welcome.
+ should expect our JSON to evolve. Real-world feedback is welcome.
* Our JSON is rather large and verbose, as it is quite a faithful
- representation of hledger's internal data types. To understand the
+ representation of hledger's internal data types. To understand the
JSON, read the Haskell type definitions, which are mostly in
https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/blob/master/hledger-lib/Hledger/Data/Types.hs.
+
* hledger represents quantities as Decimal values storing up to 255
- significant digits, eg for repeating decimals. Such numbers can
+ significant digits, eg for repeating decimals. Such numbers can
arise in practice (from automatically-calculated transaction
- prices), and would break most JSON consumers. So in JSON, we show
- quantities as simple Numbers with at most 10 decimal places. We
+ prices), and would break most JSON consumers. So in JSON, we show
+ quantities as simple Numbers with at most 10 decimal places. We
don't limit the number of integer digits, but that part is under
- your control. We hope this approach will not cause problems in
- practice; if you find otherwise, please let us know. (Cf #1195)
+ your control. We hope this approach will not cause problems in
+ practice; if you find otherwise, please let us know. (Cf #1195)
Notes about SQL output:
@@ -1094,13 +1139,14 @@ $ hledger balancesheet -o foo.txt -O html # write HTML to foo.txt
* SQL output is expected to work with sqlite, MySQL and PostgreSQL
- * SQL output is structured with the expectations that statements will
- be executed in the empty database. If you already have tables
+ * SQL output is structured with the expectations that statements
+ will be executed in the empty database. If you already have tables
created via SQL output of hledger, you would probably want to
- either clear tables of existing data (via 'delete' or 'truncate'
+ either clear tables of existing data (via `delete' or `truncate'
SQL statements) or drop tables completely as otherwise your
postings will be duped.
+

File: hledger.info, Node: Regular expressions, Next: Smart dates, Prev: Output format, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -1110,41 +1156,49 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Regular expressions, Next: Smart dates, Prev: Outpu
hledger uses regular expressions in a number of places:
* query terms, on the command line and in the hledger-web search
- form: 'REGEX', 'desc:REGEX', 'cur:REGEX', 'tag:...=REGEX'
- * CSV rules conditional blocks: 'if REGEX ...'
- * account alias directives and options: 'alias /REGEX/ =
- REPLACEMENT', '--alias /REGEX/=REPLACEMENT'
+ form: `REGEX', `desc:REGEX', `cur:REGEX', `tag:...=REGEX'
+
+ * CSV rules conditional blocks: `if REGEX ...'
- hledger's regular expressions come from the regex-tdfa library. If
+ * account alias directives and options: `alias /REGEX/ =
+ REPLACEMENT', `--alias /REGEX/=REPLACEMENT'
+
+ hledger's regular expressions come from the regex-tdfa library. If
they're not doing what you expect, it's important to know exactly what
they support:
1. they are case insensitive
+
2. they are infix matching (they do not need to match the entire thing
being matched)
+
3. they are POSIX ERE (extended regular expressions)
- 4. they also support GNU word boundaries ('\b', '\B', '\<', '\>')
- 5. they do not support backreferences; if you write '\1', it will
- match the digit '1'. Except when doing text replacement, eg in
+
+ 4. they also support GNU word boundaries (`\b', `\B', `\<', `\>')
+
+ 5. they do not support backreferences; if you write `\1', it will
+ match the digit `1'. Except when doing text replacement, eg in
account aliases, where backreferences can be used in the
replacement string to reference capturing groups in the search
regexp.
- 6. they do not support mode modifiers ('(?s)'), character classes
- ('\w', '\d'), or anything else not mentioned above.
+
+ 6. they do not support mode modifiers (`(?s)'), character classes
+ (`\w', `\d'), or anything else not mentioned above.
Some things to note:
- * In the 'alias' directive and '--alias' option, regular expressions
- must be enclosed in forward slashes ('/REGEX/'). Elsewhere in
+ * In the `alias' directive and `--alias' option, regular expressions
+ must be enclosed in forward slashes (`/REGEX/'). Elsewhere in
hledger, these are not required.
- * In queries, to match a regular expression metacharacter like '$' as
- a literal character, prepend a backslash. Eg to search for amounts
- with the dollar sign in hledger-web, write 'cur:\$'.
+ * In queries, to match a regular expression metacharacter like `$' as
+ a literal character, prepend a backslash. Eg to search for amounts
+ with the dollar sign in hledger-web, write `cur:\$'.
+
+ * On the command line, some metacharacters like `$' have a special
+ meaning to the shell and so must be escaped at least once more. See
+ Special characters.
- * On the command line, some metacharacters like '$' have a special
- meaning to the shell and so must be escaped at least once more.
- See Special characters.

File: hledger.info, Node: Smart dates, Next: Report start & end date, Prev: Regular expressions, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -1153,37 +1207,35 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Smart dates, Next: Report start & end date, Prev: R
================
hledger's user interfaces accept a flexible "smart date" syntax (unlike
-dates in the journal file). Smart dates allow some english words, can
-be relative to today's date, and can have less-significant date parts
+dates in the journal file). Smart dates allow some english words, can be
+relative to today's date, and can have less-significant date parts
omitted (defaulting to 1).
Examples:
-'2004/10/1', exact date, several separators allowed. Year
-'2004-01-01', is 4+ digits, month is 1-12, day is 1-31
-'2004.9.1'
-'2004' start of year
-'2004/10' start of month
-'10/1' month and day in current year
-'21' day in current month
-'october, oct' start of month in current year
-'yesterday, today, -1, 0, 1 days from today
-tomorrow'
-'last/this/next -1, 0, 1 periods from the current period
+`2004/10/1', exact date, several separators allowed. Year
+`2004-01-01', `2004.9.1' is 4+ digits, month is 1-12, day is 1-31
+`2004' start of year
+`2004/10' start of month
+`10/1' month and day in current year
+`21' day in current month
+`october, oct' start of month in current year
+`yesterday, today, -1, 0, 1 days from today
+tomorrow'
+`last/this/next -1, 0, 1 periods from the current period
day/week/month/quarter/year'
-'20181201' 8 digit YYYYMMDD with valid year month and
- day
-'201812' 6 digit YYYYMM with valid year and month
+`20181201' 8 digit YYYYMMDD with valid year month and day
+`201812' 6 digit YYYYMM with valid year and month
Counterexamples - malformed digit sequences might give surprising
results:
-'201813' 6 digits with an invalid month is parsed as start of
+`201813' 6 digits with an invalid month is parsed as start of
6-digit year
-'20181301' 8 digits with an invalid month is parsed as start of
+`20181301' 8 digits with an invalid month is parsed as start of
8-digit year
-'20181232' 8 digits with an invalid day gives an error
-'201801012' 9+ digits beginning with a valid YYYYMMDD gives an error
+`20181232' 8 digits with an invalid day gives an error
+`201801012' 9+ digits beginning with a valid YYYYMMDD gives an error

File: hledger.info, Node: Report start & end date, Next: Report intervals, Prev: Smart dates, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -1192,41 +1244,43 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Report start & end date, Next: Report intervals, Pr
============================
Most hledger reports show the full span of time represented by the
-journal data, by default. So, the effective report start and end dates
+journal data, by default. So, the effective report start and end dates
will be the earliest and latest transaction or posting dates found in
the journal.
Often you will want to see a shorter time span, such as the current
-month. You can specify a start and/or end date using '-b/--begin',
-'-e/--end', '-p/--period' or a 'date:' query (described below). All of
+month. You can specify a start and/or end date using `-b/--begin',
+`-e/--end', `-p/--period' or a `date:' query (described below). All of
these accept the smart date syntax.
Some notes:
* As in Ledger, end dates are exclusive, so you need to write the
date _after_ the last day you want to include.
+
* As noted in reporting options: among start/end dates specified with
- _options_, the last (i.e. right-most) option takes precedence.
+ _options_, the last (i.e. right-most) option takes precedence.
+
* The effective report start and end dates are the intersection of
- the start/end dates from options and that from 'date:' queries.
- That is, 'date:2019-01 date:2019 -p'2000 to 2030'' yields January
+ the start/end dates from options and that from `date:' queries.
+ That is, `date:2019-01 date:2019 -p'2000 to 2030'' yields January
2019, the smallest common time span.
Examples:
-'-b begin on St. Patrick's day 2016
-2016/3/17'
-'-e 12/1' end at the start of december 1st of the current year
+`-b begin on St. Patrick's day 2016
+2016/3/17'
+`-e 12/1' end at the start of december 1st of the current year
(11/30 will be the last date included)
-'-b all transactions on or after the 1st of the current month
-thismonth'
-'-p all transactions in the current month
-thismonth'
-'date:2016/3/17..'the above written as queries instead ('..' can also be
- replaced with '-')
-'date:..12/1'
-'date:thismonth..'
-'date:thismonth'
+`-b all transactions on or after the 1st of the current month
+thismonth'
+`-p all transactions in the current month
+thismonth'
+`date:2016/3/17..'the above written as queries instead (`..' can also be
+ replaced with `-')
+`date:..12/1'
+`date:thismonth..'
+`date:thismonth'

File: hledger.info, Node: Report intervals, Next: Period expressions, Prev: Report start & end date, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -1236,9 +1290,9 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Report intervals, Next: Period expressions, Prev: R
A report interval can be specified so that commands like register,
balance and activity will divide their reports into multiple subperiods.
-The basic intervals can be selected with one of '-D/--daily',
-'-W/--weekly', '-M/--monthly', '-Q/--quarterly', or '-Y/--yearly'. More
-complex intervals may be specified with a period expression. Report
+The basic intervals can be selected with one of `-D/--daily',
+`-W/--weekly', `-M/--monthly', `-Q/--quarterly', or `-Y/--yearly'. More
+complex intervals may be specified with a period expression. Report
intervals can not be specified with a query.

@@ -1247,65 +1301,61 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Period expressions, Next: Depth limiting, Prev: Rep
2.15 Period expressions
=======================
-The '-p/--period' option accepts period expressions, a shorthand way of
+The `-p/--period' option accepts period expressions, a shorthand way of
expressing a start date, end date, and/or report interval all at once.
Here's a basic period expression specifying the first quarter of
2009. Note, hledger always treats start dates as inclusive and end
dates as exclusive:
- '-p "from 2009/1/1 to 2009/4/1"'
+ `-p "from 2009/1/1 to 2009/4/1"'
Keywords like "from" and "to" are optional, and so are the spaces, as
-long as you don't run two dates together. "to" can also be written as
-".." or "-". These are equivalent to the above:
+long as you don't run two dates together. "to" can also be written as
+".." or "-". These are equivalent to the above:
-'-p "2009/1/1 2009/4/1"'
-'-p2009/1/1to2009/4/1'
-'-p2009/1/1..2009/4/1'
+`-p "2009/1/1 2009/4/1"'
+`-p2009/1/1to2009/4/1'
+`-p2009/1/1..2009/4/1'
Dates are smart dates, so if the current year is 2009, the above can
also be written as:
-'-p "1/1 4/1"'
-'-p "january-apr"'
-'-p "this year to 4/1"'
+`-p "1/1 4/1"'
+`-p "january-apr"'
+`-p "this year to 4/1"'
If you specify only one date, the missing start or end date will be
the earliest or latest transaction in your journal:
-'-p "from 2009/1/1"' everything after january 1, 2009
-'-p "from 2009/1"' the same
-'-p "from 2009"' the same
-'-p "to 2009"' everything before january 1, 2009
+`-p "from 2009/1/1"' everything after january 1, 2009
+`-p "from 2009/1"' the same
+`-p "from 2009"' the same
+`-p "to 2009"' everything before january 1, 2009
A single date with no "from" or "to" defines both the start and end
date like so:
-'-p "2009"' the year 2009; equivalent to “2009/1/1 to
- 2010/1/1”
-'-p "2009/1"' the month of jan; equivalent to “2009/1/1 to
- 2009/2/1”
-'-p "2009/1/1"' just that day; equivalent to “2009/1/1 to
- 2009/1/2”
+`-p "2009"' the year 2009; equivalent to “2009/1/1 to 2010/1/1”
+`-p "2009/1"' the month of jan; equivalent to “2009/1/1 to 2009/2/1”
+`-p "2009/1/1"' just that day; equivalent to “2009/1/1 to 2009/1/2”
Or you can specify a single quarter like so:
-'-p "2009Q1"' first quarter of 2009, equivalent to “2009/1/1 to
- 2009/4/1”
-'-p "q4"' fourth quarter of the current year
+`-p "2009Q1"' first quarter of 2009, equivalent to “2009/1/1 to 2009/4/1”
+`-p "q4"' fourth quarter of the current year
- The argument of '-p' can also begin with, or be, a report interval
-expression. The basic report intervals are 'daily', 'weekly',
-'monthly', 'quarterly', or 'yearly', which have the same effect as the
-'-D','-W','-M','-Q', or '-Y' flags. Between report interval and
-start/end dates (if any), the word 'in' is optional. Examples:
+ The argument of `-p' can also begin with, or be, a report interval
+expression. The basic report intervals are `daily', `weekly',
+`monthly', `quarterly', or `yearly', which have the same effect as the
+`-D',`-W',`-M',`-Q', or `-Y' flags. Between report interval and
+start/end dates (if any), the word `in' is optional. Examples:
-'-p "weekly from 2009/1/1 to 2009/4/1"'
-'-p "monthly in 2008"'
-'-p "quarterly"'
+`-p "weekly from 2009/1/1 to 2009/4/1"'
+`-p "monthly in 2008"'
+`-p "quarterly"'
- Note that 'weekly', 'monthly', 'quarterly' and 'yearly' intervals
+ Note that `weekly', `monthly', `quarterly' and `yearly' intervals
will always start on the first day on week, month, quarter or year
accordingly, and will end on the last day of same period, even if
associated period expression specifies different explicit start and end
@@ -1313,19 +1363,18 @@ date.
For example:
-'-p "weekly from starts on 2008/12/29, closest preceding
-2009/1/1 to 2009/4/1"' Monday
-'-p "monthly in starts on 2018/11/01
-2008/11/25"'
-'-p "quarterly from starts on 2009/04/01, ends on 2009/06/30,
-2009-05-05 to which are first and last days of Q2 2009
-2009-06-01"'
-'-p "yearly from starts on 2009/01/01, first day of 2009
-2009-12-29"'
+`-p "weekly from 2009/1/1 starts on 2008/12/29, closest preceding Monday
+to 2009/4/1"'
+`-p "monthly in starts on 2018/11/01
+2008/11/25"'
+`-p "quarterly from starts on 2009/04/01, ends on 2009/06/30,
+2009-05-05 to 2009-06-01"' which are first and last days of Q2 2009
+`-p "yearly from starts on 2009/01/01, first day of 2009
+2009-12-29"'
The following more complex report intervals are also supported:
-'biweekly', 'fortnightly', 'bimonthly', 'every
-day|week|month|quarter|year', 'every N
+`biweekly', `fortnightly', `bimonthly', `every
+day|week|month|quarter|year', `every N
days|weeks|months|quarters|years'.
All of these will start on the first day of the requested period and
@@ -1333,42 +1382,41 @@ end on the last one, as described above.
Examples:
-'-p "bimonthly from periods will have boundaries on 2008/01/01,
-2008"' 2008/03/01, ...
-'-p "every 2 weeks"' starts on closest preceding Monday
-'-p "every 5 month from periods will have boundaries on 2009/03/01,
+`-p "bimonthly from 2008"' periods will have boundaries on 2008/01/01,
+ 2008/03/01, ...
+`-p "every 2 weeks"' starts on closest preceding Monday
+`-p "every 5 month from periods will have boundaries on 2009/03/01,
2009/03"' 2009/08/01, ...
If you want intervals that start on arbitrary day of your choosing
and span a week, month or year, you need to use any of the following:
- 'every Nth day of week', 'every WEEKDAYNAME' (eg
-'mon|tue|wed|thu|fri|sat|sun'), 'every Nth day [of month]', 'every Nth
-WEEKDAYNAME [of month]', 'every MM/DD [of year]', 'every Nth MMM [of
-year]', 'every MMM Nth [of year]'.
+ `every Nth day of week', `every WEEKDAYNAME' (eg
+`mon|tue|wed|thu|fri|sat|sun'), `every Nth day [of month]', `every Nth
+WEEKDAYNAME [of month]', `every MM/DD [of year]', `every Nth MMM [of
+year]', `every MMM Nth [of year]'.
Examples:
-'-p "every 2nd day of periods will go from Tue to Tue
-week"'
-'-p "every Tue"' same
-'-p "every 15th day"' period boundaries will be on 15th of each
- month
-'-p "every 2nd period boundaries will be on second Monday of
-Monday"' each month
-'-p "every 11/05"' yearly periods with boundaries on 5th of Nov
-'-p "every 5th Nov"' same
-'-p "every Nov 5th"' same
+`-p "every 2nd day of periods will go from Tue to Tue
+week"'
+`-p "every Tue"' same
+`-p "every 15th day"' period boundaries will be on 15th of each month
+`-p "every 2nd Monday"' period boundaries will be on second Monday of
+ each month
+`-p "every 11/05"' yearly periods with boundaries on 5th of Nov
+`-p "every 5th Nov"' same
+`-p "every Nov 5th"' same
Show historical balances at end of 15th each month (N is exclusive
end date):
- 'hledger balance -H -p "every 16th day"'
+ `hledger balance -H -p "every 16th day"'
Group postings from start of wednesday to end of next tuesday (N is
start date and exclusive end date):
- 'hledger register checking -p "every 3rd day of week"'
+ `hledger register checking -p "every 3rd day of week"'

File: hledger.info, Node: Depth limiting, Next: Pivoting, Prev: Period expressions, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -1376,11 +1424,11 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Depth limiting, Next: Pivoting, Prev: Period expres
2.16 Depth limiting
===================
-With the '--depth N' option (short form: '-N'), commands like account,
+With the `--depth N' option (short form: `-N'), commands like account,
balance and register will show only the uppermost accounts in the
account tree, down to level N. Use this when you want a summary with
-less detail. This flag has the same effect as a 'depth:' query argument
-(so '-2', '--depth=2' or 'depth:2' are equivalent).
+less detail. This flag has the same effect as a `depth:' query argument
+(so `-2', `--depth=2' or `depth:2' are equivalent).

File: hledger.info, Node: Pivoting, Next: Valuation, Prev: Depth limiting, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -1389,26 +1437,28 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Pivoting, Next: Valuation, Prev: Depth limiting, U
=============
Normally hledger sums amounts, and organizes them in a hierarchy, based
-on account name. The '--pivot FIELD' option causes it to sum and
-organize hierarchy based on the value of some other field instead.
-FIELD can be: 'code', 'description', 'payee', 'note', or the full name
-(case insensitive) of any tag. As with account names, values containing
-'colon:separated:parts' will be displayed hierarchically in reports.
-
- '--pivot' is a general option affecting all reports; you can think of
-hledger transforming the journal before any other processing, replacing
-every posting's account name with the value of the specified field on
-that posting, inheriting it from the transaction or using a blank value
-if it's not present.
+on account name. The `--pivot FIELD' option causes it to sum and
+organize hierarchy based on the value of some other field instead. FIELD
+can be: `code', `description', `payee', `note', or the full name (case
+insensitive) of any tag. As with account names, values containing
+`colon:separated:parts' will be displayed hierarchically in reports.
+
+ `--pivot' is a general option affecting all reports; you can think
+of hledger transforming the journal before any other processing,
+replacing every posting's account name with the value of the specified
+field on that posting, inheriting it from the transaction or using a
+blank value if it's not present.
An example:
+
2016/02/16 Member Fee Payment
assets:bank account 2 EUR
income:member fees -2 EUR ; member: John Doe
Normal balance report showing account names:
+
$ hledger balance
2 EUR assets:bank account
-2 EUR income:member fees
@@ -1417,6 +1467,7 @@ $ hledger balance
Pivoted balance report, using member: tag values instead:
+
$ hledger balance --pivot member
2 EUR
-2 EUR John Doe
@@ -1426,6 +1477,7 @@ $ hledger balance --pivot member
One way to show only amounts with a member: value (using a query,
described below):
+
$ hledger balance --pivot member tag:member=.
-2 EUR John Doe
--------------------
@@ -1434,6 +1486,7 @@ $ hledger balance --pivot member tag:member=.
Another way (the acct: query matches against the pivoted "account
name"):
+
$ hledger balance --pivot member acct:.
-2 EUR John Doe
--------------------
@@ -1448,8 +1501,8 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Valuation, Prev: Pivoting, Up: OPTIONS
Instead of reporting amounts in their original commodity, hledger can
convert them to cost/sale amount (using the conversion rate recorded in
the transaction), or to market value (using some market price on a
-certain date). This is controlled by the '--value=TYPE[,COMMODITY]'
-option, but we also provide the simpler '-B'/'-V'/'-X' flags, and
+certain date). This is controlled by the `--value=TYPE[,COMMODITY]'
+option, but we also provide the simpler `-B'/`-V'/`-X' flags, and
usually one of those is all you need.
* Menu:
@@ -1472,7 +1525,7 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: -B Cost, Next: -V Value, Up: Valuation
2.18.1 -B: Cost
---------------
-The '-B/--cost' flag converts amounts to their cost or sale amount at
+The `-B/--cost' flag converts amounts to their cost or sale amount at
transaction time, if they have a transaction price specified.

@@ -1481,9 +1534,9 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: -V Value, Next: -X Value in specified commodity, Pr
2.18.2 -V: Value
----------------
-The '-V/--market' flag converts amounts to market value in their default
-_valuation commodity_, using the market prices in effect on the
-_valuation date(s)_, if any. More on these in a minute.
+The `-V/--market' flag converts amounts to market value in their
+default _valuation commodity_, using the market prices in effect on the
+_valuation date(s)_, if any. More on these in a minute.

File: hledger.info, Node: -X Value in specified commodity, Next: Valuation date, Prev: -V Value, Up: Valuation
@@ -1491,7 +1544,7 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: -X Value in specified commodity, Next: Valuation dat
2.18.3 -X: Value in specified commodity
---------------------------------------
-The '-X/--exchange=COMM' option is like '-V', except you tell it which
+The `-X/--exchange=COMM' option is like `-V', except you tell it which
currency you want to convert to, and it tries to convert everything to
that.
@@ -1509,8 +1562,8 @@ prices will be used.
specified, that will be used as the valuation date; otherwise the
valuation date is "today".
- For multiperiod reports, each column/period is valued on the last day
-of the period, by default.
+ For multiperiod reports, each column/period is valued on the last
+day of the period, by default.

File: hledger.info, Node: Market prices, Next: --infer-value market prices from transactions, Prev: Valuation date, Up: Valuation
@@ -1526,7 +1579,7 @@ this order of preference :
1. A _declared market price_ or _inferred market price_: A's latest
market price in B on or before the valuation date as declared by a
- P directive, or (with the '--infer-value' flag) inferred from
+ P directive, or (with the `--infer-value' flag) inferred from
transaction prices.
2. A _reverse market price_: the inverse of a declared or inferred
@@ -1540,6 +1593,7 @@ this order of preference :
including both forward and reverse prices (1 and 2 above), leading
from A to B.
+
Amounts for which no applicable market price can be found, are not
converted.
@@ -1552,31 +1606,32 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: --infer-value market prices from transactions, Next:
_(experimental)_
Normally, market value in hledger is fully controlled by, and
-requires, P directives in your journal. Since adding and updating those
+requires, P directives in your journal. Since adding and updating those
can be a chore, and since transactions usually take place at close to
market value, why not use the recorded transaction prices as additional
-market prices (as Ledger does) ? We could produce value reports without
+market prices (as Ledger does) ? We could produce value reports without
needing P directives at all.
- Adding the '--infer-value' flag to '-V', '-X' or '--value' enables
-this. So for example, 'hledger bs -V --infer-value' will get market
+ Adding the `--infer-value' flag to `-V', `-X' or `--value' enables
+this. So for example, `hledger bs -V --infer-value' will get market
prices both from P directives and from transactions.
There is a downside: value reports can sometimes be affected in
-confusing/undesired ways by your journal entries. If this happens to
+confusing/undesired ways by your journal entries. If this happens to
you, read all of this Valuation section carefully, and try adding
-'--debug' or '--debug=2' to troubleshoot.
+`--debug' or `--debug=2' to troubleshoot.
+
+ `--infer-value' can infer market prices from:
- '--infer-value' can infer market prices from:
+ * multicommodity transactions with explicit prices (`@'/`@@')
- * multicommodity transactions with explicit prices ('@'/'@@')
+ * multicommodity transactions with implicit prices (no `@', two
+ commodities, unbalanced). (With these, the order of postings
+ matters. `hledger print -x' can be useful for troubleshooting.)
- * multicommodity transactions with implicit prices (no '@', two
- commodities, unbalanced). (With these, the order of postings
- matters. 'hledger print -x' can be useful for troubleshooting.)
+ * but not, currently, from "more correct" multicommodity
+ transactions (no `@', multiple commodities, balanced).
- * but not, currently, from "more correct" multicommodity transactions
- (no '@', multiple commodities, balanced).

File: hledger.info, Node: Valuation commodity, Next: Simple valuation examples, Prev: --infer-value market prices from transactions, Up: Valuation
@@ -1586,13 +1641,13 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Valuation commodity, Next: Simple valuation examples
_(experimental)_
- *When you specify a valuation commodity ('-X COMM' or '--value
+ *When you specify a valuation commodity (`-X COMM' or `--value
TYPE,COMM'):*
hledger will convert all amounts to COMM, wherever it can find a
suitable market price (including by reversing or chaining prices).
- *When you leave the valuation commodity unspecified ('-V' or '--value
-TYPE'):*
+ *When you leave the valuation commodity unspecified (`-V' or
+`--value TYPE'):*
For each commodity A, hledger picks a default valuation commodity as
follows, in this order of preference:
@@ -1600,21 +1655,23 @@ follows, in this order of preference:
on or before valuation date.
2. The price commodity from the latest P-declared market price for A
- on any date. (Allows conversion to proceed when there are inferred
+ on any date. (Allows conversion to proceed when there are inferred
prices before the valuation date.)
3. If there are no P directives at all (any commodity or date) and the
- '--infer-value' flag is used: the price commodity from the latest
+ `--infer-value' flag is used: the price commodity from the latest
transaction-inferred price for A on or before valuation date.
+
This means:
- * If you have P directives, they determine which commodities '-V'
+ * If you have P directives, they determine which commodities `-V'
will convert, and to what.
- * If you have no P directives, and use the '--infer-value' flag,
+ * If you have no P directives, and use the `--infer-value' flag,
transaction prices determine it.
+
Amounts for which no valuation commodity can be found are not
converted.
@@ -1624,7 +1681,8 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Simple valuation examples, Next: --value Flexible va
2.18.8 Simple valuation examples
--------------------------------
-Here are some quick examples of '-V':
+Here are some quick examples of `-V':
+
; one euro is worth this many dollars from nov 1
P 2016/11/01 € $1.10
@@ -1639,16 +1697,19 @@ P 2016/12/21 € $1.03
How many euros do I have ?
+
$ hledger -f t.j bal -N euros
€100 assets:euros
What are they worth at end of nov 3 ?
+
$ hledger -f t.j bal -N euros -V -e 2016/11/4
$110.00 assets:euros
- What are they worth after 2016/12/21 ? (no report end date
-specified, defaults to today)
+ What are they worth after 2016/12/21 ? (no report end date specified,
+defaults to today)
+
$ hledger -f t.j bal -N euros -V
$103.00 assets:euros
@@ -1659,9 +1720,10 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: --value Flexible valuation, Next: More valuation exa
2.18.9 -value: Flexible valuation
---------------------------------
-'-B', '-V' and '-X' are special cases of the more general '--value'
+`-B', `-V' and `-X' are special cases of the more general `--value'
option:
+
--value=TYPE[,COMM] TYPE is cost, then, end, now or YYYY-MM-DD.
COMM is an optional commodity symbol.
Shows amounts converted to:
@@ -1673,32 +1735,31 @@ option:
The TYPE part selects cost or value and valuation date:
-'--value=cost'
-
+`--value=cost'
Convert amounts to cost, using the prices recorded in transactions.
-'--value=then'
+`--value=then'
Convert amounts to their value in the default valuation commodity,
- using market prices on each posting's date. This is currently
+ using market prices on each posting's date. This is currently
supported only by the print and register commands.
-'--value=end'
+`--value=end'
Convert amounts to their value in the default valuation commodity,
using market prices on the last day of the report period (or if
unspecified, the journal's end date); or in multiperiod reports,
market prices on the last day of each subperiod.
-'--value=now'
+`--value=now'
Convert amounts to their value in the default valuation commodity
using current market prices (as of when report is generated).
-'--value=YYYY-MM-DD'
+`--value=YYYY-MM-DD'
Convert amounts to their value in the default valuation commodity
using market prices on this date.
- To select a different valuation commodity, add the optional ',COMM'
-part: a comma, then the target commodity's symbol. Eg:
-*'--value=now,EUR'*. hledger will do its best to convert amounts to
+ To select a different valuation commodity, add the optional `,COMM'
+part: a comma, then the target commodity's symbol. Eg:
+*`--value=now,EUR'*. hledger will do its best to convert amounts to
this commodity, deducing market prices as described above.

@@ -1707,8 +1768,9 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: More valuation examples, Next: Effect of valuation o
2.18.10 More valuation examples
-------------------------------
-Here are some examples showing the effect of '--value', as seen with
-'print':
+Here are some examples showing the effect of `--value', as seen with
+`print':
+
P 2000-01-01 A 1 B
P 2000-02-01 A 2 B
@@ -1726,6 +1788,7 @@ P 2000-04-01 A 4 B
Show the cost of each posting:
+
$ hledger -f- print --value=cost
2000-01-01
(a) 5 B
@@ -1738,6 +1801,7 @@ $ hledger -f- print --value=cost
Show the value as of the last day of the report period (2000-02-29):
+
$ hledger -f- print --value=end date:2000/01-2000/03
2000-01-01
(a) 2 B
@@ -1748,6 +1812,7 @@ $ hledger -f- print --value=end date:2000/01-2000/03
With no report period specified, that shows the value as of the last
day of the journal (2000-03-01):
+
$ hledger -f- print --value=end
2000-01-01
(a) 3 B
@@ -1761,6 +1826,7 @@ $ hledger -f- print --value=end
Show the current value (the 2000-04-01 price is still in effect
today):
+
$ hledger -f- print --value=now
2000-01-01
(a) 4 B
@@ -1773,6 +1839,7 @@ $ hledger -f- print --value=now
Show the value on 2000/01/15:
+
$ hledger -f- print --value=2000-01-15
2000-01-01
(a) 1 B
@@ -1784,7 +1851,8 @@ $ hledger -f- print --value=2000-01-15
(a) 1 B
You may need to explicitly set a commodity's display style, when
-reverse prices are used. Eg this output might be surprising:
+reverse prices are used. Eg this output might be surprising:
+
P 2000-01-01 A 2B
@@ -1792,6 +1860,7 @@ P 2000-01-01 A 2B
a 1B
b
+
$ hledger print -x -X A
2000-01-01
a 0
@@ -1799,10 +1868,11 @@ $ hledger print -x -X A
Explanation: because there's no amount or commodity directive
specifying a display style for A, 0.5A gets the default style, which
-shows no decimal digits. Because the displayed amount looks like zero,
-the commodity symbol and minus sign are not displayed either. Adding a
+shows no decimal digits. Because the displayed amount looks like zero,
+the commodity symbol and minus sign are not displayed either. Adding a
commodity directive sets a more useful display style for A:
+
P 2000-01-01 A 2B
commodity 0.00A
@@ -1810,6 +1880,7 @@ commodity 0.00A
a 1B
b
+
$ hledger print -X A
2000-01-01
a 0.50A
@@ -1822,83 +1893,80 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Effect of valuation on reports, Prev: More valuation
--------------------------------------
Here is a reference for how valuation is supposed to affect each part of
-hledger's reports (and a glossary). (It's wide, you'll have to scroll
-sideways.) It may be useful when troubleshooting. If you find
-problems, please report them, ideally with a reproducible example.
-Related: #329, #1083.
-
-Report '-B', '-V', '-X' '--value=then''--value=end' '--value=DATE',
-type '--value=cost' '--value=now'
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-*print*
-posting cost value at value at value at value
-amounts report end posting report or at
- or today date journal end DATE/today
+hledger's reports (and a glossary). (It's wide, you'll have to scroll
+sideways.) It may be useful when troubleshooting. If you find problems,
+please report them, ideally with a reproducible example. Related: #329,
+#1083.
+
+Report type `-B', `-V', `-X' `--value=then'`--value=end' `--value=DATE',
+ `--value=cost' `--value=now'
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+*print*
+posting cost value at value at value at value at
+amounts report end or posting date report or DATE/today
+ today journal end
balance unchanged unchanged unchanged unchanged unchanged
-assertions/assignments
-*register*
-starting cost value at day not value at day value
-balance before supported before at
-(-H) report or report or DATE/today
- journal journal
- start start
-posting cost value at value at value at value
-amounts report end posting report or at
- or today date journal end DATE/today
-summary summarised value at sum of value at value
-posting cost period ends postings period ends at
-amounts in DATE/today
-with interval,
-report valued at
-interval interval
- start
+assertions/assignments
+
+*register*
+starting cost value at day not value at day value at
+balance before report supported before report DATE/today
+(-H) or journal or journal
+ start start
+posting cost value at value at value at value at
+amounts report end or posting date report or DATE/today
+ today journal end
+summary summarised value at sum of value at value at
+posting cost period ends postings in period ends DATE/today
+amounts interval,
+with valued at
+report interval
+interval start
running sum/average sum/average sum/average sum/average sum/average
-total/averageof displayed of displayed of of displayed of
+total/averageof displayed of displayed of of displayed of
values values displayed values displayed
values values
-*balance
-(bs, bse,
-cf, is)*
-balance sums of value at not value at value
-changes costs report end supported report or at
- or today of journal end DATE/today
- sums of of sums of of sums
- postings postings of
- postings
-budget like balance like balance not like like
-amounts changes changes supported balances balance
+
+*balance
+(bs, bse,
+cf, is)*
+balance sums of costs value at not value at value at
+changes report end or supported report or DATE/today
+ today of sums journal end of sums
+ of postings of sums of of
+ postings postings
+budget like balance like balance not like balances like
+amounts changes changes supported balance
(-budget) changes
-grand sum of sum of not sum of sum of
-total displayed displayed supported displayed displayed
+grand total sum of sum of not sum of sum of
+ displayed displayed supported displayed displayed
values values values values
-*balance
-(bs, bse,
-cf, is)
-with
-report
-interval*
-starting sums of value at not value at sums of
-balances costs of report start supported report start postings
-(-H) postings of sums of of sums of before
- before all postings all postings report
- report start before before start
- report start report start
-balance sums of same as not balance value
-changes costs of -value=end supported change in at
-(bal, is, postings in each period, DATE/today
-bs period valued at of sums
--change, period ends of
-cf postings
--change)
-end sums of same as not period end value
-balances costs of -value=end supported balances, at
-(bal -H, postings valued at DATE/today
-is -H, from before period ends of sums
-bs, cf) report start of
- to period postings
- end
-budget like balance like balance not like like
-amounts changes/end changes/end supported balances balance
+
+*balance
+(bs, bse,
+cf, is)
+with
+report
+interval*
+starting sums of costs value at not value at sums of
+balances of postings report start supported report start postings
+(-H) before report of sums of of sums of before
+ start all postings all postings report
+ before report before report start
+ start start
+balance sums of costs same as not balance value at
+changes of postings -value=end supported change in DATE/today
+(bal, is, in period each period, of sums
+bs valued at of
+-change, period ends postings
+cf -change)
+end sums of costs same as not period end value at
+balances of postings -value=end supported balances, DATE/today
+(bal -H, from before valued at of sums
+is -H, bs, report start period ends of
+cf) to period end postings
+budget like balance like balance not like balances like
+amounts changes/end changes/end supported balance
(-budget) balances balances changes/end
balances
row sums, sums, not sums, sums,
@@ -1915,38 +1983,38 @@ grand totals totals totals of
average column
totals
- '--cumulative' is omitted to save space, it works like '-H' but with
+
+ `--cumulative' is omitted to save space, it works like `-H' but with
a zero starting balance.
*Glossary:*
_cost_
-
calculated using price(s) recorded in the transaction(s).
-_value_
+_value_
market value using available market price declarations, or the
unchanged amount if no conversion rate can be found.
-_report start_
+_report start_
the first day of the report period specified with -b or -p or
date:, otherwise today.
-_report or journal start_
+_report or journal start_
the first day of the report period specified with -b or -p or
date:, otherwise the earliest transaction date in the journal,
otherwise today.
-_report end_
+_report end_
the last day of the report period specified with -e or -p or date:,
otherwise today.
-_report or journal end_
+_report or journal end_
the last day of the report period specified with -e or -p or date:,
otherwise the latest transaction date in the journal, otherwise
today.
-_report interval_
+_report interval_
a flag (-D/-W/-M/-Q/-Y) or period expression that activates the
report's multi-period mode (whether showing one or many
subperiods).
@@ -1958,57 +2026,82 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: COMMANDS, Next: ENVIRONMENT, Prev: OPTIONS, Up: To
**********
hledger provides a number of commands for producing reports and managing
-your data. Run 'hledger' with no arguments to list the commands
+your data. Run `hledger' with no arguments to list the commands
available.
To run a command, write its name (or its abbreviation shown in the
commands list, or any unambiguous prefix of the name) as hledger's first
-argument. Eg: 'hledger balance' or 'hledger bal'.
+argument. Eg: `hledger balance' or `hledger bal'.
Here are the built-in commands:
*Data entry (these modify the journal file):*
* add - add transactions using guided prompts
+
* import - add any new transactions from other files (eg csv)
*Data management*:
* check - check for various kinds of issue in the data
+
* close (equity) - generate balance-resetting transactions
+
* diff - compare account transactions in two journal files
+
* rewrite - generate extra postings, similar to print -auto
*Financial statements:*
* aregister (areg) - show transactions in a particular account
+
* balancesheet (bs) - show assets, liabilities and net worth
+
* balancesheetequity (bse) - show assets, liabilities and equity
+
* cashflow (cf) - show changes in liquid assets
+
* incomestatement (is) - show revenues and expenses
+
* roi - show return on investments
*Miscellaneous reports:*
* accounts (a) - show account names
+
* activity - show postings-per-interval bar charts
+
* balance (b, bal) - show balance changes/end balances/budgets in
accounts
+
* codes - show transaction codes
+
* commodities - show commodity/currency symbols
+
* descriptions - show unique transaction descriptions
+
* files - show input file paths
+
* notes - show unique note segments of transaction descriptions
+
* payees - show unique payee segments of transaction descriptions
+
* prices - show market price records
+
* print (p, txns) - show transactions (journal entries)
+
* print-unique - show only transactions with unique descriptions
+
* register (r, reg) - show postings in one or more accounts & running
total
+
* register-match - show a recent posting that best matches a
description
+
* stats - show journal statistics
+
* tags - show tag names
+
* test - run self tests
Next, the detailed command docs, in alphabetical order.
@@ -2053,16 +2146,17 @@ accounts, a
Show account names.
This command lists account names, either declared with account
-directives (-declared), posted to (-used), or both (the default). With
+directives (-declared), posted to (-used), or both (the default). With
query arguments, only matched account names and account names referenced
-by matched postings are shown. It shows a flat list by default. With
-'--tree', it uses indentation to show the account hierarchy. In flat
-mode you can add '--drop N' to omit the first few account name
-components. Account names can be depth-clipped with 'depth:N' or
-'--depth N' or '-N'.
+by matched postings are shown. It shows a flat list by default. With
+`--tree', it uses indentation to show the account hierarchy. In flat
+mode you can add `--drop N' to omit the first few account name
+components. Account names can be depth-clipped with `depth:N' or
+`--depth N' or `-N'.
Examples:
+
$ hledger accounts
assets:bank:checking
assets:bank:saving
@@ -2084,14 +2178,15 @@ Show an ascii barchart of posting counts per interval.
The activity command displays an ascii histogram showing transaction
counts by day, week, month or other reporting interval (by day is the
-default). With query arguments, it counts only matched transactions.
+default). With query arguments, it counts only matched transactions.
Examples:
+
$ hledger activity --quarterly
2008-01-01 **
2008-04-01 *******
-2008-07-01
+2008-07-01
2008-10-01 **

@@ -2101,19 +2196,19 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: add, Next: aregister, Prev: activity, Up: COMMANDS
=======
add
-Prompt for transactions and add them to the journal. Any arguments will
+Prompt for transactions and add them to the journal. Any arguments will
be used as default inputs for the first N prompts.
Many hledger users edit their journals directly with a text editor,
or generate them from CSV. For more interactive data entry, there is the
-'add' command, which prompts interactively on the console for new
+`add' command, which prompts interactively on the console for new
transactions, and appends them to the journal file (if there are
-multiple '-f FILE' options, the first file is used.) Existing
-transactions are not changed. This is the only hledger command that
+multiple `-f FILE' options, the first file is used.) Existing
+transactions are not changed. This is the only hledger command that
writes to the journal file.
- To use it, just run 'hledger add' and follow the prompts. You can
-add as many transactions as you like; when you are finished, enter '.'
+ To use it, just run `hledger add' and follow the prompts. You can
+add as many transactions as you like; when you are finished, enter `.'
or press control-d or control-c to exit.
Features:
@@ -2121,22 +2216,31 @@ or press control-d or control-c to exit.
* add tries to provide useful defaults, using the most similar (by
description) recent transaction (filtered by the query, if any) as
a template.
+
* You can also set the initial defaults with command line arguments.
+
* Readline-style edit keys can be used during data entry.
+
* The tab key will auto-complete whenever possible - accounts,
- descriptions, dates ('yesterday', 'today', 'tomorrow'). If the
+ descriptions, dates (`yesterday', `today', `tomorrow'). If the
input area is empty, it will insert the default value.
- * If the journal defines a default commodity, it will be added to any
- bare numbers entered.
+
+ * If the journal defines a default commodity, it will be added to
+ any bare numbers entered.
+
* A parenthesised transaction code may be entered following a date.
+
* Comments and tags may be entered following a description or amount.
- * If you make a mistake, enter '<' at any prompt to go one step
+
+ * If you make a mistake, enter `<' at any prompt to go one step
backward.
+
* Input prompts are displayed in a different colour when the terminal
supports it.
Example (see the tutorial for a detailed explanation):
+
$ hledger add
Adding transactions to journal file /src/hledger/examples/sample.journal
Any command line arguments will be used as defaults.
@@ -2146,18 +2250,18 @@ An optional ; COMMENT may follow descriptions or amounts.
If you make a mistake, enter < at any prompt to go one step backward.
To end a transaction, enter . when prompted.
To quit, enter . at a date prompt or press control-d or control-c.
-Date [2015/05/22]:
+Date [2015/05/22]:
Description: supermarket
Account 1: expenses:food
Amount 1: $10
Account 2: assets:checking
-Amount 2 [$-10.0]:
+Amount 2 [$-10.0]:
Account 3 (or . or enter to finish this transaction): .
2015/05/22 supermarket
expenses:food $10
assets:checking $-10.0
-Save this transaction to the journal ? [y]:
+Save this transaction to the journal ? [y]:
Saved.
Starting the next transaction (. or ctrl-D/ctrl-C to quit)
Date [2015/05/22]: <CTRL-D> $
@@ -2172,38 +2276,57 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: aregister, Next: balance, Prev: add, Up: COMMANDS
=============
aregister, areg
-Show transactions affecting a particular account, and the account's
-running balance.
-
- 'aregister' shows the transactions affecting a particular account
-(and its subaccounts), from the point of view of that account. Each
-line shows:
-
- * the transaction's (or posting's, see below) date
- * the names of the other account(s) involved
- * the net change to this account's balance
- * the account's historical running balance (including balance from
- transactions before the report start date).
-
- With 'aregister', each line represents a whole transaction - as in
-hledger-ui, hledger-web, and your bank statement. By contrast, the
-'register' command shows individual postings, across all accounts. You
-might prefer 'aregister' for reconciling with real-world asset/liability
-accounts, and 'register' for reviewing detailed revenues/expenses.
-
- An account must be specified as the first argument, which should be
-the full account name or an account pattern (regular expression).
-aregister will show transactions in this account (the first one matched)
-and any of its subaccounts.
+Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account, with
+each line item representing one transaction.
+
+ `aregister' shows the transactions affecting a particular account
+and its subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole
+transaction - as in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other
+accounting apps.
+
+ Note this is unlike the `register' command, which shows individual
+postings and does not always show a single account or a historical
+balance.
+
+ A reminder, "historical" balances include any balance from
+transactions before the report start date, so (if opening balances are
+recorded correctly) `aregister' will show the real-world balances of an
+account, as you would see in a bank statement.
+
+ As a quick rule of thumb, use `aregister' for reconciling real-world
+asset/liability accounts and `register' for reviewing detailed
+revenues/expenses.
+
+ `aregister' shows the register for just one account (and its
+subaccounts). This account must be specified as the first argument. You
+can write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive regular
+expression which will select the alphabetically first matched account.
+(Eg if you have `assets:aaa:checking' and `assets:bbb:checking'
+accounts, `hledger areg checking' would select `assets:aaa:checking'.)
Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the
transactions shown.
+ Each `aregister' line item shows:
+
+ * the transaction's date (or the relevant posting's date if
+ different, see below)
+
+ * the names of all the other account(s) involved in this transaction
+ (probably abbreviated)
+
+ * the total change to this account's balance from this transaction
+
+ * the account's historical running balance after this transaction.
+
Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default;
-add the '-E/--empty' flag to show them.
+add the `-E/--empty' flag to show them.
+
+ `aregister' ignores a depth limit, so its final total will always
+match a balance report with similar arguments.
This command also supports the output destination and output format
-options The output formats supported are 'txt', 'csv', and 'json'.
+options The output formats supported are `txt', `csv', and `json'.
* Menu:
@@ -2217,24 +2340,26 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: aregister and custom posting dates, Up: aregister
Transactions whose date is outside the report period can still be shown,
if they have a posting to this account dated inside the report period.
-(And in this case it's the posting date that is shown.) This ensures
-that 'aregister' can show an accurate historical running balance,
-matching the one shown by 'register -H' with the same arguments.
+(And in this case it's the posting date that is shown.) This ensures
+that `aregister' can show an accurate historical running balance,
+matching the one shown by `register -H' with the same arguments.
- To filter strictly by transaction date instead, add the '--txn-dates'
-flag. If you use this flag and some of your postings have custom dates,
-it's probably best to assume the running balance is wrong.
+ To filter strictly by transaction date instead, add the
+`--txn-dates' flag. If you use this flag and some of your postings have
+custom dates, it's probably best to assume the running balance is wrong.
Examples:
Show all transactions and historical running balance in the first
account whose name contains "checking":
+
$ hledger areg checking
Show transactions and historical running balance in all asset
accounts during july:
+
$ hledger areg assets date:jul

@@ -2246,29 +2371,29 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: balance, Next: balancesheet, Prev: aregister, Up:
balance, bal, b
Show accounts and their balances.
- The balance command is hledger's most versatile command. Note,
+ The balance command is hledger's most versatile command. Note,
despite the name, it is not always used for showing real-world account
-balances; the more accounting-aware balancesheet and incomestatement may
-be more convenient for that.
+balances; the more accounting-aware balancesheet and incomestatement
+may be more convenient for that.
By default, it displays all accounts, and each account's change in
-balance during the entire period of the journal. Balance changes are
-calculated by adding up the postings in each account. You can limit the
+balance during the entire period of the journal. Balance changes are
+calculated by adding up the postings in each account. You can limit the
postings matched, by a query, to see fewer accounts, changes over a
different time period, changes from only cleared transactions, etc.
If you include an account's complete history of postings in the
report, the balance change is equivalent to the account's current ending
-balance. For a real-world account, typically you won't have all
+balance. For a real-world account, typically you won't have all
transactions in the journal; instead you'll have all transactions after
a certain date, and an "opening balances" transaction setting the
-correct starting balance on that date. Then the balance command will
-show real-world account balances. In some cases the -H/-historical flag
+correct starting balance on that date. Then the balance command will
+show real-world account balances. In some cases the -H/-historical flag
is used to ensure this (more below).
This command also supports the output destination and output format
-options The output formats supported are (in most modes): 'txt', 'csv',
-'html', and 'json'.
+options The output formats supported are (in most modes): `txt', `csv',
+`html', and `json'.
The balance command can produce several styles of report:
@@ -2293,9 +2418,10 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Single-period flat balance report, Next: Single-peri
This is the default for hledger's balance command: a flat list of all
(or with a query, matched) accounts, showing full account names.
Accounts are sorted by declaration order if any, and then by account
-name. Accounts which have zero balance are not shown unless
-'-E/--empty' is used. The reported balances' total is shown as the last
-line, unless disabled by '-N'/'--no-total'.
+name. Accounts which have zero balance are not shown unless
+`-E/--empty' is used. The reported balances' total is shown as the last
+line, unless disabled by `-N'/`--no-total'.
+
$ hledger bal
$1 assets:bank:saving
@@ -2306,7 +2432,7 @@ $ hledger bal
$-1 income:salary
$1 liabilities:debts
--------------------
- 0
+ 0

File: hledger.info, Node: Single-period tree-mode balance report, Next: Multi-period balance report, Prev: Single-period flat balance report, Up: balance
@@ -2314,9 +2440,10 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Single-period tree-mode balance report, Next: Multi-
3.5.2 Single-period tree-mode balance report
--------------------------------------------
-With the '-t/--tree' flag, accounts are displayed hierarchically,
-showing subaccounts as short names indented below their parent. (This
-is the default style in Ledger and in older hledger versions.)
+With the `-t/--tree' flag, accounts are displayed hierarchically,
+showing subaccounts as short names indented below their parent. (This is
+the default style in Ledger and in older hledger versions.)
+
$ hledger balance
$-1 assets
@@ -2333,33 +2460,33 @@ $ hledger balance
0
For more compact output, "boring" accounts containing a single
-interesting subaccount and no balance of their own ('assets:bank' and
-'liabilities' here) are elided into the following line, unless
-'--no-elide' is used. And accounts which have zero balance and no
-non-zero subaccounts are omitted, unless '-E/--empty' is used.
+interesting subaccount and no balance of their own (`assets:bank' and
+`liabilities' here) are elided into the following line, unless
+`--no-elide' is used. And accounts which have zero balance and no
+non-zero subaccounts are omitted, unless `-E/--empty' is used.
Account balances in tree mode are "inclusive" - they include the
-balances of any subaccounts. Eg, the 'assets' '$-1' balance here
-includes the '$1' from 'assets:bank:saving' and the '$-2' from
-'assets:cash'. (And it would include balance posted to the 'assets'
-account itself, if there was any). Note this causes some repetition,
-and the final total ('0') is the sum of the top-level balances, not of
+balances of any subaccounts. Eg, the `assets' `$-1' balance here
+includes the `$1' from `assets:bank:saving' and the `$-2' from
+`assets:cash'. (And it would include balance posted to the `assets'
+account itself, if there was any). Note this causes some repetition,
+and the final total (`0') is the sum of the top-level balances, not of
all the balances shown.
Each group of sibling accounts is sorted separately, by declaration
order and then by account name.

-File: hledger.info, Node: Multi-period balance report, Next: , Prev: Single-period tree-mode balance report, Up: balance
+File: hledger.info, Node: Multi-period balance report, Next: Depth limiting, Prev: Single-period tree-mode balance report, Up: balance
3.5.3 Multi-period balance report
---------------------------------
Multi-period balance reports are a very useful hledger feature,
activated if you provide one of the reporting interval flags, such as
-'-M'/'--monthly'. They are similar to single-period balance reports,
+`-M'/`--monthly'. They are similar to single-period balance reports,
but they show the report as a table, with columns representing one or
-more successive time periods. This is the usually the preferred style
+more successive time periods. This is the usually the preferred style
of balance report in hledger (even for a single period).
Multi-period balance reports come in several types, showing different
@@ -2367,117 +2494,126 @@ information:
1. A balance change report: by default, each column shows the sum of
postings in that period, ie the account's change of balance in that
- period. This is useful eg for a monthly income statement:
+ period. This is useful eg for a monthly income statement:
+
$ hledger balance --quarterly income expenses -E
Balance changes in 2008:
- || 2008q1 2008q2 2008q3 2008q4
+ || 2008q1 2008q2 2008q3 2008q4
===================++=================================
- expenses:food || 0 $1 0 0
- expenses:supplies || 0 $1 0 0
- income:gifts || 0 $-1 0 0
- income:salary || $-1 0 0 0
+ expenses:food || 0 $1 0 0
+ expenses:supplies || 0 $1 0 0
+ income:gifts || 0 $-1 0 0
+ income:salary || $-1 0 0 0
-------------------++---------------------------------
- || $-1 $1 0 0
+ || $-1 $1 0 0
- 2. A cumulative end balance report: with '--cumulative', each column
+ 2. A cumulative end balance report: with `--cumulative', each column
shows the end balance for that period, accumulating the changes
across periods, starting from 0 at the report start date:
+
$ hledger balance --quarterly income expenses -E --cumulative
Ending balances (cumulative) in 2008:
-
- || 2008/03/31 2008/06/30 2008/09/30 2008/12/31
+
+ || 2008/03/31 2008/06/30 2008/09/30 2008/12/31
===================++=================================================
- expenses:food || 0 $1 $1 $1
- expenses:supplies || 0 $1 $1 $1
- income:gifts || 0 $-1 $-1 $-1
- income:salary || $-1 $-1 $-1 $-1
+ expenses:food || 0 $1 $1 $1
+ expenses:supplies || 0 $1 $1 $1
+ income:gifts || 0 $-1 $-1 $-1
+ income:salary || $-1 $-1 $-1 $-1
-------------------++-------------------------------------------------
- || $-1 0 0 0
+ || $-1 0 0 0
- 3. A historical end balance report: with '--historical/-H', each
+ 3. A historical end balance report: with `--historical/-H', each
column shows the actual historical end balance for that period,
accumulating the changes across periods, and including the balance
- from any postings before the report start date. This is useful eg
- for a multi-period balance sheet, and when you want to see balances
- only after a certain date:
+ from any postings before the report start date. This is useful eg
+ for a multi-period balance sheet, and when you want to see
+ balances only after a certain date:
+
$ hledger balance ^assets ^liabilities --quarterly --historical --begin 2008/4/1
Ending balances (historical) in 2008/04/01-2008/12/31:
-
- || 2008/06/30 2008/09/30 2008/12/31
+
+ || 2008/06/30 2008/09/30 2008/12/31
======================++=====================================
- assets:bank:checking || $1 $1 0
- assets:bank:saving || $1 $1 $1
- assets:cash || $-2 $-2 $-2
- liabilities:debts || 0 0 $1
+ assets:bank:checking || $1 $1 0
+ assets:bank:saving || $1 $1 $1
+ assets:cash || $-2 $-2 $-2
+ liabilities:debts || 0 0 $1
----------------------++-------------------------------------
- || 0 0 0
+ || 0 0 0
- Note that '--cumulative' or '--historical/-H' disable
-'--row-total/-T', since summing end balances generally does not make
+
+ Note that `--cumulative' or `--historical/-H' disable
+`--row-total/-T', since summing end balances generally does not make
sense.
- With a reporting interval (like '--quarterly' above), the report
+ With a reporting interval (like `--quarterly' above), the report
start/end dates will be adjusted if necessary so that they encompass the
-displayed report periods. This is so that the first and last periods
+displayed report periods. This is so that the first and last periods
will be "full" and comparable to the others.
- The '-E/--empty' flag does two things in multicolumn balance reports:
-first, the report will show all columns within the specified report
-period (without -E, leading and trailing columns with all zeroes are not
-shown). Second, all accounts which existed at the report start date
-will be considered, not just the ones with activity during the report
-period (use -E to include low-activity accounts which would otherwise
-would be omitted).
+ The `-E/--empty' flag does two things in multicolumn balance
+reports: first, the report will show all columns within the specified
+report period (without -E, leading and trailing columns with all zeroes
+are not shown). Second, all accounts which existed at the report start
+date will be considered, not just the ones with activity during the
+report period (use -E to include low-activity accounts which would
+otherwise would be omitted).
- The '-T/--row-total' flag adds an additional column showing the total
-for each row.
+ The `-T/--row-total' flag adds an additional column showing the
+total for each row.
- The '-A/--average' flag adds a column showing the average value in
+ The `-A/--average' flag adds a column showing the average value in
each row.
Here's an example of all three:
+
$ hledger balance -Q income expenses --tree -ETA
Balance changes in 2008:
- || 2008q1 2008q2 2008q3 2008q4 Total Average
+ || 2008q1 2008q2 2008q3 2008q4 Total Average
============++===================================================
- expenses || 0 $2 0 0 $2 $1
- food || 0 $1 0 0 $1 0
- supplies || 0 $1 0 0 $1 0
- income || $-1 $-1 0 0 $-2 $-1
- gifts || 0 $-1 0 0 $-1 0
- salary || $-1 0 0 0 $-1 0
+ expenses || 0 $2 0 0 $2 $1
+ food || 0 $1 0 0 $1 0
+ supplies || 0 $1 0 0 $1 0
+ income || $-1 $-1 0 0 $-2 $-1
+ gifts || 0 $-1 0 0 $-1 0
+ salary || $-1 0 0 0 $-1 0
------------++---------------------------------------------------
- || $-1 $1 0 0 0 0
+ || $-1 $1 0 0 0 0
(Average is rounded to the dollar here since all journal amounts are)
- The '--transpose' flag can be used to exchange the rows and columns
+ The `--transpose' flag can be used to exchange the rows and columns
of a multicolumn report.
When showing multicommodity amounts, multicolumn balance reports will
elide any amounts which have more than two commodities, since otherwise
-columns could get very wide. The '--no-elide' flag disables this.
-Hiding totals with the '-N/--no-total' flag can also help reduce the
+columns could get very wide. The `--no-elide' flag disables this.
+Hiding totals with the `-N/--no-total' flag can also help reduce the
width of multicommodity reports.
When the report is still too wide, a good workaround is to pipe it
-into 'less -RS' (-R for colour, -S to chop long lines). Eg: 'hledger
+into `less -RS' (-R for colour, -S to chop long lines). Eg: `hledger
bal -D --color=yes | less -RS'.
+
+File: hledger.info, Node: Depth limiting, Next: Colour support, Prev: Multi-period balance report, Up: balance
+
3.5.4 Depth limiting
--------------------
-With a 'depth:N' query, or '--depth N' option, or just '-N', balance
-reports will show accounts only to the specified depth. This is very
-useful to hide low-level accounts and get an overview. Eg, limiting to
+With a `depth:N' query, or `--depth N' option, or just `-N', balance
+reports will show accounts only to the specified depth. This is very
+useful to hide low-level accounts and get an overview. Eg, limiting to
depth 1 shows the top-level accounts:
+
$ hledger balance -N -1
$-1 assets
$2 expenses
@@ -2489,11 +2625,11 @@ subaccounts (even in flat mode, which normally shows exclusive
balances).
You can also drop account name components from the start of account
-names, using '--drop N'. This can be useful to hide unwanted top-level
+names, using `--drop N'. This can be useful to hide unwanted top-level
detail.

-File: hledger.info, Node: Colour support, Next: Sorting by amount, Prev: , Up: balance
+File: hledger.info, Node: Colour support, Next: Sorting by amount, Prev: Depth limiting, Up: balance
3.5.5 Colour support
--------------------
@@ -2507,15 +2643,15 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Sorting by amount, Next: Percentages, Prev: Colour
3.5.6 Sorting by amount
-----------------------
-With '-S'/'--sort-amount', accounts with the largest (most positive)
-balances are shown first. For example, 'hledger bal expenses -MAS'
+With `-S'/`--sort-amount', accounts with the largest (most positive)
+balances are shown first. For example, `hledger bal expenses -MAS'
shows your biggest averaged monthly expenses first.
Revenues and liability balances are typically negative, however, so
-'-S' shows these in reverse order. To work around this, you can add
-'--invert' to flip the signs. Or, use one of the sign-flipping reports
-like 'balancesheet' or 'incomestatement', which also support '-S'. Eg:
-'hledger is -MAS'.
+`-S' shows these in reverse order. To work around this, you can add
+`--invert' to flip the signs. Or, use one of the sign-flipping reports
+like `balancesheet' or `incomestatement', which also support `-S'. Eg:
+`hledger is -MAS'.

File: hledger.info, Node: Percentages, Next: Customising single-period balance reports, Prev: Sorting by amount, Up: balance
@@ -2523,11 +2659,12 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Percentages, Next: Customising single-period balance
3.5.7 Percentages
-----------------
-With '-%' or '--percent', balance reports show each account's value
-expressed as a percentage of the column's total. This is useful to get
-an overview of the relative sizes of account balances. For example to
+With `-%' or `--percent', balance reports show each account's value
+expressed as a percentage of the column's total. This is useful to get
+an overview of the relative sizes of account balances. For example to
obtain an overview of expenses:
+
$ hledger balance expenses -%
100.0 % expenses
50.0 % food
@@ -2535,19 +2672,19 @@ $ hledger balance expenses -%
--------------------
100.0 %
- Note that '--tree' does not have an effect on '-%'. The percentages
+ Note that `--tree' does not have an effect on `-%'. The percentages
are always relative to the total sum of each column, they are never
relative to the parent account.
Since the percentages are relative to the columns sum, it is usually
not useful to calculate percentages if the signs of the amounts are
mixed. Although the results are technically correct, they are most
-likely useless. Especially in a balance report that sums up to zero (eg
-'hledger balance -B') all percentage values will be zero.
+likely useless. Especially in a balance report that sums up to zero (eg
+`hledger balance -B') all percentage values will be zero.
This flag does not work if the report contains any mixed commodity
-accounts. If there are mixed commodity accounts in the report be sure
-to use '-V' or '-B' to coerce the report into using a single commodity.
+accounts. If there are mixed commodity accounts in the report be sure to
+use `-V' or `-B' to coerce the report into using a single commodity.

File: hledger.info, Node: Customising single-period balance reports, Next: Budget report, Prev: Percentages, Up: balance
@@ -2556,7 +2693,8 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Customising single-period balance reports, Next: Bud
-----------------------------------------------
You can customise the layout of single-period balance reports with
-'--format FMT', which sets the format of each line. Eg:
+`--format FMT', which sets the format of each line. Eg:
+
$ hledger balance --format "%20(account) %12(total)"
assets $-1
@@ -2573,10 +2711,10 @@ $ hledger balance --format "%20(account) %12(total)"
0
The FMT format string (plus a newline) specifies the formatting
-applied to each account/balance pair. It may contain any suitable text,
+applied to each account/balance pair. It may contain any suitable text,
with data fields interpolated like so:
- '%[MIN][.MAX](FIELDNAME)'
+ `%[MIN][.MAX](FIELDNAME)'
* MIN pads with spaces to at least this width (optional)
@@ -2584,31 +2722,39 @@ with data fields interpolated like so:
* FIELDNAME must be enclosed in parentheses, and can be one of:
- * 'depth_spacer' - a number of spaces equal to the account's
+ * `depth_spacer' - a number of spaces equal to the account's
depth, or if MIN is specified, MIN * depth spaces.
- * 'account' - the account's name
- * 'total' - the account's balance/posted total, right justified
+
+ * `account' - the account's name
+
+ * `total' - the account's balance/posted total, right justified
+
Also, FMT can begin with an optional prefix to control how
multi-commodity amounts are rendered:
- * '%_' - render on multiple lines, bottom-aligned (the default)
- * '%^' - render on multiple lines, top-aligned
- * '%,' - render on one line, comma-separated
+ * `%_' - render on multiple lines, bottom-aligned (the default)
- There are some quirks. Eg in one-line mode, '%(depth_spacer)' has no
-effect, instead '%(account)' has indentation built in. Experimentation
+ * `%^' - render on multiple lines, top-aligned
+
+ * `%,' - render on one line, comma-separated
+
+ There are some quirks. Eg in one-line mode, `%(depth_spacer)' has no
+effect, instead `%(account)' has indentation built in. Experimentation
may be needed to get pleasing results.
Some example formats:
- * '%(total)' - the account's total
- * '%-20.20(account)' - the account's name, left justified, padded to
+ * `%(total)' - the account's total
+
+ * `%-20.20(account)' - the account's name, left justified, padded to
20 characters and clipped at 20 characters
- * '%,%-50(account) %25(total)' - account name padded to 50
+
+ * `%,%-50(account) %25(total)' - account name padded to 50
characters, total padded to 20 characters, with multiple
commodities rendered on one line
- * '%20(total) %2(depth_spacer)%-(account)' - the default format for
+
+ * `%20(total) %2(depth_spacer)%-(account)' - the default format for
the single-column balance report

@@ -2618,14 +2764,15 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Budget report, Prev: Customising single-period balan
-------------------
There is also a special balance report mode for showing budget
-performance. The '--budget' flag activates extra columns showing the
-budget goals for each account and period, if any. For this report,
-budget goals are defined by periodic transactions. This is very useful
+performance. The `--budget' flag activates extra columns showing the
+budget goals for each account and period, if any. For this report,
+budget goals are defined by periodic transactions. This is very useful
for comparing planned and actual income, expenses, time usage, etc.
For example, you can take average monthly expenses in the common
expense categories to construct a minimal monthly budget:
+
;; Budget
~ monthly
income $2000
@@ -2652,81 +2799,85 @@ expense categories to construct a minimal monthly budget:
You can now see a monthly budget report:
+
$ hledger balance -M --budget
Budget performance in 2017/11/01-2017/12/31:
- || Nov Dec
+ || Nov Dec
======================++====================================================
- assets || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
- assets:bank || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
- assets:bank:checking || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
- expenses || $495 [ 103% of $480] $565 [ 118% of $480]
- expenses:bus || $49 [ 98% of $50] $53 [ 106% of $50]
- expenses:food || $396 [ 99% of $400] $412 [ 103% of $400]
- expenses:movies || $30 [ 100% of $30] 0 [ 0% of $30]
- income || $1950 [ 98% of $2000] $2100 [ 105% of $2000]
+ assets || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
+ assets:bank || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
+ assets:bank:checking || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
+ expenses || $495 [ 103% of $480] $565 [ 118% of $480]
+ expenses:bus || $49 [ 98% of $50] $53 [ 106% of $50]
+ expenses:food || $396 [ 99% of $400] $412 [ 103% of $400]
+ expenses:movies || $30 [ 100% of $30] 0 [ 0% of $30]
+ income || $1950 [ 98% of $2000] $2100 [ 105% of $2000]
----------------------++----------------------------------------------------
- || 0 [ 0] 0 [ 0]
+ || 0 [ 0] 0 [ 0]
This is different from a normal balance report in several ways:
- * Only accounts with budget goals during the report period are shown,
- by default.
+ * Only accounts with budget goals during the report period are
+ shown, by default.
* In each column, in square brackets after the actual amount, budget
- goal amounts are shown, and the actual/goal percentage. (Note:
+ goal amounts are shown, and the actual/goal percentage. (Note:
budget goals should be in the same commodity as the actual amount.)
- * All parent accounts are always shown, even in flat mode. Eg
- assets, assets:bank, and expenses above.
+ * All parent accounts are always shown, even in flat mode. Eg assets,
+ assets:bank, and expenses above.
* Amounts always include all subaccounts, budgeted or unbudgeted,
even in flat mode.
- This means that the numbers displayed will not always add up! Eg
-above, the 'expenses' actual amount includes the gifts and supplies
-transactions, but the 'expenses:gifts' and 'expenses:supplies' accounts
+
+ This means that the numbers displayed will not always add up! Eg
+above, the `expenses' actual amount includes the gifts and supplies
+transactions, but the `expenses:gifts' and `expenses:supplies' accounts
are not shown, as they have no budget amounts declared.
- This can be confusing. When you need to make things clearer, use the
-'-E/--empty' flag, which will reveal all accounts including unbudgeted
-ones, giving the full picture. Eg:
+ This can be confusing. When you need to make things clearer, use the
+`-E/--empty' flag, which will reveal all accounts including unbudgeted
+ones, giving the full picture. Eg:
+
$ hledger balance -M --budget --empty
Budget performance in 2017/11/01-2017/12/31:
- || Nov Dec
+ || Nov Dec
======================++====================================================
- assets || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
- assets:bank || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
- assets:bank:checking || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
- expenses || $495 [ 103% of $480] $565 [ 118% of $480]
- expenses:bus || $49 [ 98% of $50] $53 [ 106% of $50]
- expenses:food || $396 [ 99% of $400] $412 [ 103% of $400]
- expenses:gifts || 0 $100
- expenses:movies || $30 [ 100% of $30] 0 [ 0% of $30]
- expenses:supplies || $20 0
- income || $1950 [ 98% of $2000] $2100 [ 105% of $2000]
+ assets || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
+ assets:bank || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
+ assets:bank:checking || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-2665 [ 107% of $-2480]
+ expenses || $495 [ 103% of $480] $565 [ 118% of $480]
+ expenses:bus || $49 [ 98% of $50] $53 [ 106% of $50]
+ expenses:food || $396 [ 99% of $400] $412 [ 103% of $400]
+ expenses:gifts || 0 $100
+ expenses:movies || $30 [ 100% of $30] 0 [ 0% of $30]
+ expenses:supplies || $20 0
+ income || $1950 [ 98% of $2000] $2100 [ 105% of $2000]
----------------------++----------------------------------------------------
- || 0 [ 0] 0 [ 0]
+ || 0 [ 0] 0 [ 0]
+
+ You can roll over unspent budgets to next period with `--cumulative':
- You can roll over unspent budgets to next period with '--cumulative':
$ hledger balance -M --budget --cumulative
Budget performance in 2017/11/01-2017/12/31:
- || Nov Dec
+ || Nov Dec
======================++====================================================
- assets || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-5110 [ 103% of $-4960]
- assets:bank || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-5110 [ 103% of $-4960]
- assets:bank:checking || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-5110 [ 103% of $-4960]
- expenses || $495 [ 103% of $480] $1060 [ 110% of $960]
- expenses:bus || $49 [ 98% of $50] $102 [ 102% of $100]
- expenses:food || $396 [ 99% of $400] $808 [ 101% of $800]
- expenses:movies || $30 [ 100% of $30] $30 [ 50% of $60]
- income || $1950 [ 98% of $2000] $4050 [ 101% of $4000]
+ assets || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-5110 [ 103% of $-4960]
+ assets:bank || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-5110 [ 103% of $-4960]
+ assets:bank:checking || $-2445 [ 99% of $-2480] $-5110 [ 103% of $-4960]
+ expenses || $495 [ 103% of $480] $1060 [ 110% of $960]
+ expenses:bus || $49 [ 98% of $50] $102 [ 102% of $100]
+ expenses:food || $396 [ 99% of $400] $808 [ 101% of $800]
+ expenses:movies || $30 [ 100% of $30] $30 [ 50% of $60]
+ income || $1950 [ 98% of $2000] $4050 [ 101% of $4000]
----------------------++----------------------------------------------------
- || 0 [ 0] 0 [ 0]
+ || 0 [ 0] 0 [ 0]
For more examples and notes, see Budgeting.
@@ -2743,12 +2894,13 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Budget report start date, Next: Nested budgets, Up:
This might be a bug, but for now: when making budget reports, it's a
good idea to explicitly set the report's start date to the first day of
-a reporting period, because a periodic rule like '~ monthly' generates
+a reporting period, because a periodic rule like `~ monthly' generates
its transactions on the 1st of each month, and if your journal has no
regular transactions on the 1st, the default report start date could
-exclude that budget goal, which can be a little surprising. Eg here the
+exclude that budget goal, which can be a little surprising. Eg here the
default report period is just the day of 2020-01-15:
+
~ monthly in 2020
(expenses:food) $500
@@ -2756,28 +2908,30 @@ default report period is just the day of 2020-01-15:
expenses:food $400
assets:checking
+
$ hledger bal expenses --budget
Budget performance in 2020-01-15:
- || 2020-01-15
+ || 2020-01-15
==============++============
- <unbudgeted> || $400
+ <unbudgeted> || $400
--------------++------------
- || $400
+ || $400
To avoid this, specify the budget report's period, or at least the
-start date, with '-b'/'-e'/'-p'/'date:', to ensure it includes the
-budget goal transactions (periodic transactions) that you want. Eg,
-adding '-b 2020/1/1' to the above:
+start date, with `-b'/`-e'/`-p'/`date:', to ensure it includes the
+budget goal transactions (periodic transactions) that you want. Eg,
+adding `-b 2020/1/1' to the above:
+
$ hledger bal expenses --budget -b 2020/1/1
Budget performance in 2020-01-01..2020-01-15:
- || 2020-01-01..2020-01-15
+ || 2020-01-01..2020-01-15
===============++========================
- expenses:food || $400 [80% of $500]
+ expenses:food || $400 [80% of $500]
---------------++------------------------
- || $400 [80% of $500]
+ || $400 [80% of $500]

File: hledger.info, Node: Nested budgets, Prev: Budget report start date, Up: Budget report
@@ -2785,7 +2939,7 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Nested budgets, Prev: Budget report start date, Up:
3.5.9.2 Nested budgets
......................
-You can add budgets to any account in your account hierarchy. If you
+You can add budgets to any account in your account hierarchy. If you
have budgets on both parent account and some of its children, then
budget(s) of the child account(s) would be added to the budget of their
parent, much like account balances behave.
@@ -2795,6 +2949,7 @@ account, all its parents would have budget as well.
To illustrate this, consider the following budget:
+
~ monthly from 2019/01
expenses:personal $1,000.00
expenses:personal:electronics $100.00
@@ -2802,15 +2957,16 @@ account, all its parents would have budget as well.
With this, monthly budget for electronics is defined to be $100 and
budget for personal expenses is an additional $1000, which implicitly
-means that budget for both 'expenses:personal' and 'expenses' is $1100.
+means that budget for both `expenses:personal' and `expenses' is $1100.
- Transactions in 'expenses:personal:electronics' will be counted both
-towards its $100 budget and $1100 of 'expenses:personal' , and
-transactions in any other subaccount of 'expenses:personal' would be
-counted towards only towards the budget of 'expenses:personal'.
+ Transactions in `expenses:personal:electronics' will be counted both
+towards its $100 budget and $1100 of `expenses:personal' , and
+transactions in any other subaccount of `expenses:personal' would be
+counted towards only towards the budget of `expenses:personal'.
For example, let's consider these transactions:
+
~ monthly from 2019/01
expenses:personal $1,000.00
expenses:personal:electronics $100.00
@@ -2833,39 +2989,41 @@ counted towards only towards the budget of 'expenses:personal'.
liabilities
As you can see, we have transactions in
-'expenses:personal:electronics:upgrades' and 'expenses:personal:train
+`expenses:personal:electronics:upgrades' and `expenses:personal:train
tickets', and since both of these accounts are without explicitly
defined budget, these transactions would be counted towards budgets of
-'expenses:personal:electronics' and 'expenses:personal' accordingly:
+`expenses:personal:electronics' and `expenses:personal' accordingly:
+
$ hledger balance --budget -M
Budget performance in 2019/01:
- || Jan
+ || Jan
===============================++===============================
- expenses || $283.00 [ 26% of $1100.00]
- expenses:personal || $283.00 [ 26% of $1100.00]
- expenses:personal:electronics || $100.00 [ 100% of $100.00]
- liabilities || $-283.00 [ 26% of $-1100.00]
+ expenses || $283.00 [ 26% of $1100.00]
+ expenses:personal || $283.00 [ 26% of $1100.00]
+ expenses:personal:electronics || $100.00 [ 100% of $100.00]
+ liabilities || $-283.00 [ 26% of $-1100.00]
-------------------------------++-------------------------------
- || 0 [ 0]
+ || 0 [ 0]
- And with '--empty', we can get a better picture of budget allocation
+ And with `--empty', we can get a better picture of budget allocation
and consumption:
+
$ hledger balance --budget -M --empty
Budget performance in 2019/01:
- || Jan
+ || Jan
========================================++===============================
- expenses || $283.00 [ 26% of $1100.00]
- expenses:personal || $283.00 [ 26% of $1100.00]
- expenses:personal:electronics || $100.00 [ 100% of $100.00]
- expenses:personal:electronics:upgrades || $10.00
- expenses:personal:train tickets || $153.00
- liabilities || $-283.00 [ 26% of $-1100.00]
+ expenses || $283.00 [ 26% of $1100.00]
+ expenses:personal || $283.00 [ 26% of $1100.00]
+ expenses:personal:electronics || $100.00 [ 100% of $100.00]
+ expenses:personal:electronics:upgrades || $10.00
+ expenses:personal:train tickets || $153.00
+ liabilities || $-283.00 [ 26% of $-1100.00]
----------------------------------------++-------------------------------
- || 0 [ 0]
+ || 0 [ 0]

File: hledger.info, Node: balancesheet, Next: balancesheetequity, Prev: balance, Up: COMMANDS
@@ -2875,17 +3033,18 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: balancesheet, Next: balancesheetequity, Prev: balan
balancesheet, bs
This command displays a balance sheet, showing historical ending
-balances of asset and liability accounts. (To see equity as well, use
-the balancesheetequity command.) Amounts are shown with normal positive
+balances of asset and liability accounts. (To see equity as well, use
+the balancesheetequity command.) Amounts are shown with normal positive
sign, as in conventional financial statements.
The asset and liability accounts shown are those accounts declared
-with the 'Asset' or 'Cash' or 'Liability' type, or otherwise all
-accounts under a top-level 'asset' or 'liability' account (case
+with the `Asset' or `Cash' or `Liability' type, or otherwise all
+accounts under a top-level `asset' or `liability' account (case
insensitive, plurals allowed).
Example:
+
$ hledger balancesheet
Balance Sheet
@@ -2906,17 +3065,17 @@ Total:
0
With a reporting interval, multiple columns will be shown, one for
-each report period. As with multicolumn balance reports, you can alter
-the report mode with '--change'/'--cumulative'/'--historical'. Normally
+each report period. As with multicolumn balance reports, you can alter
+the report mode with `--change'/`--cumulative'/`--historical'. Normally
balancesheet shows historical ending balances, which is what you need
for a balance sheet; note this means it ignores report begin dates (and
-'-T/--row-total', since summing end balances generally does not make
-sense). Instead of absolute values percentages can be displayed with
-'-%'.
+`-T/--row-total', since summing end balances generally does not make
+sense). Instead of absolute values percentages can be displayed with
+`-%'.
This command also supports the output destination and output format
-options The output formats supported are 'txt', 'csv', 'html', and
-(experimental) 'json'.
+options The output formats supported are `txt', `csv', `html', and
+(experimental) `json'.

File: hledger.info, Node: balancesheetequity, Next: cashflow, Prev: balancesheet, Up: COMMANDS
@@ -2926,16 +3085,17 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: balancesheetequity, Next: cashflow, Prev: balancesh
balancesheetequity, bse
This command displays a balance sheet, showing historical ending
-balances of asset, liability and equity accounts. Amounts are shown
-with normal positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
+balances of asset, liability and equity accounts. Amounts are shown with
+normal positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
The asset, liability and equity accounts shown are those accounts
-declared with the 'Asset', 'Cash', 'Liability' or 'Equity' type, or
-otherwise all accounts under a top-level 'asset', 'liability' or
-'equity' account (case insensitive, plurals allowed).
+declared with the `Asset', `Cash', `Liability' or `Equity' type, or
+otherwise all accounts under a top-level `asset', `liability' or
+`equity' account (case insensitive, plurals allowed).
Example:
+
$ hledger balancesheetequity
Balance Sheet With Equity
@@ -2961,8 +3121,8 @@ Total:
0
This command also supports the output destination and output format
-options The output formats supported are 'txt', 'csv', 'html', and
-(experimental) 'json'.
+options The output formats supported are `txt', `csv', `html', and
+(experimental) `json'.

File: hledger.info, Node: cashflow, Next: check, Prev: balancesheetequity, Up: COMMANDS
@@ -2972,16 +3132,17 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: cashflow, Next: check, Prev: balancesheetequity, U
cashflow, cf
This command displays a cashflow statement, showing the inflows and
-outflows affecting "cash" (ie, liquid) assets. Amounts are shown with
+outflows affecting "cash" (ie, liquid) assets. Amounts are shown with
normal positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
- The "cash" accounts shown are those accounts declared with the 'Cash'
-type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-level 'asset' account (case
-insensitive, plural allowed) which do not have 'fixed', 'investment',
-'receivable' or 'A/R' in their name.
+ The "cash" accounts shown are those accounts declared with the
+`Cash' type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-level `asset'
+account (case insensitive, plural allowed) which do not have `fixed',
+`investment', `receivable' or `A/R' in their name.
Example:
+
$ hledger cashflow
Cashflow Statement
@@ -2997,14 +3158,14 @@ Total:
$-1
With a reporting interval, multiple columns will be shown, one for
-each report period. Normally cashflow shows changes in assets per
+each report period. Normally cashflow shows changes in assets per
period, though as with multicolumn balance reports you can alter the
-report mode with '--change'/'--cumulative'/'--historical'. Instead of
-absolute values percentages can be displayed with '-%'.
+report mode with `--change'/`--cumulative'/`--historical'. Instead of
+absolute values percentages can be displayed with `-%'.
This command also supports the output destination and output format
-options The output formats supported are 'txt', 'csv', 'html', and
-(experimental) 'json'.
+options The output formats supported are `txt', `csv', `html', and
+(experimental) `json'.

File: hledger.info, Node: check, Next: close, Prev: cashflow, Up: COMMANDS
@@ -3013,12 +3174,13 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: check, Next: close, Prev: cashflow, Up: COMMANDS
=========
check
-Check for various kinds of errors in your data. _experimental_
+Check for various kinds of errors in your data. _experimental_
hledger provides a number of built-in error checks to help prevent
-problems in your data. Some of these are run automatically; or, you can
-use this 'check' command to run them on demand, with no output and a
-zero exit code if all is well. Some examples:
+problems in your data. Some of these are run automatically; or, you can
+use this `check' command to run them on demand, with no output and a
+zero exit code if all is well. Some examples:
+
hledger check # basic checks
hledger check -s # basic + strict checks
@@ -3049,7 +3211,8 @@ These are always run by this command and other commands:
transaction prices or automatically-inferred transaction prices
* *assertions* - all balance assertions in the journal are passing.
- (This check can be disabled with '-I'/'--ignore-assertions'.)
+ (This check can be disabled with `-I'/`--ignore-assertions'.)
+

File: hledger.info, Node: Strict checks, Next: Other checks, Prev: Basic checks, Up: check
@@ -3057,7 +3220,7 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Strict checks, Next: Other checks, Prev: Basic chec
3.9.2 Strict checks
-------------------
-These are always run by this and other commands when '-s'/'--strict' is
+These are always run by this and other commands when `-s'/`--strict' is
used (strict mode):
* *accounts* - all account names used by transactions have been
@@ -3065,6 +3228,7 @@ used (strict mode):
* *commodities* - all commodity symbols used have been declared
+

File: hledger.info, Node: Other checks, Next: Add-on checks, Prev: Strict checks, Up: check
@@ -3075,10 +3239,11 @@ These checks can be run by specifying their names as arguments to the
check command:
* *ordereddates* - transactions are ordered by date (similar to the
- old 'check-dates' command)
+ old `check-dates' command)
* *uniqueleafnames* - all account leaf names are unique (similar to
- the old 'check-dupes' command)
+ the old `check-dupes' command)
+

File: hledger.info, Node: Add-on checks, Prev: Other checks, Up: check
@@ -3096,6 +3261,7 @@ https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/tree/master/bin:
* *hledger-check-fancyassertions* - more complex balance assertions
are passing
+
You could make your own similar scripts to perform custom checks;
Cookbook -> Scripting may be helpful.
@@ -3112,27 +3278,27 @@ These can be added to your journal file(s), eg to bring asset/liability
balances forward into a new journal file, or to close out
revenues/expenses to retained earnings at the end of a period.
- You can print just one of these transactions by using the '--close'
-or '--open' flag. You can customise their descriptions with the
-'--close-desc' and '--open-desc' options.
+ You can print just one of these transactions by using the `--close'
+or `--open' flag. You can customise their descriptions with the
+`--close-desc' and `--open-desc' options.
One amountless posting to "equity:opening/closing balances" is added
-to balance the transactions, by default. You can customise this account
-name with '--close-acct' and '--open-acct'; if you specify only one of
+to balance the transactions, by default. You can customise this account
+name with `--close-acct' and `--open-acct'; if you specify only one of
these, it will be used for both.
- With '--x/--explicit', the equity posting's amount will be shown.
+ With `--x/--explicit', the equity posting's amount will be shown.
And if it involves multiple commodities, a posting for each commodity
will be shown, as with the print command.
- With '--interleaved', the equity postings are shown next to the
+ With `--interleaved', the equity postings are shown next to the
postings they balance, which makes troubleshooting easier.
By default, transaction prices in the journal are ignored when
-generating the closing/opening transactions. With '--show-costs', this
-cost information is preserved ('balance -B' reports will be unchanged
-after the transition). Separate postings are generated for each cost in
-each commodity. Note this can generate very large journal entries, if
+generating the closing/opening transactions. With `--show-costs', this
+cost information is preserved (`balance -B' reports will be unchanged
+after the transition). Separate postings are generated for each cost in
+each commodity. Note this can generate very large journal entries, if
you have many foreign currency or investment transactions.
* Menu:
@@ -3148,38 +3314,39 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: close usage, Up: close
If you split your journal files by time (eg yearly), you will typically
run this command at the end of the year, and save the closing
transaction as last entry of the old file, and the opening transaction
-as the first entry of the new file. This makes the files self
-contained, so that correct balances are reported no matter which of them
-are loaded. Ie, if you load just one file, the balances are initialised
+as the first entry of the new file. This makes the files self contained,
+so that correct balances are reported no matter which of them are
+loaded. Ie, if you load just one file, the balances are initialised
correctly; or if you load several files, the redundant closing/opening
-transactions cancel each other out. (They will show up in print or
+transactions cancel each other out. (They will show up in print or
register reports; you can exclude them with a query like
-'not:desc:'(opening|closing) balances''.)
+`not:desc:'(opening|closing) balances''.)
If you're running a business, you might also use this command to
"close the books" at the end of an accounting period, transferring
-income statement account balances to retained earnings. (You may want
+income statement account balances to retained earnings. (You may want
to change the equity account name to something like "equity:retained
earnings".)
By default, the closing transaction is dated yesterday, the balances
are calculated as of end of yesterday, and the opening transaction is
-dated today. To close on some other date, use: 'hledger close -e
-OPENINGDATE'. Eg, to close/open on the 2018/2019 boundary, use '-e
-2019'. You can also use -p or 'date:PERIOD' (any starting date is
+dated today. To close on some other date, use: `hledger close -e
+OPENINGDATE'. Eg, to close/open on the 2018/2019 boundary, use `-e
+2019'. You can also use -p or `date:PERIOD' (any starting date is
ignored).
Both transactions will include balance assertions for the
-closed/reopened accounts. You probably shouldn't use status or realness
-filters (like -C or -R or 'status:') with this command, or the generated
-balance assertions will depend on these flags. Likewise, if you run
-this command with -auto, the balance assertions will probably always
-require -auto.
+closed/reopened accounts. You probably shouldn't use status or realness
+filters (like -C or -R or `status:') with this command, or the
+generated balance assertions will depend on these flags. Likewise, if
+you run this command with -auto, the balance assertions will probably
+always require -auto.
Examples:
Carrying asset/liability balances into a new file for 2019:
+
$ hledger close -f 2018.journal -e 2019 assets liabilities --open
# (copy/paste the output to the start of your 2019 journal file)
$ hledger close -f 2018.journal -e 2019 assets liabilities --close
@@ -3187,6 +3354,7 @@ $ hledger close -f 2018.journal -e 2019 assets liabilities --close
Now:
+
$ hledger bs -f 2019.journal # one file - balances are correct
$ hledger bs -f 2018.journal -f 2019.journal # two files - balances still correct
$ hledger bs -f 2018.journal not:desc:closing # to see year-end balances, must exclude closing txn
@@ -3194,12 +3362,14 @@ $ hledger bs -f 2018.journal not:desc:closing # to see year-end balances, must
Transactions spanning the closing date can complicate matters,
breaking balance assertions:
+
2018/12/30 a purchase made in 2018, clearing the following year
expenses:food 5
assets:bank:checking -5 ; [2019/1/2]
Here's one way to resolve that:
+
; in 2018.journal:
2018/12/30 a purchase made in 2018, clearing the following year
expenses:food 5
@@ -3220,18 +3390,19 @@ codes
List the codes seen in transactions, in the order parsed.
This command prints the value of each transaction's code field, in
-the order transactions were parsed. The transaction code is an optional
+the order transactions were parsed. The transaction code is an optional
value written in parentheses between the date and description, often
used to store a cheque number, order number or similar.
Transactions aren't required to have a code, and missing or empty
-codes will not be shown by default. With the '-E'/'--empty' flag, they
+codes will not be shown by default. With the `-E'/`--empty' flag, they
will be printed as blank lines.
You can add a query to select a subset of transactions.
Examples:
+
1/1 (123)
(a) 1
@@ -3244,11 +3415,13 @@ will be printed as blank lines.
1/1 (126)
(a) 1
+
$ hledger codes
123
124
126
+
$ hledger codes -E
123
124
@@ -3275,11 +3448,12 @@ descriptions
List the unique descriptions that appear in transactions.
This command lists the unique descriptions that appear in
-transactions, in alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a
+transactions, in alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a
subset of transactions.
Example:
+
$ hledger descriptions
Store Name
Gas Station | Petrol
@@ -3292,25 +3466,26 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: diff, Next: files, Prev: descriptions, Up: COMMAND
=========
diff
-Compares a particular account's transactions in two input files. It
+Compares a particular account's transactions in two input files. It
shows any transactions to this account which are in one file but not in
the other.
More precisely, for each posting affecting this account in either
-file, it looks for a corresponding posting in the other file which posts
-the same amount to the same account (ignoring date, description, etc.)
-Since postings not transactions are compared, this also works when
-multiple bank transactions have been combined into a single journal
-entry.
+file, it looks for a corresponding posting in the other file which
+posts the same amount to the same account (ignoring date, description,
+etc.) Since postings not transactions are compared, this also works
+when multiple bank transactions have been combined into a single
+journal entry.
This is useful eg if you have downloaded an account's transactions
-from your bank (eg as CSV data). When hledger and your bank disagree
+from your bank (eg as CSV data). When hledger and your bank disagree
about the account balance, you can compare the bank data with your
journal to find out the cause.
Examples:
-$ hledger diff -f $LEDGER_FILE -f bank.csv assets:bank:giro
+
+$ hledger diff -f $LEDGER_FILE -f bank.csv assets:bank:giro
These transactions are in the first file only:
2014/01/01 Opening Balances
@@ -3327,8 +3502,8 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: files, Next: help, Prev: diff, Up: COMMANDS
==========
files
-List all files included in the journal. With a REGEX argument, only
-file names matching the regular expression (case sensitive) are shown.
+List all files included in the journal. With a REGEX argument, only file
+names matching the regular expression (case sensitive) are shown.

File: hledger.info, Node: help, Next: import, Prev: files, Up: COMMANDS
@@ -3339,21 +3514,23 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: help, Next: import, Prev: files, Up: COMMANDS
help
Show any of the hledger manuals.
- The 'help' command displays any of the main hledger manuals, in one
-of several ways. Run it with no argument to list the manuals, or
-provide a full or partial manual name to select one.
+ The `help' command displays any of the main hledger manuals, in one
+of several ways. Run it with no argument to list the manuals, or provide
+a full or partial manual name to select one.
- hledger manuals are available in several formats. hledger help will
+ hledger manuals are available in several formats. hledger help will
use the first of these display methods that it finds: info, man, $PAGER,
-less, stdout (or when non-interactive, just stdout). You can force a
-particular viewer with the '--info', '--man', '--pager', '--cat' flags.
+less, stdout (or when non-interactive, just stdout). You can force a
+particular viewer with the `--info', `--man', `--pager', `--cat' flags.
Examples:
+
$ hledger help
Please choose a manual by typing "hledger help MANUAL" (a substring is ok).
Manuals: hledger hledger-ui hledger-web journal csv timeclock timedot
+
$ hledger help h --man
hledger(1) hledger User Manuals hledger(1)
@@ -3378,21 +3555,22 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: import, Next: incomestatement, Prev: help, Up: COM
import
Read new transactions added to each FILE since last run, and add them to
-the main journal file. Or with -dry-run, just print the transactions
-that would be added. Or with -catchup, just mark all of the FILEs'
+the main journal file. Or with -dry-run, just print the transactions
+that would be added. Or with -catchup, just mark all of the FILEs'
transactions as imported, without actually importing any.
The input files are specified as arguments - no need to write -f
-before each one. So eg to add new transactions from all CSV files to
-the main journal, it's just: 'hledger import *.csv'
+before each one. So eg to add new transactions from all CSV files to
+the main journal, it's just: `hledger import *.csv'
New transactions are detected in the same way as print -new: by
assuming transactions are always added to the input files in increasing
-date order, and by saving '.latest.FILE' state files.
+date order, and by saving `.latest.FILE' state files.
The -dry-run output is in journal format, so you can filter it, eg to
see only uncategorised transactions:
+
$ hledger import --dry ... | hledger -f- print unknown --ignore-assertions
* Menu:
@@ -3407,12 +3585,13 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Importing balance assignments, Next: Commodity displ
------------------------------------
Entries added by import will have their posting amounts made explicit
-(like 'hledger print -x'). This means that any balance assignments in
+(like `hledger print -x'). This means that any balance assignments in
imported files must be evaluated; but, imported files don't get to see
-the main file's account balances. As a result, importing entries with
+the main file's account balances. As a result, importing entries with
balance assignments (eg from an institution that provides only balances
and not posting amounts) will probably generate incorrect posting
-amounts. To avoid this problem, use print instead of import:
+amounts. To avoid this problem, use print instead of import:
+
$ hledger print IMPORTFILE [--new] >> $LEDGER_FILE
@@ -3435,18 +3614,18 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: incomestatement, Next: notes, Prev: import, Up: CO
====================
incomestatement, is
-
- This command displays an income statement, showing revenues and
-expenses during one or more periods. Amounts are shown with normal
-positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
+This command displays an income statement, showing revenues and expenses
+during one or more periods. Amounts are shown with normal positive sign,
+as in conventional financial statements.
The revenue and expense accounts shown are those accounts declared
-with the 'Revenue' or 'Expense' type, or otherwise all accounts under a
-top-level 'revenue' or 'income' or 'expense' account (case insensitive,
+with the `Revenue' or `Expense' type, or otherwise all accounts under a
+top-level `revenue' or `income' or `expense' account (case insensitive,
plurals allowed).
Example:
+
$ hledger incomestatement
Income Statement
@@ -3469,14 +3648,14 @@ Total:
0
With a reporting interval, multiple columns will be shown, one for
-each report period. Normally incomestatement shows revenues/expenses
-per period, though as with multicolumn balance reports you can alter the
-report mode with '--change'/'--cumulative'/'--historical'. Instead of
-absolute values percentages can be displayed with '-%'.
+each report period. Normally incomestatement shows revenues/expenses per
+period, though as with multicolumn balance reports you can alter the
+report mode with `--change'/`--cumulative'/`--historical'. Instead of
+absolute values percentages can be displayed with `-%'.
This command also supports the output destination and output format
-options The output formats supported are 'txt', 'csv', 'html', and
-(experimental) 'json'.
+options The output formats supported are `txt', `csv', `html', and
+(experimental) `json'.

File: hledger.info, Node: notes, Next: rewrite, Prev: incomestatement, Up: COMMANDS
@@ -3488,12 +3667,13 @@ notes
List the unique notes that appear in transactions.
This command lists the unique notes that appear in transactions, in
-alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of
-transactions. The note is the part of the transaction description after
+alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of
+transactions. The note is the part of the transaction description after
a | character (or if there is no |, the whole description).
Example:
+
$ hledger notes
Petrol
Snacks
@@ -3509,7 +3689,7 @@ Print all transactions, rewriting the postings of matched transactions.
For now the only rewrite available is adding new postings, like print
-auto.
- This is a start at a generic rewriter of transaction entries. It
+ This is a start at a generic rewriter of transaction entries. It
reads the default journal and prints the transactions, like print, but
adds one or more specified postings to any transactions matching QUERY.
The posting amounts can be fixed, or a multiplier of the existing
@@ -3517,12 +3697,14 @@ transaction's first posting amount.
Examples:
+
$ hledger-rewrite.hs ^income --add-posting '(liabilities:tax) *.33 ; income tax' --add-posting '(reserve:gifts) $100'
$ hledger-rewrite.hs expenses:gifts --add-posting '(reserve:gifts) *-1"'
$ hledger-rewrite.hs -f rewrites.hledger
rewrites.hledger may consist of entries like:
+
= ^income amt:<0 date:2017
(liabilities:tax) *0.33 ; tax on income
(reserve:grocery) *0.25 ; reserve 25% for grocery
@@ -3533,17 +3715,18 @@ two spaces between account and amount.
More:
+
$ hledger rewrite -- [QUERY] --add-posting "ACCT AMTEXPR" ...
$ hledger rewrite -- ^income --add-posting '(liabilities:tax) *.33'
$ hledger rewrite -- expenses:gifts --add-posting '(budget:gifts) *-1"'
$ hledger rewrite -- ^income --add-posting '(budget:foreign currency) *0.25 JPY; diversify'
- Argument for '--add-posting' option is a usual posting of transaction
-with an exception for amount specification. More precisely, you can use
-''*'' (star symbol) before the amount to indicate that that this is a
-factor for an amount of original matched posting. If the amount
-includes a commodity name, the new posting amount will be in the new
-commodity; otherwise, it will be in the matched posting amount's
+ Argument for `--add-posting' option is a usual posting of
+transaction with an exception for amount specification. More precisely,
+you can use `'*'' (star symbol) before the amount to indicate that that
+this is a factor for an amount of original matched posting. If the
+amount includes a commodity name, the new posting amount will be in the
+new commodity; otherwise, it will be in the matched posting amount's
commodity.
* Menu:
@@ -3559,13 +3742,15 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Re-write rules in a file, Next: Diff output format,
-------------------------------
During the run this tool will execute so called "Automated Transactions"
-found in any journal it process. I.e instead of specifying this
+found in any journal it process. I.e instead of specifying this
operations in command line you can put them in a journal file.
+
$ rewrite-rules.journal
Make contents look like this:
+
= ^income
(liabilities:tax) *.33
@@ -3573,21 +3758,23 @@ $ rewrite-rules.journal
budget:gifts *-1
assets:budget *1
- Note that ''='' (equality symbol) that is used instead of date in
-transactions you usually write. It indicates the query by which you
-want to match the posting to add new ones.
+ Note that `'='' (equality symbol) that is used instead of date in
+transactions you usually write. It indicates the query by which you want
+to match the posting to add new ones.
+
$ hledger rewrite -- -f input.journal -f rewrite-rules.journal > rewritten-tidy-output.journal
This is something similar to the commands pipeline:
+
$ hledger rewrite -- -f input.journal '^income' --add-posting '(liabilities:tax) *.33' \
| hledger rewrite -- -f - expenses:gifts --add-posting 'budget:gifts *-1' \
--add-posting 'assets:budget *1' \
> rewritten-tidy-output.journal
It is important to understand that relative order of such entries in
-journal is important. You can re-use result of previously added
+journal is important. You can re-use result of previously added
postings.

@@ -3599,10 +3786,12 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Diff output format, Next: rewrite vs print --auto,
To use this tool for batch modification of your journal files you may
find useful output in form of unified diff.
+
$ hledger rewrite -- --diff -f examples/sample.journal '^income' --add-posting '(liabilities:tax) *.33'
Output might look like:
+
--- /tmp/examples/sample.journal
+++ /tmp/examples/sample.journal
@@ -18,3 +18,4 @@
@@ -3618,14 +3807,14 @@ $ hledger rewrite -- --diff -f examples/sample.journal '^income' --add-posting '
income:gifts
+ (liabilities:tax) 0
- If you'll pass this through 'patch' tool you'll get transactions
-containing the posting that matches your query be updated. Note that
+ If you'll pass this through `patch' tool you'll get transactions
+containing the posting that matches your query be updated. Note that
multiple files might be update according to list of input files
-specified via '--file' options and 'include' directives inside of these
+specified via `--file' options and `include' directives inside of these
files.
- Be careful. Whole transaction being re-formatted in a style of
-output from 'hledger print'.
+ Be careful. Whole transaction being re-formatted in a style of output
+from `hledger print'.
See also:
@@ -3641,16 +3830,16 @@ This command predates print -auto, and currently does much the same
thing, but with these differences:
* with multiple files, rewrite lets rules in any file affect all
- other files. print -auto uses standard directive scoping; rules
+ other files. print -auto uses standard directive scoping; rules
affect only child files.
* rewrite's query limits which transactions can be rewritten; all are
- printed. print -auto's query limits which transactions are
- printed.
+ printed. print -auto's query limits which transactions are printed.
* rewrite applies rules specified on command line or in the journal.
print -auto applies rules specified in the journal.
+

File: hledger.info, Node: roi, Next: stats, Prev: rewrite, Up: COMMANDS
@@ -3671,19 +3860,20 @@ originating from unrealized profit and loss account(s) are assumed to be
your investments or withdrawals.
At a minimum, you need to supply a query (which could be just an
-account name) to select your investments with '--inv', and another query
-to identify your profit and loss transactions with '--pnl'.
+account name) to select your investments with `--inv', and another
+query to identify your profit and loss transactions with `--pnl'.
This command will compute and display the internalized rate of return
(IRR) and time-weighted rate of return (TWR) for your investments for
-the time period requested. Both rates of return are annualized before
+the time period requested. Both rates of return are annualized before
display, regardless of the length of reporting interval.
Note, in some cases this report can fail, for these reasons:
* Error (NotBracketed): No solution for Internal Rate of Return
- (IRR). Possible causes: IRR is huge (>1000000%), balance of
+ (IRR). Possible causes: IRR is huge (>1000000%), balance of
investment becomes negative at some point in time.
+
* Error (SearchFailed): Failed to find solution for Internal Rate of
Return (IRR). Either search does not converge to a solution, or
converges too slowly.
@@ -3695,56 +3885,58 @@ display, regardless of the length of reporting interval.
More background:
- "ROI" stands for "return on investment". Traditionally this was
+ "ROI" stands for "return on investment". Traditionally this was
computed as a difference between current value of investment and its
initial value, expressed in percentage of the initial value.
However, this approach is only practical in simple cases, where
investments receives no in-flows or out-flows of money, and where rate
-of growth is fixed over time. For more complex scenarios you need
+of growth is fixed over time. For more complex scenarios you need
different ways to compute rate of return, and this command implements
two of them: IRR and TWR.
Internal rate of return, or "IRR" (also called "money-weighted rate
of return") takes into account effects of in-flows and out-flows.
Naively, if you are withdrawing from your investment, your future gains
-would be smaller (in absolute numbers), and will be a smaller percentage
-of your initial investment, and if you are adding to your investment,
-you will receive bigger absolute gains (but probably at the same rate of
-return). IRR is a way to compute rate of return for each period between
-in-flow or out-flow of money, and then combine them in a way that gives
-you an annual rate of return that investment is expected to generate.
+would be smaller (in absolute numbers), and will be a smaller
+percentage of your initial investment, and if you are adding to your
+investment, you will receive bigger absolute gains (but probably at the
+same rate of return). IRR is a way to compute rate of return for each
+period between in-flow or out-flow of money, and then combine them in a
+way that gives you an annual rate of return that investment is expected
+to generate.
As mentioned before, in-flows and out-flows would be any cash that
you personally put in or withdraw, and for the "roi" command, these are
-transactions that involve account(s) matching '--inv' argument and NOT
-involve account(s) matching '--pnl' argument.
+transactions that involve account(s) matching `--inv' argument and NOT
+involve account(s) matching `--pnl' argument.
Presumably, you will also record changes in the value of your
investment, and balance them against "profit and loss" (or "unrealized
-gains") account. Note that in order for IRR to compute the precise
+gains") account. Note that in order for IRR to compute the precise
effect of your in-flows and out-flows on the rate of return, you will
need to record the value of your investement on or close to the days
when in- or out-flows occur.
- Implementation of IRR in hledger should match the 'XIRR' formula in
+ Implementation of IRR in hledger should match the `XIRR' formula in
Excel.
- Second way to compute rate of return that 'roi' command implements is
-called "time-weighted rate of return" or "TWR". Like IRR, it will also
-break the history of your investment into periods between in-flows and
-out-flows to compute rate of return per each period and then a compound
-rate of return. However, internal workings of TWR are quite different.
+ Second way to compute rate of return that `roi' command implements
+is called "time-weighted rate of return" or "TWR". Like IRR, it will
+also break the history of your investment into periods between in-flows
+and out-flows to compute rate of return per each period and then a
+compound rate of return. However, internal workings of TWR are quite
+different.
In technical terms, IRR uses the same approach as computation of net
present value, and tries to find a discount rate that makes net present
-value of all the cash flows of your investment to add up to zero. This
+value of all the cash flows of your investment to add up to zero. This
could be hard to wrap your head around, especially if you haven't done
discounted cash flow analysis before.
TWR represents your investment as an imaginary "unit fund" where
in-flows/ out-flows lead to buying or selling "units" of your investment
-and changes in its value change the value of "investment unit". Change
+and changes in its value change the value of "investment unit". Change
in "unit price" over the reporting period gives you rate of return of
your investment.
@@ -3757,6 +3949,7 @@ the limitations of both metrics
Lets say that we found an investment in Snake Oil that is proising to
give us 10% annually:
+
2019-01-01 Investing in Snake Oil
assets:cash -$100
investment:snake oil
@@ -3768,6 +3961,7 @@ give us 10% annually:
For now, basic computation of the rate of return, as well as IRR and
TWR, gives us the expected 10%:
+
$ hledger roi -Y --inv investment --pnl "unrealized"
+---++------------+------------++---------------+----------+-------------+-----++--------+--------+
| || Begin | End || Value (begin) | Cashflow | Value (end) | PnL || IRR | TWR |
@@ -3777,9 +3971,10 @@ $ hledger roi -Y --inv investment --pnl "unrealized"
However, lets say that shorty after investing in the Snake Oil we
started to have second thoughs, so we prompty withdrew $90, leaving only
-$10 in. Before Christmas, though, we started to get the "fear of
-mission out", so we put the $90 back in. So for most of the year, our
-investment was just $10 dollars, and it gave us just $1 in growth:
+$10 in. Before Christmas, though, we started to get the "fear of mission
+out", so we put the $90 back in. So for most of the year, our investment
+was just $10 dollars, and it gave us just $1 in growth:
+
2019-01-01 Investing in Snake Oil
assets:cash -$100
@@ -3788,7 +3983,7 @@ investment was just $10 dollars, and it gave us just $1 in growth:
2019-01-02 Buyers remorse
assets:cash $90
investment:snake oil
-
+
2019-12-30 Fear of missing out
assets:cash -$90
investment:snake oil
@@ -3799,6 +3994,7 @@ investment was just $10 dollars, and it gave us just $1 in growth:
Now IRR and TWR are drastically different:
+
$ hledger roi -Y --inv investment --pnl "unrealized"
+---++------------+------------++---------------+----------+-------------+-----++-------+-------+
| || Begin | End || Value (begin) | Cashflow | Value (end) | PnL || IRR | TWR |
@@ -3807,14 +4003,15 @@ $ hledger roi -Y --inv investment --pnl "unrealized"
+---++------------+------------++---------------+----------+-------------+-----++-------+-------+
Here, IRR tells us that we made close to 10% on the $10 dollars that
-we had in the account most of the time. And TWR is ... just 1%? Why?
+we had in the account most of the time. And TWR is ... just 1%? Why?
Based on the transactions in our journal, TWR "think" that we are
buying back $90 worst of Snake Oil at the same price that it had at the
beginning of they year, and then after that our $100 investment gets $1
-increase in value, or 1% of $100. Let's take a closer look at what is
+increase in value, or 1% of $100. Let's take a closer look at what is
happening here by asking for quarterly reports instead of annual:
+
$ hledger roi -Q --inv investment --pnl "unrealized"
+---++------------+------------++---------------+----------+-------------+-----++--------+-------+
| || Begin | End || Value (begin) | Cashflow | Value (end) | PnL || IRR | TWR |
@@ -3826,13 +4023,14 @@ $ hledger roi -Q --inv investment --pnl "unrealized"
+---++------------+------------++---------------+----------+-------------+-----++--------+-------+
Now both IRR and TWR are thrown off by the fact that all of the
-growth for our investment happens in Q4 2019. This happes because IRR
+growth for our investment happens in Q4 2019. This happes because IRR
computation is still yielding 9.32% and TWR is still 1%, but this time
these are rates for three month period instead of twelve, so in order to
get an annual rate they should be multiplied by four!
Let's try to keep a better record of how Snake Oil grew in value:
+
2019-01-01 Investing in Snake Oil
assets:cash -$100
investment:snake oil
@@ -3842,15 +4040,15 @@ get an annual rate they should be multiplied by four!
investment:snake oil
2019-02-28 Recording the growth of Snake Oil
- investment:snake oil
+ investment:snake oil
equity:unrealized gains -$0.25
2019-06-30 Recording the growth of Snake Oil
- investment:snake oil
+ investment:snake oil
equity:unrealized gains -$0.25
2019-09-30 Recording the growth of Snake Oil
- investment:snake oil
+ investment:snake oil
equity:unrealized gains -$0.25
2019-12-30 Fear of missing out
@@ -3861,7 +4059,8 @@ get an annual rate they should be multiplied by four!
investment:snake oil
equity:unrealized gains -$0.25
- Would our quartery report look better now? Almost:
+ Would our quartery report look better now? Almost:
+
$ hledger roi -Q --inv investment --pnl "unrealized"
+---++------------+------------++---------------+----------+-------------+------++--------+--------+
@@ -3876,9 +4075,10 @@ $ hledger roi -Q --inv investment --pnl "unrealized"
Something is still wrong with TWR computation for Q4, and if you have
been paying attention you know what it is already: big $90 buy-back is
recorded prior to the only transaction that captures the change of value
-of Snake Oil that happened in this time period. Lets combine
+of Snake Oil that happened in this time period. Lets combine
transactions from 30th and 31st of Dec into one:
+
2019-12-30 Fear of missing out and growth of Snake Oil
assets:cash -$90
investment:snake oil
@@ -3887,6 +4087,7 @@ transactions from 30th and 31st of Dec into one:
Now growth of investment properly affects its price at the time of
buy-back:
+
$ hledger roi -Q --inv investment --pnl "unrealized"
+---++------------+------------++---------------+----------+-------------+------++--------+--------+
| || Begin | End || Value (begin) | Cashflow | Value (end) | PnL || IRR | TWR |
@@ -3900,6 +4101,7 @@ $ hledger roi -Q --inv investment --pnl "unrealized"
And for annual report, TWR now reports the exact profitability of our
investment:
+
$ hledger roi -Y --inv investment --pnl "unrealized"
+---++------------+------------++---------------+----------+-------------+------++-------+--------+
| || Begin | End || Value (begin) | Cashflow | Value (end) | PnL || IRR | TWR |
@@ -3916,15 +4118,16 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: stats, Next: tags, Prev: roi, Up: COMMANDS
stats
Show some journal statistics.
- The stats command displays summary information for the whole journal,
-or a matched part of it. With a reporting interval, it shows a report
-for each report period.
+ The stats command displays summary information for the whole
+journal, or a matched part of it. With a reporting interval, it shows a
+report for each report period.
Example:
+
$ hledger stats
Main journal file : /src/hledger/examples/sample.journal
-Included journal files :
+Included journal files :
Transactions span : 2008-01-01 to 2009-01-01 (366 days)
Last transaction : 2008-12-31 (2333 days ago)
Transactions : 5 (0.0 per day)
@@ -3945,10 +4148,10 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: tags, Next: test, Prev: stats, Up: COMMANDS
=========
tags
-List the unique tag names used in the journal. With a TAGREGEX
-argument, only tag names matching the regular expression (case
-insensitive) are shown. With QUERY arguments, only transactions
-matching the query are considered.
+List the unique tag names used in the journal. With a TAGREGEX argument,
+only tag names matching the regular expression (case insensitive) are
+shown. With QUERY arguments, only transactions matching the query are
+considered.
With the -values flag, the tags' unique values are listed instead.
@@ -3968,22 +4171,23 @@ test
Run built-in unit tests.
This command runs the unit tests built in to hledger and hledger-lib,
-printing the results on stdout. If any test fails, the exit code will
-be non-zero.
+printing the results on stdout. If any test fails, the exit code will be
+non-zero.
This is mainly used by hledger developers, but you can also use it to
-sanity-check the installed hledger executable on your platform. All
+sanity-check the installed hledger executable on your platform. All
tests are expected to pass - if you ever see a failure, please report as
a bug!
This command also accepts tasty test runner options, written after a
-- (double hyphen). Eg to run only the tests in Hledger.Data.Amount,
-with ANSI colour codes disabled:
+- (double hyphen). Eg to run only the tests in Hledger.Data.Amount, with
+ANSI colour codes disabled:
+
$ hledger test -- -pData.Amount --color=never
For help on these, see https://github.com/feuerbach/tasty#options
-('-- --help' currently doesn't show them).
+(`-- --help' currently doesn't show them).

File: hledger.info, Node: Add-on commands, Next: Add-on command flags, Prev: test, Up: COMMANDS
@@ -3991,20 +4195,23 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Add-on commands, Next: Add-on command flags, Prev:
3.25 Add-on commands
====================
-Any programs or scripts in your PATH named named 'hledger-SOMETHING'
-will also appear in the commands list (with a '+' mark). These are
+Any programs or scripts in your PATH named named `hledger-SOMETHING'
+will also appear in the commands list (with a `+' mark). These are
called add-on commands.
These offical add-ons are maintained and released along with hledger:
* ui an efficient terminal interface for hledger (TUI)
+
* web a simple web interface for hledger (WUI)
These add-ons are maintained separately:
* iadd a more interactive alternative for the add command
+
* interest generates interest transactions according to various
schemes
+
* stockquotes downloads market prices for your commodities from
AlphaVantage _(experimental)_
@@ -4018,23 +4225,26 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Add-on command flags, Next: Making add-on commands,
=========================
In a hledger command line, add-on command flags must have a double dash
-('--') preceding them. Eg you must write:
+(`--') preceding them. Eg you must write:
+
$ hledger web -- --serve
and not:
+
$ hledger web --serve
- (because the '--serve' flag belongs to 'hledger-web', not 'hledger').
+ (because the `--serve' flag belongs to `hledger-web', not `hledger').
- The '-h/--help' and '--version' flags work without '--', with their
-position deciding which program they refer to. Eg 'hledger -h web'
-shows hledger's help, 'hledger web -h' shows hledger-web's help.
+ The `-h/--help' and `--version' flags work without `--', with their
+position deciding which program they refer to. Eg `hledger -h web'
+shows hledger's help, `hledger web -h' shows hledger-web's help.
If you have any trouble with this, remember you can always run the
add-on program directly, eg:
+
$ hledger-web --serve

@@ -4045,17 +4255,19 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Making add-on commands, Prev: Add-on command flags,
Add-on commands are programs or scripts in your PATH
- * whose name starts with 'hledger-'
+ * whose name starts with `hledger-'
+
* whose name ends with a recognised file extension:
- '.bat','.com','.exe', '.hs','.lhs','.pl','.py','.rb','.rkt','.sh'
+ `.bat',`.com',`.exe', `.hs',`.lhs',`.pl',`.py',`.rb',`.rkt',`.sh'
or none
+
* and (on unix, mac) which are executable by the current user.
Add-ons are a relatively easy way to add local features or experiment
-with new ideas. They can be written in any language, but haskell
-scripts have a big advantage: they can use the same hledger library
-functions that built-in commands use for command-line options, parsing
-and reporting.
+with new ideas. They can be written in any language, but haskell scripts
+have a big advantage: they can use the same hledger library functions
+that built-in commands use for command-line options, parsing and
+reporting.

File: hledger.info, Node: ENVIRONMENT, Next: FILES, Prev: COMMANDS, Up: Top
@@ -4063,31 +4275,32 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: ENVIRONMENT, Next: FILES, Prev: COMMANDS, Up: Top
4 ENVIRONMENT
*************
-*LEDGER_FILE* The journal file path when not specified with '-f'.
-Default: '~/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
-'C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').
+*LEDGER_FILE* The journal file path when not specified with `-f'.
+Default: `~/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
+`C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').
- A typical value is '~/DIR/YYYY.journal', where DIR is a
-version-controlled finance directory and YYYY is the current year. Or
-'~/DIR/current.journal', where current.journal is a symbolic link to
+ A typical value is `~/DIR/YYYY.journal', where DIR is a
+version-controlled finance directory and YYYY is the current year. Or
+`~/DIR/current.journal', where current.journal is a symbolic link to
YYYY.journal.
- On Mac computers, you can set this and other environment variables in
-a more thorough way that also affects applications started from the GUI
-(say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a
-'~/.MacOSX/environment.plist' file containing
+ On Mac computers, you can set this and other environment variables
+in a more thorough way that also affects applications started from the
+GUI (say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a
+`~/.MacOSX/environment.plist' file containing
+
{
"LEDGER_FILE" : "~/finance/current.journal"
}
- To see the effect you may need to 'killall Dock', or reboot.
+ To see the effect you may need to `killall Dock', or reboot.
- *COLUMNS* The screen width used by the register command. Default:
+ *COLUMNS* The screen width used by the register command. Default:
the full terminal width.
*NO_COLOR* If this variable exists with any value, hledger will not
-use ANSI color codes in terminal output. This overrides the
+use ANSI color codes in terminal output. This overrides the
-color/-colour option.

@@ -4097,9 +4310,9 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: FILES, Next: LIMITATIONS, Prev: ENVIRONMENT, Up: T
*******
Reads data from one or more files in hledger journal, timeclock,
-timedot, or CSV format specified with '-f', or '$LEDGER_FILE', or
-'$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
-'C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').
+timedot, or CSV format specified with `-f', or `$LEDGER_FILE', or
+`$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
+`C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal').

File: hledger.info, Node: LIMITATIONS, Next: TROUBLESHOOTING, Prev: FILES, Up: Top
@@ -4107,11 +4320,11 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: LIMITATIONS, Next: TROUBLESHOOTING, Prev: FILES, U
6 LIMITATIONS
*************
-The need to precede add-on command options with '--' when invoked from
+The need to precede add-on command options with `--' when invoked from
hledger is awkward.
When input data contains non-ascii characters, a suitable system
-locale must be configured (or there will be an unhelpful error). Eg on
+locale must be configured (or there will be an unhelpful error). Eg on
POSIX, set LANG to something other than C.
In a Microsoft Windows CMD window, non-ascii characters and colours
@@ -4123,8 +4336,8 @@ running a hledger built in CMD in MSYS/CYGWIN, or vice-versa.
In a Cygwin/MSYS/Mintty window, the tab key is not supported in
hledger add.
- Not all of Ledger's journal file syntax is supported. See file
-format differences.
+ Not all of Ledger's journal file syntax is supported. See file format
+differences.
On large data files, hledger is slower and uses more memory than
Ledger.
@@ -4141,28 +4354,29 @@ tracker):
*Successfully installed, but "No command 'hledger' found"*
stack and cabal install binaries into a special directory, which should
-be added to your PATH environment variable. Eg on unix-like systems,
+be added to your PATH environment variable. Eg on unix-like systems,
that is ~/.local/bin and ~/.cabal/bin respectively.
*I set a custom LEDGER_FILE, but hledger is still using the default
file*
-'LEDGER_FILE' should be a real environment variable, not just a shell
-variable. The command 'env | grep LEDGER_FILE' should show it. You may
-need to use 'export'. Here's an explanation.
+`LEDGER_FILE' should be a real environment variable, not just a shell
+variable. The command `env | grep LEDGER_FILE' should show it. You may
+need to use `export'. Here's an explanation.
*Getting errors like "Illegal byte sequence" or "Invalid or
incomplete multibyte or wide character" or "commitAndReleaseBuffer:
invalid argument (invalid character)"*
-Programs compiled with GHC (hledger, haskell build tools, etc.) need to
+Programs compiled with GHC (hledger, haskell build tools, etc.) need to
have a UTF-8-aware locale configured in the environment, otherwise they
will fail with these kinds of errors when they encounter non-ascii
characters.
To fix it, set the LANG environment variable to some locale which
-supports UTF-8. The locale you choose must be installed on your system.
+supports UTF-8. The locale you choose must be installed on your system.
Here's an example of setting LANG temporarily, on Ubuntu GNU/Linux:
+
$ file my.journal
my.journal: UTF-8 Unicode text # the file is UTF8-encoded
$ echo $LANG
@@ -4173,10 +4387,11 @@ en_US.utf8 # here's a UTF8-aware one we can use
POSIX
$ LANG=en_US.utf8 hledger -f my.journal print # ensure it is used for this command
- If available, 'C.UTF-8' will also work. If your preferred locale
-isn't listed by 'locale -a', you might need to install it. Eg on
+ If available, `C.UTF-8' will also work. If your preferred locale
+isn't listed by `locale -a', you might need to install it. Eg on
Ubuntu/Debian:
+
$ apt-get install language-pack-fr
$ locale -a
C
@@ -4191,210 +4406,214 @@ $ LANG=fr_FR.utf8 hledger -f my.journal print
Here's how you could set it permanently, if you use a bash shell:
+
$ echo "export LANG=en_US.utf8" >>~/.bash_profile
$ bash --login
- Exact spelling and capitalisation may be important. Note the
-difference on MacOS ('UTF-8', not 'utf8'). Some platforms (eg ubuntu)
+ Exact spelling and capitalisation may be important. Note the
+difference on MacOS (`UTF-8', not `utf8'). Some platforms (eg ubuntu)
allow variant spellings, but others (eg macos) require it to be exact:
+
$ locale -a | grep -iE en_us.*utf
en_US.UTF-8
$ LANG=en_US.UTF-8 hledger -f my.journal print
+

Tag Table:
-Node: Top68
-Node: COMMON TASKS2337
-Ref: #common-tasks2449
-Node: Getting help2856
-Ref: #getting-help2988
-Node: Constructing command lines3541
-Ref: #constructing-command-lines3733
-Node: Starting a journal file4430
-Ref: #starting-a-journal-file4628
-Node: Setting opening balances5816
-Ref: #setting-opening-balances6012
-Node: Recording transactions9153
-Ref: #recording-transactions9333
-Node: Reconciling9889
-Ref: #reconciling10032
-Node: Reporting12289
-Ref: #reporting12429
-Node: Migrating to a new file16428
-Ref: #migrating-to-a-new-file16576
-Node: OPTIONS16875
-Ref: #options16982
-Node: General options17368
-Ref: #general-options17493
-Node: Command options20894
-Ref: #command-options21045
-Node: Command arguments21445
-Ref: #command-arguments21592
-Node: Queries22472
-Ref: #queries22627
-Node: Special characters in arguments and queries26589
-Ref: #special-characters-in-arguments-and-queries26817
-Node: More escaping27268
-Ref: #more-escaping27430
-Node: Even more escaping27726
-Ref: #even-more-escaping27920
-Node: Less escaping28594
-Ref: #less-escaping28756
-Node: Unicode characters29001
-Ref: #unicode-characters29183
-Node: Input files30595
-Ref: #input-files30731
-Node: Strict mode33030
-Ref: #strict-mode33166
-Node: Output destination33814
-Ref: #output-destination33966
-Node: Output format34391
-Ref: #output-format34543
-Node: Regular expressions36710
-Ref: #regular-expressions36867
-Node: Smart dates38603
-Ref: #smart-dates38754
-Node: Report start & end date40115
-Ref: #report-start-end-date40287
-Node: Report intervals41784
-Ref: #report-intervals41949
-Node: Period expressions42339
-Ref: #period-expressions42499
-Node: Depth limiting46942
-Ref: #depth-limiting47086
-Node: Pivoting47418
-Ref: #pivoting47541
-Node: Valuation49217
-Ref: #valuation49319
-Node: -B Cost50008
-Ref: #b-cost50112
-Node: -V Value50245
-Ref: #v-value50391
-Node: -X Value in specified commodity50586
-Ref: #x-value-in-specified-commodity50785
-Node: Valuation date50934
-Ref: #valuation-date51102
-Node: Market prices51524
-Ref: #market-prices51704
-Node: --infer-value market prices from transactions52646
-Ref: #infer-value-market-prices-from-transactions52895
-Node: Valuation commodity54177
-Ref: #valuation-commodity54386
-Node: Simple valuation examples55612
-Ref: #simple-valuation-examples55814
-Node: --value Flexible valuation56473
-Ref: #value-flexible-valuation56681
-Node: More valuation examples58628
-Ref: #more-valuation-examples58837
-Node: Effect of valuation on reports60842
-Ref: #effect-of-valuation-on-reports61030
-Node: COMMANDS68049
-Ref: #commands68157
-Node: accounts70722
-Ref: #accounts70820
-Node: activity71519
-Ref: #activity71629
-Node: add72012
-Ref: #add72113
-Node: aregister74906
-Ref: #aregister75018
-Node: aregister and custom posting dates76512
-Ref: #aregister-and-custom-posting-dates76676
-Node: balance77497
-Ref: #balance77614
-Node: Single-period flat balance report79269
-Ref: #single-period-flat-balance-report79475
-Node: Single-period tree-mode balance report80179
-Ref: #single-period-tree-mode-balance-report80431
-Node: Multi-period balance report81876
-Ref: #multi-period-balance-report82073
-Ref: #depth-limiting-187766
-Node: Colour support88462
-Ref: #colour-support88599
-Node: Sorting by amount88695
-Ref: #sorting-by-amount88849
-Node: Percentages89343
-Ref: #percentages89512
-Node: Customising single-period balance reports90649
-Ref: #customising-single-period-balance-reports90874
-Node: Budget report92997
-Ref: #budget-report93146
-Node: Budget report start date98476
-Ref: #budget-report-start-date98641
-Node: Nested budgets99973
-Ref: #nested-budgets100118
-Node: balancesheet103558
-Ref: #balancesheet103694
-Node: balancesheetequity105206
-Ref: #balancesheetequity105355
-Node: cashflow106431
-Ref: #cashflow106553
-Node: check107769
-Ref: #check107872
-Node: Basic checks108477
-Ref: #basic-checks108593
-Node: Strict checks109086
-Ref: #strict-checks109225
-Node: Other checks109468
-Ref: #other-checks109606
-Node: Add-on checks109904
-Ref: #add-on-checks110022
-Node: close110475
-Ref: #close110577
-Node: close usage112099
-Ref: #close-usage112192
-Node: codes115005
-Ref: #codes115113
-Node: commodities115825
-Ref: #commodities115952
-Node: descriptions116034
-Ref: #descriptions116162
-Node: diff116466
-Ref: #diff116572
-Node: files117619
-Ref: #files117719
-Node: help117866
-Ref: #help117966
-Node: import119047
-Ref: #import119161
-Node: Importing balance assignments120083
-Ref: #importing-balance-assignments120264
-Node: Commodity display styles120913
-Ref: #commodity-display-styles121084
-Node: incomestatement121213
-Ref: #incomestatement121346
-Node: notes122691
-Ref: #notes122805
-Node: rewrite123173
-Ref: #rewrite123279
-Node: Re-write rules in a file125185
-Ref: #re-write-rules-in-a-file125346
-Node: Diff output format126495
-Ref: #diff-output-format126676
-Node: rewrite vs print --auto127768
-Ref: #rewrite-vs.-print---auto127926
-Node: roi128482
-Ref: #roi128580
-Node: stats140790
-Ref: #stats140889
-Node: tags141677
-Ref: #tags141775
-Node: test142294
-Ref: #test142402
-Node: Add-on commands143149
-Ref: #add-on-commands143295
-Node: Add-on command flags144059
-Ref: #add-on-command-flags144233
-Node: Making add-on commands144813
-Ref: #making-add-on-commands144967
-Node: ENVIRONMENT145560
-Ref: #environment145672
-Node: FILES146657
-Ref: #files-1146760
-Node: LIMITATIONS146973
-Ref: #limitations147092
-Node: TROUBLESHOOTING147835
-Ref: #troubleshooting147948
+Node: Top76
+Node: COMMON TASKS2317
+Ref: #common-tasks2429
+Node: Getting help2836
+Ref: #getting-help2968
+Node: Constructing command lines3519
+Ref: #constructing-command-lines3711
+Node: Starting a journal file4410
+Ref: #starting-a-journal-file4608
+Node: Setting opening balances5795
+Ref: #setting-opening-balances5991
+Node: Recording transactions9124
+Ref: #recording-transactions9304
+Node: Reconciling9861
+Ref: #reconciling10004
+Node: Reporting12249
+Ref: #reporting12389
+Node: Migrating to a new file16309
+Ref: #migrating-to-a-new-file16457
+Node: OPTIONS16755
+Ref: #options16862
+Node: General options17248
+Ref: #general-options17373
+Node: Command options20770
+Ref: #command-options20921
+Node: Command arguments21320
+Ref: #command-arguments21467
+Node: Queries22345
+Ref: #queries22500
+Node: Special characters in arguments and queries26452
+Ref: #special-characters-in-arguments-and-queries26680
+Node: More escaping27130
+Ref: #more-escaping27292
+Node: Even more escaping27586
+Ref: #even-more-escaping27780
+Node: Less escaping28453
+Ref: #less-escaping28615
+Node: Unicode characters28859
+Ref: #unicode-characters29041
+Node: Input files30450
+Ref: #input-files30586
+Node: Strict mode32974
+Ref: #strict-mode33110
+Node: Output destination33760
+Ref: #output-destination33912
+Node: Output format34337
+Ref: #output-format34489
+Node: Regular expressions36652
+Ref: #regular-expressions36809
+Node: Smart dates38550
+Ref: #smart-dates38701
+Node: Report start & end date40040
+Ref: #report-start-end-date40212
+Node: Report intervals41720
+Ref: #report-intervals41885
+Node: Period expressions42273
+Ref: #period-expressions42433
+Node: Depth limiting46812
+Ref: #depth-limiting46956
+Node: Pivoting47287
+Ref: #pivoting47410
+Node: Valuation49089
+Ref: #valuation49191
+Node: -B Cost49879
+Ref: #b-cost49983
+Node: -V Value50116
+Ref: #v-value50262
+Node: -X Value in specified commodity50456
+Ref: #x-value-in-specified-commodity50655
+Node: Valuation date50804
+Ref: #valuation-date50972
+Node: Market prices51394
+Ref: #market-prices51574
+Node: --infer-value market prices from transactions52517
+Ref: #infer-value-market-prices-from-transactions52766
+Node: Valuation commodity54044
+Ref: #valuation-commodity54253
+Node: Simple valuation examples55480
+Ref: #simple-valuation-examples55682
+Node: --value Flexible valuation56344
+Ref: #value-flexible-valuation56552
+Node: More valuation examples58496
+Ref: #more-valuation-examples58705
+Node: Effect of valuation on reports60717
+Ref: #effect-of-valuation-on-reports60905
+Node: COMMANDS68470
+Ref: #commands68578
+Node: accounts71166
+Ref: #accounts71264
+Node: activity71959
+Ref: #activity72069
+Node: add72451
+Ref: #add72552
+Node: aregister75347
+Ref: #aregister75459
+Node: aregister and custom posting dates77654
+Ref: #aregister-and-custom-posting-dates77818
+Node: balance78639
+Ref: #balance78756
+Node: Single-period flat balance report80405
+Ref: #single-period-flat-balance-report80611
+Node: Single-period tree-mode balance report81312
+Ref: #single-period-tree-mode-balance-report81564
+Node: Multi-period balance report83005
+Ref: #multi-period-balance-report83216
+Node: Depth limiting88827
+Ref: #depth-limiting-188988
+Node: Colour support89682
+Ref: #colour-support89833
+Node: Sorting by amount89929
+Ref: #sorting-by-amount90083
+Node: Percentages90573
+Ref: #percentages90742
+Node: Customising single-period balance reports91875
+Ref: #customising-single-period-balance-reports92100
+Node: Budget report94231
+Ref: #budget-report94380
+Node: Budget report start date99639
+Ref: #budget-report-start-date99804
+Node: Nested budgets101131
+Ref: #nested-budgets101276
+Node: balancesheet104663
+Ref: #balancesheet104799
+Node: balancesheetequity106307
+Ref: #balancesheetequity106456
+Node: cashflow107532
+Ref: #cashflow107654
+Node: check108868
+Ref: #check108971
+Node: Basic checks109574
+Ref: #basic-checks109690
+Node: Strict checks110184
+Ref: #strict-checks110323
+Node: Other checks110567
+Ref: #other-checks110705
+Node: Add-on checks111004
+Ref: #add-on-checks111122
+Node: close111576
+Ref: #close111678
+Node: close usage113195
+Ref: #close-usage113288
+Node: codes116096
+Ref: #codes116204
+Node: commodities116917
+Ref: #commodities117044
+Node: descriptions117126
+Ref: #descriptions117254
+Node: diff117558
+Ref: #diff117664
+Node: files118709
+Ref: #files118809
+Node: help118955
+Ref: #help119055
+Node: import120135
+Ref: #import120249
+Node: Importing balance assignments121169
+Ref: #importing-balance-assignments121350
+Node: Commodity display styles121997
+Ref: #commodity-display-styles122168
+Node: incomestatement122297
+Ref: #incomestatement122430
+Node: notes123769
+Ref: #notes123883
+Node: rewrite124250
+Ref: #rewrite124356
+Node: Re-write rules in a file126262
+Ref: #re-write-rules-in-a-file126423
+Node: Diff output format127573
+Ref: #diff-output-format127754
+Node: rewrite vs print --auto128846
+Ref: #rewrite-vs.-print---auto129004
+Node: roi129554
+Ref: #roi129652
+Node: stats141845
+Ref: #stats141944
+Node: tags142731
+Ref: #tags142829
+Node: test143346
+Ref: #test143454
+Node: Add-on commands144199
+Ref: #add-on-commands144345
+Node: Add-on command flags145111
+Ref: #add-on-command-flags145285
+Node: Making add-on commands145866
+Ref: #making-add-on-commands146020
+Node: ENVIRONMENT146614
+Ref: #environment146726
+Node: FILES147708
+Ref: #files-1147811
+Node: LIMITATIONS148024
+Ref: #limitations148143
+Node: TROUBLESHOOTING148884
+Ref: #troubleshooting148997

End Tag Table
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger.txt b/embeddedfiles/hledger.txt
index 286b9a0..f403066 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger.txt
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger.txt
@@ -21,8 +21,8 @@ DESCRIPTION
compatible with ledger(1).
This is hledger's command-line interface (there are also terminal and
- web interfaces). Its basic function is to read a plain text file de-
- scribing financial transactions (in accounting terms, a general jour-
+ web interfaces). Its basic function is to read a plain text file
+ describing financial transactions (in accounting terms, a general jour-
nal) and print useful reports on standard output, or export them as
CSV. hledger can also read some other file formats such as CSV files,
translating them to journal format. Additionally, hledger lists other
@@ -132,9 +132,9 @@ COMMON TASKS
cards..).
To avoid a lot of data entry, you may want to start with just one or
- two accounts, like your checking account or cash wallet; and pick a re-
- cent starting date, like today or the start of the week. You can al-
- ways come back later and add more accounts and older transactions, eg
+ two accounts, like your checking account or cash wallet; and pick a
+ recent starting date, like today or the start of the week. You can
+ always come back later and add more accounts and older transactions, eg
going back to january 1st.
Add an opening balances transaction to the journal, declaring the bal-
@@ -239,8 +239,8 @@ COMMON TASKS
1. Reconcile cash. Count what's in your wallet. Compare with what
hledger reports (hledger bal cash). If they are different, try to
- remember the missing transaction, or look for the error in the al-
- ready-recorded transactions. A register report can be helpful
+ remember the missing transaction, or look for the error in the
+ already-recorded transactions. A register report can be helpful
(hledger reg cash). If you can't find the error, add an adjustment
transaction. Eg if you have $105 after the above, and can't explain
the missing $2, it could be:
@@ -254,16 +254,16 @@ COMMON TASKS
ing -C). If they are different, track down the error or record the
missing transaction(s) or add an adjustment transaction, similar to
the above. Unlike the cash case, you can usually compare the trans-
- action history and running balance from your bank with the one re-
- ported by hledger reg checking -C. This will be easier if you gen-
- erally record transaction dates quite similar to your bank's clear-
- ing dates.
+ action history and running balance from your bank with the one
+ reported by hledger reg checking -C. This will be easier if you
+ generally record transaction dates quite similar to your bank's
+ clearing dates.
3. Repeat for other asset/liability accounts.
- Tip: instead of the register command, use hledger-ui to see a live-up-
- dating register while you edit the journal: hledger-ui --watch --regis-
- ter checking -C
+ Tip: instead of the register command, use hledger-ui to see a live-
+ updating register while you edit the journal: hledger-ui --watch --reg-
+ ister checking -C
After reconciling, it could be a good time to mark the reconciled
transactions' status as "cleared and confirmed", if you want to track
@@ -468,8 +468,8 @@ OPTIONS
assignments)
-s --strict
- do extra error checking (check that all posted accounts are de-
- clared)
+ do extra error checking (check that all posted accounts are
+ declared)
General reporting options:
@@ -499,8 +499,8 @@ OPTIONS
using period expressions syntax
--date2
- match the secondary date instead (see command help for other ef-
- fects)
+ match the secondary date instead (see command help for other
+ effects)
-U --unmarked
include only unmarked postings/txns (can combine with -P or -C)
@@ -525,14 +525,14 @@ OPTIONS
convert amounts to their cost/selling amount at transaction time
-V --market
- convert amounts to their market value in default valuation com-
+ convert amounts to their market value in default valuation com-
modities
-X --exchange=COMM
convert amounts to their market value in commodity COMM
--value
- convert amounts to cost or market value, more flexibly than
+ convert amounts to cost or market value, more flexibly than
-B/-V/-X
--infer-value
@@ -541,15 +541,15 @@ OPTIONS
--auto apply automated posting rules to modify transactions.
--forecast
- generate future transactions from periodic transaction rules,
- for the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui,
+ generate future transactions from periodic transaction rules,
+ for the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui,
also make ordinary future transactions visible.
--color=WHEN (or --colour=WHEN)
- Should color-supporting commands use ANSI color codes in text
- output. 'auto' (default): whenever stdout seems to be a color-
- supporting terminal. 'always' or 'yes': always, useful eg when
- piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
+ Should color-supporting commands use ANSI color codes in text
+ output. 'auto' (default): whenever stdout seems to be a color-
+ supporting terminal. 'always' or 'yes': always, useful eg when
+ piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
NO_COLOR environment variable overrides this.
When a reporting option appears more than once in the command line, the
@@ -558,29 +558,29 @@ OPTIONS
Some reporting options can also be written as query arguments.
Command options
- To see options for a particular command, including command-specific op-
- tions, run: hledger COMMAND -h.
+ To see options for a particular command, including command-specific
+ options, run: hledger COMMAND -h.
- Command-specific options must be written after the command name, eg:
+ Command-specific options must be written after the command name, eg:
hledger print -x.
- Additionally, if the command is an add-on, you may need to put its op-
- tions after a double-hyphen, eg: hledger ui -- --watch. Or, you can
+ Additionally, if the command is an add-on, you may need to put its
+ options after a double-hyphen, eg: hledger ui -- --watch. Or, you can
run the add-on executable directly: hledger-ui --watch.
Command arguments
- Most hledger commands accept arguments after the command name, which
+ Most hledger commands accept arguments after the command name, which
are often a query, filtering the data in some way.
- You can save a set of command line options/arguments in a file, and
- then reuse them by writing @FILENAME as a command line argument. Eg:
- hledger bal @foo.args. (To prevent this, eg if you have an argument
- that begins with a literal @, precede it with --, eg: hledger bal --
+ You can save a set of command line options/arguments in a file, and
+ then reuse them by writing @FILENAME as a command line argument. Eg:
+ hledger bal @foo.args. (To prevent this, eg if you have an argument
+ that begins with a literal @, precede it with --, eg: hledger bal --
@ARG).
- Inside the argument file, each line should contain just one option or
+ Inside the argument file, each line should contain just one option or
argument. Avoid the use of spaces, except inside quotes (or you'll see
- a confusing error). Between a flag and its argument, use = (or noth-
+ a confusing error). Between a flag and its argument, use = (or noth-
ing). Bad:
assets depth:2
@@ -592,7 +592,7 @@ OPTIONS
depth:2
-X=USD
- For special characters (see below), use one less level of quoting than
+ For special characters (see below), use one less level of quoting than
you would at the command prompt. Bad:
-X"$"
@@ -604,16 +604,16 @@ OPTIONS
See also: Save frequently used options.
Queries
- One of hledger's strengths is being able to quickly report on precise
- subsets of your data. Most commands accept an optional query expres-
- sion, written as arguments after the command name, to filter the data
- by date, account name or other criteria. The syntax is similar to a
+ One of hledger's strengths is being able to quickly report on precise
+ subsets of your data. Most commands accept an optional query expres-
+ sion, written as arguments after the command name, to filter the data
+ by date, account name or other criteria. The syntax is similar to a
web search: one or more space-separated search terms, quotes to enclose
- whitespace, prefixes to match specific fields, a not: prefix to negate
+ whitespace, prefixes to match specific fields, a not: prefix to negate
the match.
- We do not yet support arbitrary boolean combinations of search terms;
- instead most commands show transactions/postings/accounts which match
+ We do not yet support arbitrary boolean combinations of search terms;
+ instead most commands show transactions/postings/accounts which match
(or negatively match):
o any of the description terms AND
@@ -634,31 +634,31 @@ OPTIONS
o match all the other terms.
- The following kinds of search terms can be used. Remember these can
+ The following kinds of search terms can be used. Remember these can
also be prefixed with not:, eg to exclude a particular subaccount.
REGEX, acct:REGEX
- match account names by this regular expression. (With no pre-
+ match account names by this regular expression. (With no pre-
fix, acct: is assumed.) same as above
amt:N, amt:<N, amt:<=N, amt:>N, amt:>=N
- match postings with a single-commodity amount that is equal to,
- less than, or greater than N. (Multi-commodity amounts are not
+ match postings with a single-commodity amount that is equal to,
+ less than, or greater than N. (Multi-commodity amounts are not
tested, and will always match.) The comparison has two modes: if
N is preceded by a + or - sign (or is 0), the two signed numbers
- are compared. Otherwise, the absolute magnitudes are compared,
+ are compared. Otherwise, the absolute magnitudes are compared,
ignoring sign.
code:REGEX
match by transaction code (eg check number)
cur:REGEX
- match postings or transactions including any amounts whose cur-
- rency/commodity symbol is fully matched by REGEX. (For a par-
+ match postings or transactions including any amounts whose cur-
+ rency/commodity symbol is fully matched by REGEX. (For a par-
tial match, use .*REGEX.*). Note, to match characters which are
regex-significant, like the dollar sign ($), you need to prepend
- \. And when using the command line you need to add one more
- level of quoting to hide it from the shell, so eg do: hledger
+ \. And when using the command line you need to add one more
+ level of quoting to hide it from the shell, so eg do: hledger
print cur:'\$' or hledger print cur:\\$.
desc:REGEX
@@ -666,20 +666,20 @@ OPTIONS
date:PERIODEXPR
match dates within the specified period. PERIODEXPR is a period
- expression (with no report interval). Examples: date:2016,
- date:thismonth, date:2000/2/1-2/15, date:lastweek-. If the
- --date2 command line flag is present, this matches secondary
+ expression (with no report interval). Examples: date:2016,
+ date:thismonth, date:2000/2/1-2/15, date:lastweek-. If the
+ --date2 command line flag is present, this matches secondary
dates instead.
date2:PERIODEXPR
match secondary dates within the specified period.
depth:N
- match (or display, depending on command) accounts at or above
+ match (or display, depending on command) accounts at or above
this depth
note:REGEX
- match transaction notes (part of description right of |, or
+ match transaction notes (part of description right of |, or
whole description when there's no |)
payee:REGEX
@@ -693,35 +693,35 @@ OPTIONS
match unmarked, pending, or cleared transactions respectively
tag:REGEX[=REGEX]
- match by tag name, and optionally also by tag value. Note a
- tag: query is considered to match a transaction if it matches
- any of the postings. Also remember that postings inherit the
+ match by tag name, and optionally also by tag value. Note a
+ tag: query is considered to match a transaction if it matches
+ any of the postings. Also remember that postings inherit the
tags of their parent transaction.
The following special search term is used automatically in hledger-web,
only:
inacct:ACCTNAME
- tells hledger-web to show the transaction register for this ac-
- count. Can be filtered further with acct etc.
+ tells hledger-web to show the transaction register for this
+ account. Can be filtered further with acct etc.
Some of these can also be expressed as command-line options (eg depth:2
- is equivalent to --depth 2). Generally you can mix options and query
- arguments, and the resulting query will be their intersection (perhaps
+ is equivalent to --depth 2). Generally you can mix options and query
+ arguments, and the resulting query will be their intersection (perhaps
excluding the -p/--period option).
Special characters in arguments and queries
In shell command lines, option and argument values which contain "prob-
lematic" characters, ie spaces, and also characters significant to your
- shell such as <, >, (, ), | and $, should be escaped by enclosing them
+ shell such as <, >, (, ), | and $, should be escaped by enclosing them
in quotes or by writing backslashes before the characters. Eg:
- hledger register -p 'last year' "accounts receivable (receiv-
+ hledger register -p 'last year' "accounts receivable (receiv-
able|payable)" amt:\>100.
More escaping
Characters significant both to the shell and in regular expressions may
- need one extra level of escaping. These include parentheses, the pipe
+ need one extra level of escaping. These include parentheses, the pipe
symbol and the dollar sign. Eg, to match the dollar symbol, bash users
should do:
@@ -733,8 +733,8 @@ OPTIONS
Even more escaping
When hledger runs an add-on executable (eg you type hledger ui, hledger
- runs hledger-ui), it de-escapes command-line options and arguments
- once, so you might need to triple-escape. Eg in bash, running the ui
+ runs hledger-ui), it de-escapes command-line options and arguments
+ once, so you might need to triple-escape. Eg in bash, running the ui
command and matching the dollar sign, it's:
hledger ui cur:'\\$'
@@ -745,6 +745,7 @@ OPTIONS
If you asked why four slashes above, this may help:
+
unescaped: $
escaped: \$
double-escaped: \\$
@@ -759,8 +760,8 @@ OPTIONS
hledger-ui cur:\\$
Less escaping
- Inside an argument file, or in the search field of hledger-ui or
- hledger-web, or at a GHCI prompt, you need one less level of escaping
+ Inside an argument file, or in the search field of hledger-ui or
+ hledger-web, or at a GHCI prompt, you need one less level of escaping
than at the command line. And backslashes may work better than quotes.
Eg:
@@ -769,41 +770,41 @@ OPTIONS
Unicode characters
hledger is expected to handle non-ascii characters correctly:
- o they should be parsed correctly in input files and on the command
- line, by all hledger tools (add, iadd, hledger-web's search/add/edit
+ o they should be parsed correctly in input files and on the command
+ line, by all hledger tools (add, iadd, hledger-web's search/add/edit
forms, etc.)
- o they should be displayed correctly by all hledger tools, and on-
+ o they should be displayed correctly by all hledger tools, and on-
screen alignment should be preserved.
This requires a well-configured environment. Here are some tips:
- o A system locale must be configured, and it must be one that can de-
- code the characters being used. In bash, you can set a locale like
- this: export LANG=en_US.UTF-8. There are some more details in Trou-
- bleshooting. This step is essential - without it, hledger will quit
- on encountering a non-ascii character (as with all GHC-compiled pro-
+ o A system locale must be configured, and it must be one that can
+ decode the characters being used. In bash, you can set a locale like
+ this: export LANG=en_US.UTF-8. There are some more details in Trou-
+ bleshooting. This step is essential - without it, hledger will quit
+ on encountering a non-ascii character (as with all GHC-compiled pro-
grams).
- o your terminal software (eg Terminal.app, iTerm, CMD.exe, xterm..)
+ o your terminal software (eg Terminal.app, iTerm, CMD.exe, xterm..)
must support unicode
o the terminal must be using a font which includes the required unicode
glyphs
- o the terminal should be configured to display wide characters as dou-
+ o the terminal should be configured to display wide characters as dou-
ble width (for report alignment)
- o on Windows, for best results you should run hledger in the same kind
- of environment in which it was built. Eg hledger built in the stan-
- dard CMD.EXE environment (like the binaries on our download page)
- might show display problems when run in a cygwin or msys terminal,
+ o on Windows, for best results you should run hledger in the same kind
+ of environment in which it was built. Eg hledger built in the stan-
+ dard CMD.EXE environment (like the binaries on our download page)
+ might show display problems when run in a cygwin or msys terminal,
and vice versa. (See eg #961).
Input files
hledger reads transactions from a data file (and the add command writes
to it). By default this file is $HOME/.hledger.journal (or on Windows,
- something like C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal). You can override this
+ something like C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal). You can override this
with the $LEDGER_FILE environment variable:
$ setenv LEDGER_FILE ~/finance/2016.journal
@@ -817,52 +818,53 @@ OPTIONS
$ cat some.journal | hledger -f-
- Usually the data file is in hledger's journal format, but it can be in
+ Usually the data file is in hledger's journal format, but it can be in
any of the supported file formats, which currently are:
+
Reader: Reads: Used for file exten-
sions:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
- journal hledger journal files and some Ledger .journal .j .hledger
+ journal hledger journal files and some Ledger .journal .j .hledger
journals, for transactions .ledger
- time- timeclock files, for precise time log- .timeclock
+ time- timeclock files, for precise time log- .timeclock
clock ging
timedot timedot files, for approximate time .timedot
logging
csv comma/semicolon/tab/other-separated .csv .ssv .tsv
values, for data import
- hledger detects the format automatically based on the file extensions
- shown above. If it can't recognise the file extension, it assumes
- journal format. So for non-journal files, it's important to use a
+ hledger detects the format automatically based on the file extensions
+ shown above. If it can't recognise the file extension, it assumes
+ journal format. So for non-journal files, it's important to use a
recognised file extension, so as to either read successfully or to show
relevant error messages.
- When you can't ensure the right file extension, not to worry: you can
+ When you can't ensure the right file extension, not to worry: you can
force a specific reader/format by prefixing the file path with the for-
mat and a colon. Eg to read a .dat file as csv:
$ hledger -f csv:/some/csv-file.dat stats
$ echo 'i 2009/13/1 08:00:00' | hledger print -ftimeclock:-
- You can specify multiple -f options, to read multiple files as one big
+ You can specify multiple -f options, to read multiple files as one big
journal. There are some limitations with this:
o directives in one file will not affect the other files
- o balance assertions will not see any account balances from previous
+ o balance assertions will not see any account balances from previous
files
If you need either of those things, you can
o use a single parent file which includes the others
- o or concatenate the files into one before reading, eg: cat a.journal
+ o or concatenate the files into one before reading, eg: cat a.journal
b.journal | hledger -f- CMD.
Strict mode
hledger checks input files for valid data. By default, the most impor-
- tant errors are detected, while still accepting easy journal files
+ tant errors are detected, while still accepting easy journal files
without a lot of declarations:
o Are the input files parseable, with valid syntax ?
@@ -873,7 +875,7 @@ OPTIONS
With the -s/--strict flag, additional checks are performed:
- o Are all accounts posted to, declared with an account directive ?
+ o Are all accounts posted to, declared with an account directive ?
(Account error checking)
o Are all commodities declared with a commodity directive ? (Commodity
@@ -889,8 +891,8 @@ OPTIONS
$ hledger print > foo.txt
- Some commands (print, register, stats, the balance commands) also pro-
- vide the -o/--output-file option, which does the same thing without
+ Some commands (print, register, stats, the balance commands) also pro-
+ vide the -o/--output-file option, which does the same thing without
needing the shell. Eg:
$ hledger print -o foo.txt
@@ -899,7 +901,7 @@ OPTIONS
Output format
Some commands (print, register, the balance commands) offer a choice of
output format. In addition to the usual plain text format (txt), there
- are CSV (csv), HTML (html), JSON (json) and SQL (sql). This is con-
+ are CSV (csv), HTML (html), JSON (json) and SQL (sql). This is con-
trolled by the -O/--output-format option:
$ hledger print -O csv
@@ -914,92 +916,93 @@ OPTIONS
Some notes about JSON output:
- o This feature is marked experimental, and not yet much used; you
+ o This feature is marked experimental, and not yet much used; you
should expect our JSON to evolve. Real-world feedback is welcome.
- o Our JSON is rather large and verbose, as it is quite a faithful rep-
- resentation of hledger's internal data types. To understand the
+ o Our JSON is rather large and verbose, as it is quite a faithful rep-
+ resentation of hledger's internal data types. To understand the
JSON, read the Haskell type definitions, which are mostly in
https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/blob/master/hledger-
lib/Hledger/Data/Types.hs.
- o hledger represents quantities as Decimal values storing up to 255
- significant digits, eg for repeating decimals. Such numbers can
+ o hledger represents quantities as Decimal values storing up to 255
+ significant digits, eg for repeating decimals. Such numbers can
arise in practice (from automatically-calculated transaction prices),
- and would break most JSON consumers. So in JSON, we show quantities
+ and would break most JSON consumers. So in JSON, we show quantities
as simple Numbers with at most 10 decimal places. We don't limit the
- number of integer digits, but that part is under your control. We
- hope this approach will not cause problems in practice; if you find
+ number of integer digits, but that part is under your control. We
+ hope this approach will not cause problems in practice; if you find
otherwise, please let us know. (Cf #1195)
Notes about SQL output:
- o SQL output is also marked experimental, and much like JSON could use
+ o SQL output is also marked experimental, and much like JSON could use
real-world feedback.
o SQL output is expected to work with sqlite, MySQL and PostgreSQL
- o SQL output is structured with the expectations that statements will
- be executed in the empty database. If you already have tables cre-
- ated via SQL output of hledger, you would probably want to either
+ o SQL output is structured with the expectations that statements will
+ be executed in the empty database. If you already have tables cre-
+ ated via SQL output of hledger, you would probably want to either
clear tables of existing data (via delete or truncate SQL statements)
or drop tables completely as otherwise your postings will be duped.
Regular expressions
hledger uses regular expressions in a number of places:
- o query terms, on the command line and in the hledger-web search form:
+ o query terms, on the command line and in the hledger-web search form:
REGEX, desc:REGEX, cur:REGEX, tag:...=REGEX
o CSV rules conditional blocks: if REGEX ...
- o account alias directives and options: alias /REGEX/ = REPLACEMENT,
+ o account alias directives and options: alias /REGEX/ = REPLACEMENT,
--alias /REGEX/=REPLACEMENT
- hledger's regular expressions come from the regex-tdfa library. If
- they're not doing what you expect, it's important to know exactly what
+ hledger's regular expressions come from the regex-tdfa library. If
+ they're not doing what you expect, it's important to know exactly what
they support:
1. they are case insensitive
- 2. they are infix matching (they do not need to match the entire thing
+ 2. they are infix matching (they do not need to match the entire thing
being matched)
3. they are POSIX ERE (extended regular expressions)
4. they also support GNU word boundaries (\b, \B, \<, \>)
- 5. they do not support backreferences; if you write \1, it will match
- the digit 1. Except when doing text replacement, eg in account
- aliases, where backreferences can be used in the replacement string
+ 5. they do not support backreferences; if you write \1, it will match
+ the digit 1. Except when doing text replacement, eg in account
+ aliases, where backreferences can be used in the replacement string
to reference capturing groups in the search regexp.
- 6. they do not support mode modifiers ((?s)), character classes (\w,
+ 6. they do not support mode modifiers ((?s)), character classes (\w,
\d), or anything else not mentioned above.
Some things to note:
- o In the alias directive and --alias option, regular expressions must
- be enclosed in forward slashes (/REGEX/). Elsewhere in hledger,
+ o In the alias directive and --alias option, regular expressions must
+ be enclosed in forward slashes (/REGEX/). Elsewhere in hledger,
these are not required.
- o In queries, to match a regular expression metacharacter like $ as a
- literal character, prepend a backslash. Eg to search for amounts
+ o In queries, to match a regular expression metacharacter like $ as a
+ literal character, prepend a backslash. Eg to search for amounts
with the dollar sign in hledger-web, write cur:\$.
- o On the command line, some metacharacters like $ have a special mean-
+ o On the command line, some metacharacters like $ have a special mean-
ing to the shell and so must be escaped at least once more. See Spe-
cial characters.
Smart dates
hledger's user interfaces accept a flexible "smart date" syntax (unlike
- dates in the journal file). Smart dates allow some english words, can
- be relative to today's date, and can have less-significant date parts
+ dates in the journal file). Smart dates allow some english words, can
+ be relative to today's date, and can have less-significant date parts
omitted (defaulting to 1).
Examples:
- 2004/10/1, 2004-01-01, exact date, several separators allowed. Year
+
+ 2004/10/1, 2004-01-01, exact date, several separators allowed. Year
2004.9.1 is 4+ digits, month is 1-12, day is 1-31
2004 start of year
2004/10 start of month
@@ -1014,8 +1017,9 @@ OPTIONS
20181201 8 digit YYYYMMDD with valid year month and day
201812 6 digit YYYYMM with valid year and month
- Counterexamples - malformed digit sequences might give surprising re-
- sults:
+ Counterexamples - malformed digit sequences might give surprising
+ results:
+
201813 6 digits with an invalid month is parsed as start of
6-digit year
@@ -1050,13 +1054,15 @@ OPTIONS
Examples:
+
-b 2016/3/17 begin on St. Patrick's day 2016
- -e 12/1 end at the start of december 1st of the current year
+ -e 12/1 end at the start of december 1st of the current year
(11/30 will be the last date included)
-b thismonth all transactions on or after the 1st of the current month
-p thismonth all transactions in the current month
- date:2016/3/17.. the above written as queries instead (.. can also be re-
- placed with -)
+ date:2016/3/17.. the above written as queries instead (.. can also be
+ replaced with -)
+
date:..12/1
date:thismonth..
date:thismonth
@@ -1066,30 +1072,32 @@ OPTIONS
ance and activity will divide their reports into multiple subperiods.
The basic intervals can be selected with one of -D/--daily,
-W/--weekly, -M/--monthly, -Q/--quarterly, or -Y/--yearly. More com-
- plex intervals may be specified with a period expression. Report in-
- tervals can not be specified with a query.
+ plex intervals may be specified with a period expression. Report
+ intervals can not be specified with a query.
Period expressions
The -p/--period option accepts period expressions, a shorthand way of
- expressing a start date, end date, and/or report interval all at once.
+ expressing a start date, end date, and/or report interval all at once.
- Here's a basic period expression specifying the first quarter of 2009.
- Note, hledger always treats start dates as inclusive and end dates as
+ Here's a basic period expression specifying the first quarter of 2009.
+ Note, hledger always treats start dates as inclusive and end dates as
exclusive:
-p "from 2009/1/1 to 2009/4/1"
- Keywords like "from" and "to" are optional, and so are the spaces, as
- long as you don't run two dates together. "to" can also be written as
+ Keywords like "from" and "to" are optional, and so are the spaces, as
+ long as you don't run two dates together. "to" can also be written as
".." or "-". These are equivalent to the above:
+
-p "2009/1/1 2009/4/1"
-p2009/1/1to2009/4/1
-p2009/1/1..2009/4/1
- Dates are smart dates, so if the current year is 2009, the above can
+ Dates are smart dates, so if the current year is 2009, the above can
also be written as:
+
-p "1/1 4/1"
-p "january-apr"
-p "this year to 4/1"
@@ -1097,67 +1105,75 @@ OPTIONS
If you specify only one date, the missing start or end date will be the
earliest or latest transaction in your journal:
+
-p "from 2009/1/1" everything after january
1, 2009
-p "from 2009/1" the same
-p "from 2009" the same
- -p "to 2009" everything before january
+ -p "to 2009" everything before january
1, 2009
- A single date with no "from" or "to" defines both the start and end
+ A single date with no "from" or "to" defines both the start and end
date like so:
- -p "2009" the year 2009; equivalent
+
+ -p "2009" the year 2009; equivalent
to "2009/1/1 to 2010/1/1"
- -p "2009/1" the month of jan; equiva-
+ -p "2009/1" the month of jan; equiva-
lent to "2009/1/1 to
2009/2/1"
- -p "2009/1/1" just that day; equivalent
+ -p "2009/1/1" just that day; equivalent
to "2009/1/1 to 2009/1/2"
Or you can specify a single quarter like so:
- -p "2009Q1" first quarter of 2009,
+
+
+
+ -p "2009Q1" first quarter of 2009,
equivalent to "2009/1/1 to
2009/4/1"
-p "q4" fourth quarter of the cur-
rent year
- The argument of -p can also begin with, or be, a report interval ex-
- pression. The basic report intervals are daily, weekly, monthly, quar-
- terly, or yearly, which have the same effect as the -D,-W,-M,-Q, or -Y
- flags. Between report interval and start/end dates (if any), the word
- in is optional. Examples:
+ The argument of -p can also begin with, or be, a report interval
+ expression. The basic report intervals are daily, weekly, monthly,
+ quarterly, or yearly, which have the same effect as the -D,-W,-M,-Q, or
+ -Y flags. Between report interval and start/end dates (if any), the
+ word in is optional. Examples:
+
-p "weekly from 2009/1/1 to 2009/4/1"
-p "monthly in 2008"
-p "quarterly"
- Note that weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly intervals will always
+ Note that weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly intervals will always
start on the first day on week, month, quarter or year accordingly, and
- will end on the last day of same period, even if associated period ex-
- pression specifies different explicit start and end date.
+ will end on the last day of same period, even if associated period
+ expression specifies different explicit start and end date.
For example:
- -p "weekly from 2009/1/1 starts on 2008/12/29, closest preceding Mon-
+
+ -p "weekly from 2009/1/1 starts on 2008/12/29, closest preceding Mon-
to 2009/4/1" day
- -p "monthly in starts on 2018/11/01
+ -p "monthly in starts on 2018/11/01
2008/11/25"
- -p "quarterly from starts on 2009/04/01, ends on 2009/06/30,
+ -p "quarterly from starts on 2009/04/01, ends on 2009/06/30,
2009-05-05 to 2009-06-01" which are first and last days of Q2 2009
-p "yearly from starts on 2009/01/01, first day of 2009
2009-12-29"
- The following more complex report intervals are also supported: bi-
- weekly, fortnightly, bimonthly, every day|week|month|quarter|year, ev-
- ery N days|weeks|months|quarters|years.
+ The following more complex report intervals are also supported:
+ biweekly, fortnightly, bimonthly, every day|week|month|quarter|year,
+ every N days|weeks|months|quarters|years.
All of these will start on the first day of the requested period and
end on the last one, as described above.
Examples:
+
-p "bimonthly from 2008" periods will have boundaries on 2008/01/01,
2008/03/01, ...
-p "every 2 weeks" starts on closest preceding Monday
@@ -1169,16 +1185,18 @@ OPTIONS
every Nth day of week, every WEEKDAYNAME (eg
mon|tue|wed|thu|fri|sat|sun), every Nth day [of month], every Nth WEEK-
- DAYNAME [of month], every MM/DD [of year], every Nth MMM [of year], ev-
- ery MMM Nth [of year].
+ DAYNAME [of month], every MM/DD [of year], every Nth MMM [of year],
+ every MMM Nth [of year].
Examples:
+
-p "every 2nd day of periods will go from Tue to Tue
week"
-p "every Tue" same
-p "every 15th day" period boundaries will be on 15th of each
month
+
-p "every 2nd Monday" period boundaries will be on second Monday of
each month
-p "every 11/05" yearly periods with boundaries on 5th of Nov
@@ -1198,9 +1216,9 @@ OPTIONS
Depth limiting
With the --depth N option (short form: -N), commands like account, bal-
ance and register will show only the uppermost accounts in the account
- tree, down to level N. Use this when you want a summary with less de-
- tail. This flag has the same effect as a depth: query argument (so -2,
- --depth=2 or depth:2 are equivalent).
+ tree, down to level N. Use this when you want a summary with less
+ detail. This flag has the same effect as a depth: query argument (so
+ -2, --depth=2 or depth:2 are equivalent).
Pivoting
Normally hledger sums amounts, and organizes them in a hierarchy, based
@@ -1238,8 +1256,8 @@ OPTIONS
--------------------
0
- One way to show only amounts with a member: value (using a query, de-
- scribed below):
+ One way to show only amounts with a member: value (using a query,
+ described below):
$ hledger balance --pivot member tag:member=.
-2 EUR John Doe
@@ -1527,8 +1545,8 @@ OPTIONS
2000-03-01
(a) 1 B
- You may need to explicitly set a commodity's display style, when re-
- verse prices are used. Eg this output might be surprising:
+ You may need to explicitly set a commodity's display style, when
+ reverse prices are used. Eg this output might be surprising:
P 2000-01-01 A 2B
@@ -1541,10 +1559,10 @@ OPTIONS
a 0
b 0
- Explanation: because there's no amount or commodity directive specify-
- ing a display style for A, 0.5A gets the default style, which shows no
+ Explanation: because there's no amount or commodity directive specify-
+ ing a display style for A, 0.5A gets the default style, which shows no
decimal digits. Because the displayed amount looks like zero, the com-
- modity symbol and minus sign are not displayed either. Adding a com-
+ modity symbol and minus sign are not displayed either. Adding a com-
modity directive sets a more useful display style for A:
P 2000-01-01 A 2B
@@ -1560,93 +1578,88 @@ OPTIONS
b -0.50A
Effect of valuation on reports
- Here is a reference for how valuation is supposed to affect each part
- of hledger's reports (and a glossary). (It's wide, you'll have to
- scroll sideways.) It may be useful when troubleshooting. If you find
- problems, please report them, ideally with a reproducible example. Re-
- lated: #329, #1083.
-
- Report type -B, -V, -X --value=then --value=end --value=DATE,
- --value=cost --value=now
- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ Here is a reference for how valuation is supposed to affect each part
+ of hledger's reports (and a glossary). (It's wide, you'll have to
+ scroll sideways.) It may be useful when troubleshooting. If you find
+ problems, please report them, ideally with a reproducible example.
+ Related: #329, #1083.
+
+
+ Report type -B, -V, -X --value=then --value=end --value=DATE,
+ --value=cost --value=now
+ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
print
- posting cost value at re- value at value at re- value at
- amounts port end or posting date port or jour- DATE/today
- today nal end
- balance as- unchanged unchanged unchanged unchanged unchanged
- ser-
- tions/as-
- signments
+ posting cost value at value at value at value at
+ amounts report end or posting date report or DATE/today
+ today journal end
+ balance unchanged unchanged unchanged unchanged unchanged
+ asser-
+ tions/assign-
+ ments
register
- starting cost value at day not sup- value at day value at
- balance before report ported before report DATE/today
- (-H) or journal or journal
- start start
- posting cost value at re- value at value at re- value at
- amounts port end or posting date port or jour- DATE/today
- today nal end
- summary summarised value at pe- sum of post- value at pe- value at
- posting cost riod ends ings in in- riod ends DATE/today
- amounts terval, val-
- with report ued at in-
- interval terval start
- running to- sum/average sum/average sum/average sum/average sum/average
- tal/average of displayed of displayed of displayed of displayed of displayed
- values values values values values
-
- balance
- (bs, bse,
- cf, is)
- balance sums of costs value at re- not sup- value at re- value at
- changes port end or ported port or jour- DATE/today of
- today of sums nal end of sums of post-
- of postings sums of post- ings
- ings
- budget like balance like balance not sup- like balances like balance
- amounts changes changes ported changes
+ starting bal- cost value at day not sup- value at day value at
+ ance (-H) before report ported before report DATE/today
+ or journal or journal
+ start start
+
+ posting cost value at value at value at value at
+ amounts report end or posting date report or DATE/today
+ today journal end
+ summary post- summarised value at sum of post- value at value at
+ ing amounts cost period ends ings in period ends DATE/today
+ with report interval,
+ interval valued at
+ interval
+ start
+ running sum/average sum/average sum/average sum/average sum/average
+ total/average of displayed of displayed of displayed of displayed of displayed
+ values values values values values
+
+ balance (bs,
+ bse, cf, is)
+ balance sums of costs value at not sup- value at value at
+ changes report end or ported report or DATE/today of
+ today of sums journal end sums of post-
+ of postings of sums of ings
+ postings
+ budget like balance like balance not sup- like balances like balance
+ amounts changes changes ported changes
(--budget)
- grand total sum of dis- sum of dis- not sup- sum of dis- sum of dis-
- played values played values ported played values played values
+ grand total sum of dis- sum of dis- not sup- sum of dis- sum of dis-
+ played values played values ported played values played values
- balance
- (bs, bse,
- cf, is)
- with report
+ balance (bs,
+ bse, cf, is)
+ with report
interval
- starting sums of costs value at re- not sup- value at re- sums of post-
- balances of postings port start of ported port start of ings before
- (-H) before report sums of all sums of all report start
- start postings be- postings be-
- fore report fore report
- start start
-
-
-
- balance sums of costs same as not sup- balance value at
- changes of postings --value=end ported change in DATE/today of
- (bal, is, in period each period, sums of post-
- bs valued at pe- ings
- --change, riod ends
- cf
- --change)
- end bal- sums of costs same as not sup- period end value at
- ances (bal of postings --value=end ported balances, DATE/today of
- -H, is --H, from before valued at pe- sums of post-
- bs, cf) report start riod ends ings
- to period end
- budget like balance like balance not sup- like balances like balance
- amounts changes/end changes/end ported changes/end
- (--budget) balances balances balances
- row totals, sums, aver- sums, aver- not sup- sums, aver- sums, aver-
- row aver- ages of dis- ages of dis- ported ages of dis- ages of dis-
- ages (-T, played values played values played values played values
- -A)
- column to- sums of dis- sums of dis- not sup- sums of dis- sums of dis-
- tals played values played values ported played values played values
- grand to- sum, average sum, average not sup- sum, average sum, average
- tal, grand of column to- of column to- ported of column to- of column to-
- average tals tals tals tals
+ starting bal- sums of costs value at not sup- value at sums of post-
+ ances (-H) of postings report start ported report start ings before
+ before report of sums of of sums of report start
+ start all postings all postings
+ before report before report
+ start start
+ balance sums of costs same as not sup- balance value at
+ changes (bal, of postings --value=end ported change in DATE/today of
+ is, bs in period each period, sums of post-
+ --change, cf valued at ings
+ --change) period ends
+ end balances sums of costs same as not sup- period end value at
+ (bal -H, is of postings --value=end ported balances, DATE/today of
+ --H, bs, cf) from before valued at sums of post-
+ report start period ends ings
+ to period end
+ budget like balance like balance not sup- like balances like balance
+ amounts changes/end changes/end ported changes/end
+ (--budget) balances balances balances
+ row totals, sums, aver- sums, aver- not sup- sums, aver- sums, aver-
+ row averages ages of dis- ages of dis- ported ages of dis- ages of dis-
+ (-T, -A) played values played values played values played values
+ column totals sums of dis- sums of dis- not sup- sums of dis- sums of dis-
+ played values played values ported played values played values
+ grand total, sum, average sum, average not sup- sum, average sum, average
+ grand average of column of column ported of column of column
+ totals totals totals totals
--cumulative is omitted to save space, it works like -H but with a zero
@@ -1656,39 +1669,39 @@ OPTIONS
cost calculated using price(s) recorded in the transaction(s).
- value market value using available market price declarations, or the
+ value market value using available market price declarations, or the
unchanged amount if no conversion rate can be found.
report start
- the first day of the report period specified with -b or -p or
+ the first day of the report period specified with -b or -p or
date:, otherwise today.
report or journal start
- the first day of the report period specified with -b or -p or
- date:, otherwise the earliest transaction date in the journal,
+ the first day of the report period specified with -b or -p or
+ date:, otherwise the earliest transaction date in the journal,
otherwise today.
report end
- the last day of the report period specified with -e or -p or
+ the last day of the report period specified with -e or -p or
date:, otherwise today.
report or journal end
- the last day of the report period specified with -e or -p or
- date:, otherwise the latest transaction date in the journal,
+ the last day of the report period specified with -e or -p or
+ date:, otherwise the latest transaction date in the journal,
otherwise today.
report interval
- a flag (-D/-W/-M/-Q/-Y) or period expression that activates the
+ a flag (-D/-W/-M/-Q/-Y) or period expression that activates the
report's multi-period mode (whether showing one or many subperi-
ods).
COMMANDS
- hledger provides a number of commands for producing reports and manag-
- ing your data. Run hledger with no arguments to list the commands
+ hledger provides a number of commands for producing reports and manag-
+ ing your data. Run hledger with no arguments to list the commands
available.
To run a command, write its name (or its abbreviation shown in the com-
- mands list, or any unambiguous prefix of the name) as hledger's first
+ mands list, or any unambiguous prefix of the name) as hledger's first
argument. Eg: hledger balance or hledger bal.
Here are the built-in commands:
@@ -1729,8 +1742,8 @@ COMMANDS
o activity - show postings-per-interval bar charts
- o balance (b, bal) - show balance changes/end balances/budgets in ac-
- counts
+ o balance (b, bal) - show balance changes/end balances/budgets in
+ accounts
o codes - show transaction codes
@@ -1750,10 +1763,10 @@ COMMANDS
o print-unique - show only transactions with unique descriptions
- o register (r, reg) - show postings in one or more accounts & running
+ o register (r, reg) - show postings in one or more accounts & running
total
- o register-match - show a recent posting that best matches a descrip-
+ o register-match - show a recent posting that best matches a descrip-
tion
o stats - show journal statistics
@@ -1768,13 +1781,13 @@ COMMANDS
accounts, a
Show account names.
- This command lists account names, either declared with account direc-
- tives (--declared), posted to (--used), or both (the default). With
- query arguments, only matched account names and account names refer-
- enced by matched postings are shown. It shows a flat list by default.
- With --tree, it uses indentation to show the account hierarchy. In
- flat mode you can add --drop N to omit the first few account name com-
- ponents. Account names can be depth-clipped with depth:N or --depth N
+ This command lists account names, either declared with account direc-
+ tives (--declared), posted to (--used), or both (the default). With
+ query arguments, only matched account names and account names refer-
+ enced by matched postings are shown. It shows a flat list by default.
+ With --tree, it uses indentation to show the account hierarchy. In
+ flat mode you can add --drop N to omit the first few account name com-
+ ponents. Account names can be depth-clipped with depth:N or --depth N
or -N.
Examples:
@@ -1793,8 +1806,8 @@ COMMANDS
activity
Show an ascii barchart of posting counts per interval.
- The activity command displays an ascii histogram showing transaction
- counts by day, week, month or other reporting interval (by day is the
+ The activity command displays an ascii histogram showing transaction
+ counts by day, week, month or other reporting interval (by day is the
default). With query arguments, it counts only matched transactions.
Examples:
@@ -1807,25 +1820,25 @@ COMMANDS
add
add
- Prompt for transactions and add them to the journal. Any arguments
+ Prompt for transactions and add them to the journal. Any arguments
will be used as default inputs for the first N prompts.
- Many hledger users edit their journals directly with a text editor, or
- generate them from CSV. For more interactive data entry, there is the
- add command, which prompts interactively on the console for new trans-
+ Many hledger users edit their journals directly with a text editor, or
+ generate them from CSV. For more interactive data entry, there is the
+ add command, which prompts interactively on the console for new trans-
actions, and appends them to the journal file (if there are multiple -f
- FILE options, the first file is used.) Existing transactions are not
- changed. This is the only hledger command that writes to the journal
+ FILE options, the first file is used.) Existing transactions are not
+ changed. This is the only hledger command that writes to the journal
file.
To use it, just run hledger add and follow the prompts. You can add as
- many transactions as you like; when you are finished, enter . or press
+ many transactions as you like; when you are finished, enter . or press
control-d or control-c to exit.
Features:
- o add tries to provide useful defaults, using the most similar (by de-
- scription) recent transaction (filtered by the query, if any) as a
+ o add tries to provide useful defaults, using the most similar (by
+ description) recent transaction (filtered by the query, if any) as a
template.
o You can also set the initial defaults with command line arguments.
@@ -1833,10 +1846,10 @@ COMMANDS
o Readline-style edit keys can be used during data entry.
o The tab key will auto-complete whenever possible - accounts, descrip-
- tions, dates (yesterday, today, tomorrow). If the input area is
+ tions, dates (yesterday, today, tomorrow). If the input area is
empty, it will insert the default value.
- o If the journal defines a default commodity, it will be added to any
+ o If the journal defines a default commodity, it will be added to any
bare numbers entered.
o A parenthesised transaction code may be entered following a date.
@@ -1880,41 +1893,56 @@ COMMANDS
aregister
aregister, areg
- Show transactions affecting a particular account, and the account's
- running balance.
-
- aregister shows the transactions affecting a particular account (and
- its subaccounts), from the point of view of that account. Each line
- shows:
- o the transaction's (or posting's, see below) date
+ Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account,
+ with each line item representing one transaction.
- o the names of the other account(s) involved
+ aregister shows the transactions affecting a particular account and its
+ subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole transaction - as
+ in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other accounting apps.
- o the net change to this account's balance
+ Note this is unlike the register command, which shows individual post-
+ ings and does not always show a single account or a historical balance.
- o the account's historical running balance (including balance from
- transactions before the report start date).
+ A reminder, "historical" balances include any balance from transactions
+ before the report start date, so (if opening balances are recorded cor-
+ rectly) aregister will show the real-world balances of an account, as
+ you would see in a bank statement.
- With aregister, each line represents a whole transaction - as in
- hledger-ui, hledger-web, and your bank statement. By contrast, the
- register command shows individual postings, across all accounts. You
- might prefer aregister for reconciling with real-world asset/liability
- accounts, and register for reviewing detailed revenues/expenses.
+ As a quick rule of thumb, use aregister for reconciling real-world
+ asset/liability accounts and register for reviewing detailed rev-
+ enues/expenses.
- An account must be specified as the first argument, which should be the
- full account name or an account pattern (regular expression). aregis-
- ter will show transactions in this account (the first one matched) and
- any of its subaccounts.
+ aregister shows the register for just one account (and its subac-
+ counts). This account must be specified as the first argument. You
+ can write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive regular
+ expression which will select the alphabetically first matched account.
+ (Eg if you have assets:aaa:checking and assets:bbb:checking accounts,
+ hledger areg checking would select assets:aaa:checking.)
- Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transac-
+ Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transac-
tions shown.
- Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default; add
+ Each aregister line item shows:
+
+ o the transaction's date (or the relevant posting's date if different,
+ see below)
+
+ o the names of all the other account(s) involved in this transaction
+ (probably abbreviated)
+
+ o the total change to this account's balance from this transaction
+
+ o the account's historical running balance after this transaction.
+
+ Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default; add
the -E/--empty flag to show them.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format op-
- tions The output formats supported are txt, csv, and json.
+ aregister ignores a depth limit, so its final total will always match a
+ balance report with similar arguments.
+
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and json.
aregister and custom posting dates
Transactions whose date is outside the report period can still be
@@ -1929,8 +1957,8 @@ COMMANDS
Examples:
- Show all transactions and historical running balance in the first ac-
- count whose name contains "checking":
+ Show all transactions and historical running balance in the first
+ account whose name contains "checking":
$ hledger areg checking
@@ -1963,19 +1991,20 @@ COMMANDS
real-world account balances. In some cases the -H/--historical flag is
used to ensure this (more below).
- This command also supports the output destination and output format op-
- tions The output formats supported are (in most modes): txt, csv, html,
- and json.
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are (in most modes): txt, csv,
+ html, and json.
The balance command can produce several styles of report:
+
Single-period flat balance report
This is the default for hledger's balance command: a flat list of all
- (or with a query, matched) accounts, showing full account names. Ac-
- counts are sorted by declaration order if any, and then by account
+ (or with a query, matched) accounts, showing full account names.
+ Accounts are sorted by declaration order if any, and then by account
name. Accounts which have zero balance are not shown unless -E/--empty
- is used. The reported balances' total is shown as the last line, un-
- less disabled by -N/--no-total.
+ is used. The reported balances' total is shown as the last line,
+ unless disabled by -N/--no-total.
$ hledger bal
$1 assets:bank:saving
@@ -1988,6 +2017,7 @@ COMMANDS
--------------------
0
+
Single-period tree-mode balance report
With the -t/--tree flag, accounts are displayed hierarchically, showing
subaccounts as short names indented below their parent. (This is the
@@ -2020,8 +2050,8 @@ COMMANDS
Note this causes some repetition, and the final total (0) is the sum of
the top-level balances, not of all the balances shown.
- Each group of sibling accounts is sorted separately, by declaration or-
- der and then by account name.
+ Each group of sibling accounts is sorted separately, by declaration
+ order and then by account name.
Multi-period balance report
Multi-period balance reports are a very useful hledger feature, acti-
@@ -2094,12 +2124,12 @@ COMMANDS
ods will be "full" and comparable to the others.
The -E/--empty flag does two things in multicolumn balance reports:
- first, the report will show all columns within the specified report pe-
- riod (without -E, leading and trailing columns with all zeroes are not
- shown). Second, all accounts which existed at the report start date
- will be considered, not just the ones with activity during the report
- period (use -E to include low-activity accounts which would otherwise
- would be omitted).
+ first, the report will show all columns within the specified report
+ period (without -E, leading and trailing columns with all zeroes are
+ not shown). Second, all accounts which existed at the report start
+ date will be considered, not just the ones with activity during the
+ report period (use -E to include low-activity accounts which would oth-
+ erwise would be omitted).
The -T/--row-total flag adds an additional column showing the total for
each row.
@@ -2168,14 +2198,14 @@ COMMANDS
your biggest averaged monthly expenses first.
Revenues and liability balances are typically negative, however, so -S
- shows these in reverse order. To work around this, you can add --in-
- vert to flip the signs. Or, use one of the sign-flipping reports like
- balancesheet or incomestatement, which also support -S. Eg: hledger is
- -MAS.
+ shows these in reverse order. To work around this, you can add
+ --invert to flip the signs. Or, use one of the sign-flipping reports
+ like balancesheet or incomestatement, which also support -S. Eg:
+ hledger is -MAS.
Percentages
- With -% or --percent, balance reports show each account's value ex-
- pressed as a percentage of the column's total. This is useful to get
+ With -% or --percent, balance reports show each account's value
+ expressed as a percentage of the column's total. This is useful to get
an overview of the relative sizes of account balances. For example to
obtain an overview of expenses:
@@ -2196,9 +2226,10 @@ COMMANDS
likely useless. Especially in a balance report that sums up to zero
(eg hledger balance -B) all percentage values will be zero.
- This flag does not work if the report contains any mixed commodity ac-
- counts. If there are mixed commodity accounts in the report be sure to
- use -V or -B to coerce the report into using a single commodity.
+ This flag does not work if the report contains any mixed commodity
+ accounts. If there are mixed commodity accounts in the report be sure
+ to use -V or -B to coerce the report into using a single commodity.
+
Customising single-period balance reports
You can customise the layout of single-period balance reports with
@@ -2246,9 +2277,9 @@ COMMANDS
o %, - render on one line, comma-separated
- There are some quirks. Eg in one-line mode, %(depth_spacer) has no ef-
- fect, instead %(account) has indentation built in. Experimentation may
- be needed to get pleasing results.
+ There are some quirks. Eg in one-line mode, %(depth_spacer) has no
+ effect, instead %(account) has indentation built in. Experimentation
+ may be needed to get pleasing results.
Some example formats:
@@ -2271,8 +2302,8 @@ COMMANDS
goals are defined by periodic transactions. This is very useful for
comparing planned and actual income, expenses, time usage, etc.
- For example, you can take average monthly expenses in the common ex-
- pense categories to construct a minimal monthly budget:
+ For example, you can take average monthly expenses in the common
+ expense categories to construct a minimal monthly budget:
;; Budget
~ monthly
@@ -2437,10 +2468,10 @@ COMMANDS
budget for personal expenses is an additional $1000, which implicitly
means that budget for both expenses:personal and expenses is $1100.
- Transactions in expenses:personal:electronics will be counted both to-
- wards its $100 budget and $1100 of expenses:personal , and transactions
- in any other subaccount of expenses:personal would be counted towards
- only towards the budget of expenses:personal.
+ Transactions in expenses:personal:electronics will be counted both
+ towards its $100 budget and $1100 of expenses:personal , and transac-
+ tions in any other subaccount of expenses:personal would be counted
+ towards only towards the budget of expenses:personal.
For example, let's consider these transactions:
@@ -2509,8 +2540,8 @@ COMMANDS
The asset and liability accounts shown are those accounts declared with
the Asset or Cash or Liability type, or otherwise all accounts under a
- top-level asset or liability account (case insensitive, plurals al-
- lowed).
+ top-level asset or liability account (case insensitive, plurals
+ allowed).
Example:
@@ -2542,9 +2573,9 @@ COMMANDS
sense). Instead of absolute values percentages can be displayed with
-%.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format op-
- tions The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experimen-
- tal) json.
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ mental) json.
balancesheetequity
balancesheetequity, bse
@@ -2552,10 +2583,10 @@ COMMANDS
ances of asset, liability and equity accounts. Amounts are shown with
normal positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
- The asset, liability and equity accounts shown are those accounts de-
- clared with the Asset, Cash, Liability or Equity type, or otherwise all
- accounts under a top-level asset, liability or equity account (case in-
- sensitive, plurals allowed).
+ The asset, liability and equity accounts shown are those accounts
+ declared with the Asset, Cash, Liability or Equity type, or otherwise
+ all accounts under a top-level asset, liability or equity account (case
+ insensitive, plurals allowed).
Example:
@@ -2583,9 +2614,9 @@ COMMANDS
--------------------
0
- This command also supports the output destination and output format op-
- tions The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experimen-
- tal) json.
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ mental) json.
cashflow
cashflow, cf
@@ -2595,8 +2626,8 @@ COMMANDS
The "cash" accounts shown are those accounts declared with the Cash
type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-level asset account (case
- insensitive, plural allowed) which do not have fixed, investment, re-
- ceivable or A/R in their name.
+ insensitive, plural allowed) which do not have fixed, investment,
+ receivable or A/R in their name.
Example:
@@ -2620,9 +2651,9 @@ COMMANDS
mode with --change/--cumulative/--historical. Instead of absolute val-
ues percentages can be displayed with -%.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format op-
- tions The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experimen-
- tal) json.
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ mental) json.
check
check
@@ -2644,15 +2675,15 @@ COMMANDS
o parseable - data files are well-formed and can be successfully parsed
- o autobalanced - all transactions are balanced, inferring missing
- amounts where necessary, and possibly converting commodities using
+ o autobalanced - all transactions are balanced, inferring missing
+ amounts where necessary, and possibly converting commodities using
transaction prices or automatically-inferred transaction prices
- o assertions - all balance assertions in the journal are passing.
+ o assertions - all balance assertions in the journal are passing.
(This check can be disabled with -I/--ignore-assertions.)
Strict checks
- These are always run by this and other commands when -s/--strict is
+ These are always run by this and other commands when -s/--strict is
used (strict mode):
o accounts - all account names used by transactions have been declared
@@ -2660,13 +2691,13 @@ COMMANDS
o commodities - all commodity symbols used have been declared
Other checks
- These checks can be run by specifying their names as arguments to the
+ These checks can be run by specifying their names as arguments to the
check command:
- o ordereddates - transactions are ordered by date (similar to the old
+ o ordereddates - transactions are ordered by date (similar to the old
check-dates command)
- o uniqueleafnames - all account leaf names are unique (similar to the
+ o uniqueleafnames - all account leaf names are unique (similar to the
old check-dupes command)
Add-on checks
@@ -2674,10 +2705,10 @@ COMMANDS
as add-on commands in https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/tree/mas-
ter/bin:
- o hledger-check-tagfiles - all tag values containing / (a forward
+ o hledger-check-tagfiles - all tag values containing / (a forward
slash) exist as file paths
- o hledger-check-fancyassertions - more complex balance assertions are
+ o hledger-check-fancyassertions - more complex balance assertions are
passing
You could make your own similar scripts to perform custom checks; Cook-
@@ -2685,65 +2716,65 @@ COMMANDS
close
close, equity
- Prints a "closing balances" transaction and an "opening balances"
+ Prints a "closing balances" transaction and an "opening balances"
transaction that bring account balances to and from zero, respectively.
These can be added to your journal file(s), eg to bring asset/liability
- balances forward into a new journal file, or to close out revenues/ex-
- penses to retained earnings at the end of a period.
+ balances forward into a new journal file, or to close out rev-
+ enues/expenses to retained earnings at the end of a period.
- You can print just one of these transactions by using the --close or
- --open flag. You can customise their descriptions with the --close-
+ You can print just one of these transactions by using the --close or
+ --open flag. You can customise their descriptions with the --close-
desc and --open-desc options.
One amountless posting to "equity:opening/closing balances" is added to
- balance the transactions, by default. You can customise this account
- name with --close-acct and --open-acct; if you specify only one of
+ balance the transactions, by default. You can customise this account
+ name with --close-acct and --open-acct; if you specify only one of
these, it will be used for both.
With --x/--explicit, the equity posting's amount will be shown. And if
- it involves multiple commodities, a posting for each commodity will be
+ it involves multiple commodities, a posting for each commodity will be
shown, as with the print command.
- With --interleaved, the equity postings are shown next to the postings
+ With --interleaved, the equity postings are shown next to the postings
they balance, which makes troubleshooting easier.
By default, transaction prices in the journal are ignored when generat-
- ing the closing/opening transactions. With --show-costs, this cost in-
- formation is preserved (balance -B reports will be unchanged after the
- transition). Separate postings are generated for each cost in each
- commodity. Note this can generate very large journal entries, if you
+ ing the closing/opening transactions. With --show-costs, this cost
+ information is preserved (balance -B reports will be unchanged after
+ the transition). Separate postings are generated for each cost in each
+ commodity. Note this can generate very large journal entries, if you
have many foreign currency or investment transactions.
close usage
If you split your journal files by time (eg yearly), you will typically
- run this command at the end of the year, and save the closing transac-
- tion as last entry of the old file, and the opening transaction as the
- first entry of the new file. This makes the files self contained, so
- that correct balances are reported no matter which of them are loaded.
- Ie, if you load just one file, the balances are initialised correctly;
- or if you load several files, the redundant closing/opening transac-
- tions cancel each other out. (They will show up in print or register
- reports; you can exclude them with a query like not:desc:'(open-
+ run this command at the end of the year, and save the closing transac-
+ tion as last entry of the old file, and the opening transaction as the
+ first entry of the new file. This makes the files self contained, so
+ that correct balances are reported no matter which of them are loaded.
+ Ie, if you load just one file, the balances are initialised correctly;
+ or if you load several files, the redundant closing/opening transac-
+ tions cancel each other out. (They will show up in print or register
+ reports; you can exclude them with a query like not:desc:'(open-
ing|closing) balances'.)
If you're running a business, you might also use this command to "close
- the books" at the end of an accounting period, transferring income
- statement account balances to retained earnings. (You may want to
+ the books" at the end of an accounting period, transferring income
+ statement account balances to retained earnings. (You may want to
change the equity account name to something like "equity:retained earn-
ings".)
- By default, the closing transaction is dated yesterday, the balances
- are calculated as of end of yesterday, and the opening transaction is
- dated today. To close on some other date, use: hledger close -e OPEN-
- INGDATE. Eg, to close/open on the 2018/2019 boundary, use -e 2019.
+ By default, the closing transaction is dated yesterday, the balances
+ are calculated as of end of yesterday, and the opening transaction is
+ dated today. To close on some other date, use: hledger close -e OPEN-
+ INGDATE. Eg, to close/open on the 2018/2019 boundary, use -e 2019.
You can also use -p or date:PERIOD (any starting date is ignored).
- Both transactions will include balance assertions for the closed/re-
- opened accounts. You probably shouldn't use status or realness filters
- (like -C or -R or status:) with this command, or the generated balance
- assertions will depend on these flags. Likewise, if you run this com-
- mand with --auto, the balance assertions will probably always require
- --auto.
+ Both transactions will include balance assertions for the
+ closed/reopened accounts. You probably shouldn't use status or real-
+ ness filters (like -C or -R or status:) with this command, or the gen-
+ erated balance assertions will depend on these flags. Likewise, if you
+ run this command with --auto, the balance assertions will probably
+ always require --auto.
Examples:
@@ -2783,13 +2814,13 @@ COMMANDS
codes
List the codes seen in transactions, in the order parsed.
- This command prints the value of each transaction's code field, in the
- order transactions were parsed. The transaction code is an optional
- value written in parentheses between the date and description, often
+ This command prints the value of each transaction's code field, in the
+ order transactions were parsed. The transaction code is an optional
+ value written in parentheses between the date and description, often
used to store a cheque number, order number or similar.
Transactions aren't required to have a code, and missing or empty codes
- will not be shown by default. With the -E/--empty flag, they will be
+ will not be shown by default. With the -E/--empty flag, they will be
printed as blank lines.
You can add a query to select a subset of transactions.
@@ -2829,7 +2860,7 @@ COMMANDS
List the unique descriptions that appear in transactions.
This command lists the unique descriptions that appear in transactions,
- in alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of trans-
+ in alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of trans-
actions.
Example:
@@ -2841,13 +2872,13 @@ COMMANDS
diff
diff
- Compares a particular account's transactions in two input files. It
+ Compares a particular account's transactions in two input files. It
shows any transactions to this account which are in one file but not in
the other.
More precisely, for each posting affecting this account in either file,
- it looks for a corresponding posting in the other file which posts the
- same amount to the same account (ignoring date, description, etc.)
+ it looks for a corresponding posting in the other file which posts the
+ same amount to the same account (ignoring date, description, etc.)
Since postings not transactions are compared, this also works when mul-
tiple bank transactions have been combined into a single journal entry.
@@ -2871,19 +2902,19 @@ COMMANDS
files
files
List all files included in the journal. With a REGEX argument, only
- file names matching the regular expression (case sensitive) are shown.
+ file names matching the regular expression (case sensitive) are shown.
help
help
Show any of the hledger manuals.
- The help command displays any of the main hledger manuals, in one of
- several ways. Run it with no argument to list the manuals, or provide
+ The help command displays any of the main hledger manuals, in one of
+ several ways. Run it with no argument to list the manuals, or provide
a full or partial manual name to select one.
- hledger manuals are available in several formats. hledger help will
- use the first of these display methods that it finds: info, man,
- $PAGER, less, stdout (or when non-interactive, just stdout). You can
+ hledger manuals are available in several formats. hledger help will
+ use the first of these display methods that it finds: info, man,
+ $PAGER, less, stdout (or when non-interactive, just stdout). You can
force a particular viewer with the --info, --man, --pager, --cat flags.
Examples:
@@ -2948,9 +2979,10 @@ COMMANDS
incomestatement
incomestatement, is
- This command displays an income statement, showing revenues and ex-
- penses during one or more periods. Amounts are shown with normal posi-
- tive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
+
+ This command displays an income statement, showing revenues and
+ expenses during one or more periods. Amounts are shown with normal
+ positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
The revenue and expense accounts shown are those accounts declared with
the Revenue or Expense type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-
@@ -2986,16 +3018,16 @@ COMMANDS
report mode with --change/--cumulative/--historical. Instead of abso-
lute values percentages can be displayed with -%.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format op-
- tions The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experimen-
- tal) json.
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ mental) json.
notes
notes
List the unique notes that appear in transactions.
- This command lists the unique notes that appear in transactions, in al-
- phabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of transac-
+ This command lists the unique notes that appear in transactions, in
+ alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of transac-
tions. The note is the part of the transaction description after a |
character (or if there is no |, the whole description).
@@ -3043,10 +3075,10 @@ COMMANDS
Argument for --add-posting option is a usual posting of transaction
with an exception for amount specification. More precisely, you can
use '*' (star symbol) before the amount to indicate that that this is a
- factor for an amount of original matched posting. If the amount in-
- cludes a commodity name, the new posting amount will be in the new com-
- modity; otherwise, it will be in the matched posting amount's commod-
- ity.
+ factor for an amount of original matched posting. If the amount
+ includes a commodity name, the new posting amount will be in the new
+ commodity; otherwise, it will be in the matched posting amount's com-
+ modity.
Re-write rules in a file
During the run this tool will execute so called "Automated Transac-
@@ -3127,39 +3159,39 @@ COMMANDS
o rewrite's query limits which transactions can be rewritten; all are
printed. print --auto's query limits which transactions are printed.
- o rewrite applies rules specified on command line or in the journal.
+ o rewrite applies rules specified on command line or in the journal.
print --auto applies rules specified in the journal.
roi
roi
- Shows the time-weighted (TWR) and money-weighted (IRR) rate of return
+ Shows the time-weighted (TWR) and money-weighted (IRR) rate of return
on your investments.
- This command assumes that you have account(s) that hold nothing but
+ This command assumes that you have account(s) that hold nothing but
your investments and whenever you record current appraisal/valuation of
these investments you offset unrealized profit and loss into account(s)
that, again, hold nothing but unrealized profit and loss.
- Any transactions affecting balance of investment account(s) and not
- originating from unrealized profit and loss account(s) are assumed to
+ Any transactions affecting balance of investment account(s) and not
+ originating from unrealized profit and loss account(s) are assumed to
be your investments or withdrawals.
- At a minimum, you need to supply a query (which could be just an ac-
- count name) to select your investments with --inv, and another query to
- identify your profit and loss transactions with --pnl.
+ At a minimum, you need to supply a query (which could be just an
+ account name) to select your investments with --inv, and another query
+ to identify your profit and loss transactions with --pnl.
- This command will compute and display the internalized rate of return
- (IRR) and time-weighted rate of return (TWR) for your investments for
- the time period requested. Both rates of return are annualized before
+ This command will compute and display the internalized rate of return
+ (IRR) and time-weighted rate of return (TWR) for your investments for
+ the time period requested. Both rates of return are annualized before
display, regardless of the length of reporting interval.
Note, in some cases this report can fail, for these reasons:
- o Error (NotBracketed): No solution for Internal Rate of Return (IRR).
- Possible causes: IRR is huge (>1000000%), balance of investment be-
- comes negative at some point in time.
+ o Error (NotBracketed): No solution for Internal Rate of Return (IRR).
+ Possible causes: IRR is huge (>1000000%), balance of investment
+ becomes negative at some point in time.
- o Error (SearchFailed): Failed to find solution for Internal Rate of
+ o Error (SearchFailed): Failed to find solution for Internal Rate of
Return (IRR). Either search does not converge to a solution, or con-
verges too slowly.
@@ -3170,45 +3202,45 @@ COMMANDS
More background:
- "ROI" stands for "return on investment". Traditionally this was com-
- puted as a difference between current value of investment and its ini-
+ "ROI" stands for "return on investment". Traditionally this was com-
+ puted as a difference between current value of investment and its ini-
tial value, expressed in percentage of the initial value.
However, this approach is only practical in simple cases, where invest-
- ments receives no in-flows or out-flows of money, and where rate of
+ ments receives no in-flows or out-flows of money, and where rate of
growth is fixed over time. For more complex scenarios you need differ-
- ent ways to compute rate of return, and this command implements two of
+ ent ways to compute rate of return, and this command implements two of
them: IRR and TWR.
- Internal rate of return, or "IRR" (also called "money-weighted rate of
- return") takes into account effects of in-flows and out-flows.
+ Internal rate of return, or "IRR" (also called "money-weighted rate of
+ return") takes into account effects of in-flows and out-flows.
Naively, if you are withdrawing from your investment, your future gains
- would be smaller (in absolute numbers), and will be a smaller percent-
- age of your initial investment, and if you are adding to your invest-
- ment, you will receive bigger absolute gains (but probably at the same
- rate of return). IRR is a way to compute rate of return for each pe-
- riod between in-flow or out-flow of money, and then combine them in a
+ would be smaller (in absolute numbers), and will be a smaller percent-
+ age of your initial investment, and if you are adding to your invest-
+ ment, you will receive bigger absolute gains (but probably at the same
+ rate of return). IRR is a way to compute rate of return for each
+ period between in-flow or out-flow of money, and then combine them in a
way that gives you an annual rate of return that investment is expected
to generate.
- As mentioned before, in-flows and out-flows would be any cash that you
- personally put in or withdraw, and for the "roi" command, these are
- transactions that involve account(s) matching --inv argument and NOT
+ As mentioned before, in-flows and out-flows would be any cash that you
+ personally put in or withdraw, and for the "roi" command, these are
+ transactions that involve account(s) matching --inv argument and NOT
involve account(s) matching --pnl argument.
- Presumably, you will also record changes in the value of your invest-
- ment, and balance them against "profit and loss" (or "unrealized
- gains") account. Note that in order for IRR to compute the precise ef-
- fect of your in-flows and out-flows on the rate of return, you will
- need to record the value of your investement on or close to the days
+ Presumably, you will also record changes in the value of your invest-
+ ment, and balance them against "profit and loss" (or "unrealized
+ gains") account. Note that in order for IRR to compute the precise
+ effect of your in-flows and out-flows on the rate of return, you will
+ need to record the value of your investement on or close to the days
when in- or out-flows occur.
- Implementation of IRR in hledger should match the XIRR formula in Ex-
- cel.
+ Implementation of IRR in hledger should match the XIRR formula in
+ Excel.
- Second way to compute rate of return that roi command implements is
+ Second way to compute rate of return that roi command implements is
called "time-weighted rate of return" or "TWR". Like IRR, it will also
- break the history of your investment into periods between in-flows and
+ break the history of your investment into periods between in-flows and
out-flows to compute rate of return per each period and then a compound
rate of return. However, internal workings of TWR are quite different.
@@ -3224,9 +3256,9 @@ COMMANDS
in "unit price" over the reporting period gives you rate of return of
your investment.
- References: * Explanation of rate of return * Explanation of IRR * Ex-
- planation of TWR * Examples of computing IRR and TWR and discussion of
- the limitations of both metrics
+ References: * Explanation of rate of return * Explanation of IRR *
+ Explanation of TWR * Examples of computing IRR and TWR and discussion
+ of the limitations of both metrics
More examples:
@@ -3463,10 +3495,10 @@ COMMANDS
o interest generates interest transactions according to various schemes
- o stockquotes downloads market prices for your commodities from Alpha-
+ o stockquotes downloads market prices for your commodities from Alpha-
Vantage (experimental)
- Additional experimental add-ons, which may not be in a working state,
+ Additional experimental add-ons, which may not be in a working state,
can be found in the bin/ directory in the hledger repo.
Add-on command flags
@@ -3481,8 +3513,8 @@ COMMANDS
(because the --serve flag belongs to hledger-web, not hledger).
- The -h/--help and --version flags work without --, with their position
- deciding which program they refer to. Eg hledger -h web shows
+ The -h/--help and --version flags work without --, with their position
+ deciding which program they refer to. Eg hledger -h web shows
hledger's help, hledger web -h shows hledger-web's help.
If you have any trouble with this, remember you can always run the add-
@@ -3495,30 +3527,30 @@ COMMANDS
o whose name starts with hledger-
- o whose name ends with a recognised file extension: .bat,.com,.exe,
+ o whose name ends with a recognised file extension: .bat,.com,.exe,
.hs,.lhs,.pl,.py,.rb,.rkt,.sh or none
o and (on unix, mac) which are executable by the current user.
- Add-ons are a relatively easy way to add local features or experiment
- with new ideas. They can be written in any language, but haskell
- scripts have a big advantage: they can use the same hledger library
- functions that built-in commands use for command-line options, parsing
+ Add-ons are a relatively easy way to add local features or experiment
+ with new ideas. They can be written in any language, but haskell
+ scripts have a big advantage: they can use the same hledger library
+ functions that built-in commands use for command-line options, parsing
and reporting.
ENVIRONMENT
LEDGER_FILE The journal file path when not specified with -f. Default:
- ~/.hledger.journal (on windows, perhaps C:/Users/USER/.hledger.jour-
+ ~/.hledger.journal (on windows, perhaps C:/Users/USER/.hledger.jour-
nal).
- A typical value is ~/DIR/YYYY.journal, where DIR is a version-con-
- trolled finance directory and YYYY is the current year. Or ~/DIR/cur-
+ A typical value is ~/DIR/YYYY.journal, where DIR is a version-con-
+ trolled finance directory and YYYY is the current year. Or ~/DIR/cur-
rent.journal, where current.journal is a symbolic link to YYYY.journal.
On Mac computers, you can set this and other environment variables in a
more thorough way that also affects applications started from the GUI
- (say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a ~/.MacOSX/en-
- vironment.plist file containing
+ (say, an Emacs dock icon). Eg on MacOS Catalina I have a
+ ~/.MacOSX/environment.plist file containing
{
"LEDGER_FILE" : "~/finance/current.journal"
@@ -3563,8 +3595,8 @@ LIMITATIONS
Ledger.
TROUBLESHOOTING
- Here are some issues you might encounter when you run hledger (and re-
- member you can also seek help from the IRC channel, mail list or bug
+ Here are some issues you might encounter when you run hledger (and
+ remember you can also seek help from the IRC channel, mail list or bug
tracker):
Successfully installed, but "No command 'hledger' found"
@@ -3573,19 +3605,19 @@ TROUBLESHOOTING
that is ~/.local/bin and ~/.cabal/bin respectively.
I set a custom LEDGER_FILE, but hledger is still using the default file
- LEDGER_FILE should be a real environment variable, not just a shell
- variable. The command env | grep LEDGER_FILE should show it. You may
+ LEDGER_FILE should be a real environment variable, not just a shell
+ variable. The command env | grep LEDGER_FILE should show it. You may
need to use export. Here's an explanation.
- Getting errors like "Illegal byte sequence" or "Invalid or incomplete
- multibyte or wide character" or "commitAndReleaseBuffer: invalid argu-
+ Getting errors like "Illegal byte sequence" or "Invalid or incomplete
+ multibyte or wide character" or "commitAndReleaseBuffer: invalid argu-
ment (invalid character)"
Programs compiled with GHC (hledger, haskell build tools, etc.) need to
have a UTF-8-aware locale configured in the environment, otherwise they
- will fail with these kinds of errors when they encounter non-ascii
+ will fail with these kinds of errors when they encounter non-ascii
characters.
- To fix it, set the LANG environment variable to some locale which sup-
+ To fix it, set the LANG environment variable to some locale which sup-
ports UTF-8. The locale you choose must be installed on your system.
Here's an example of setting LANG temporarily, on Ubuntu GNU/Linux:
@@ -3600,9 +3632,9 @@ TROUBLESHOOTING
POSIX
$ LANG=en_US.utf8 hledger -f my.journal print # ensure it is used for this command
- If available, C.UTF-8 will also work. If your preferred locale isn't
- listed by locale -a, you might need to install it. Eg on Ubuntu/De-
- bian:
+ If available, C.UTF-8 will also work. If your preferred locale isn't
+ listed by locale -a, you might need to install it. Eg on
+ Ubuntu/Debian:
$ apt-get install language-pack-fr
$ locale -a
@@ -3621,8 +3653,8 @@ TROUBLESHOOTING
$ echo "export LANG=en_US.utf8" >>~/.bash_profile
$ bash --login
- Exact spelling and capitalisation may be important. Note the differ-
- ence on MacOS (UTF-8, not utf8). Some platforms (eg ubuntu) allow
+ Exact spelling and capitalisation may be important. Note the differ-
+ ence on MacOS (UTF-8, not utf8). Some platforms (eg ubuntu) allow
variant spellings, but others (eg macos) require it to be exact:
$ locale -a | grep -iE en_us.*utf
@@ -3632,7 +3664,7 @@ TROUBLESHOOTING
REPORTING BUGS
- Report bugs at http://bugs.hledger.org (or on the #hledger IRC channel
+ Report bugs at http://bugs.hledger.org (or on the #hledger IRC channel
or hledger mail list)
@@ -3653,4 +3685,4 @@ SEE ALSO
-hledger-1.20.3 December 2020 HLEDGER(1)
+hledger-1.20.4 December 2020 HLEDGER(1)
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.5 b/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.5
index cc2b912..da1f4b5 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.5
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.5
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
.\"t
-.TH "HLEDGER_CSV" "5" "December 2020" "hledger-lib-1.20.3 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER_CSV" "5" "December 2020" "hledger-lib-1.20.4 " "hledger User Manuals"
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.info b/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.info
index e85038a..10b62d8 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.info
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.info
@@ -1,7 +1,8 @@
-This is hledger_csv.info, produced by makeinfo version 6.7 from stdin.
+This is hledger-lib/hledger_csv.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.8
+from stdin.

-File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Top, Next: EXAMPLES, Up: (dir)
+File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Top, Up: (dir)
hledger_csv(5)
**************
@@ -15,44 +16,44 @@ transaction.
(To learn about _writing_ CSV, see CSV output.)
- We describe each CSV file's format with a corresponding _rules file_.
-By default this is named like the CSV file with a '.rules' extension
-added. Eg when reading 'FILE.csv', hledger also looks for
-'FILE.csv.rules' in the same directory as 'FILE.csv'. You can specify a
-different rules file with the '--rules-file' option. If a rules file is
-not found, hledger will create a sample rules file, which you'll need to
-adjust.
+ We describe each CSV file's format with a corresponding _rules
+file_. By default this is named like the CSV file with a `.rules'
+extension added. Eg when reading `FILE.csv', hledger also looks for
+`FILE.csv.rules' in the same directory as `FILE.csv'. You can specify a
+different rules file with the `--rules-file' option. If a rules file is
+not found, hledger will create a sample rules file, which you'll need
+to adjust.
This file contains rules describing the CSV data (header line, fields
layout, date format etc.), and how to construct hledger journal entries
-(transactions) from it. Often there will also be a list of conditional
-rules for categorising transactions based on their descriptions. Here's
+(transactions) from it. Often there will also be a list of conditional
+rules for categorising transactions based on their descriptions. Here's
an overview of the CSV rules; these are described more fully below,
after the examples:
-*'skip'* skip one or more header lines or
- matched CSV records
-*'fields'* name CSV fields, assign them to hledger
+*`skip'* skip one or more header lines or matched
+ CSV records
+*`fields'* name CSV fields, assign them to hledger
fields
*field assignment* assign a value to one hledger field,
with interpolation
-*'separator'* a custom field separator
-*'if' block* apply some rules to CSV records matched
+*`separator'* a custom field separator
+*`if' block* apply some rules to CSV records matched
by patterns
-*'if' table* apply some rules to CSV records matched
+*`if' table* apply some rules to CSV records matched
by patterns, alternate syntax
-*'end'* skip the remaining CSV records
-*'date-format'* how to parse dates in CSV records
-*'decimal-mark'* the decimal mark used in CSV amounts,
- if ambiguous
-*'newest-first'* disambiguate record order when there's
+*`end'* skip the remaining CSV records
+*`date-format'* how to parse dates in CSV records
+*`decimal-mark'* the decimal mark used in CSV amounts, if
+ ambiguous
+*`newest-first'* disambiguate record order when there's
only one date
-*'include'* inline another CSV rules file
-*'balance-type'* choose which type of balance
- assignments to use
+*`include'* inline another CSV rules file
+*`balance-type'* choose which type of balance assignments
+ to use
- Note, for best error messages when reading CSV files, use a '.csv',
-'.tsv' or '.ssv' file extension or file prefix - see File Extension
+ Note, for best error messages when reading CSV files, use a `.csv',
+`.tsv' or `.ssv' file extension or file prefix - see File Extension
below.
There's an introductory Convert CSV files tutorial on hledger.org.
@@ -69,7 +70,7 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: EXAMPLES, Next: CSV RULES, Prev: Top, Up: Top
1 EXAMPLES
**********
-Here are some sample hledger CSV rules files. See also the full
+Here are some sample hledger CSV rules files. See also the full
collection at:
https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/tree/master/examples/csv
@@ -88,16 +89,19 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Basic, Next: Bank of Ireland, Up: EXAMPLES
At minimum, the rules file must identify the date and amount fields, and
often it also specifies the date format and how many header lines there
-are. Here's a simple CSV file and a rules file for it:
+are. Here's a simple CSV file and a rules file for it:
+
Date, Description, Id, Amount
12/11/2019, Foo, 123, 10.23
+
# basic.csv.rules
skip 1
fields date, description, _, amount
date-format %d/%m/%Y
+
$ hledger print -f basic.csv
2019-11-12 Foo
expenses:unknown 10.23
@@ -115,10 +119,12 @@ Here's a CSV with two amount fields (Debit and Credit), and a balance
field, which we can use to add balance assertions, which is not
necessary but provides extra error checking:
+
Date,Details,Debit,Credit,Balance
07/12/2012,LODGMENT 529898,,10.0,131.21
07/12/2012,PAYMENT,5,,126
+
# bankofireland-checking.csv.rules
# skip the header line
@@ -145,6 +151,7 @@ currency EUR
# set the base account for all txns
account1 assets:bank:boi:checking
+
$ hledger -f bankofireland-checking.csv print
2012-12-07 LODGMENT 529898
assets:bank:boi:checking EUR10.0 = EUR131.2
@@ -165,13 +172,15 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Amazon, Next: Paypal, Prev: Bank of Ireland, U
==========
Here we convert amazon.com order history, and use an if block to
-generate a third posting if there's a fee. (In practice you'd probably
+generate a third posting if there's a fee. (In practice you'd probably
get this data from your bank instead, but it's an example.)
+
"Date","Type","To/From","Name","Status","Amount","Fees","Transaction ID"
"Jul 29, 2012","Payment","To","Foo.","Completed","$20.00","$0.00","16000000000000DGLNJPI1P9B8DKPVHL"
"Jul 30, 2012","Payment","To","Adapteva, Inc.","Completed","$25.00","$1.00","17LA58JSKRD4HDGLNJPI1P9B8DKPVHL"
+
# amazon-orders.csv.rules
# skip one header line
@@ -206,6 +215,7 @@ if %fees [1-9]
account3 expenses:fees
amount3 %fees
+
$ hledger -f amazon-orders.csv print
2012-07-29 (16000000000000DGLNJPI1P9B8DKPVHL) To Foo. ; status:Completed
assets:amazon
@@ -225,6 +235,7 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Paypal, Prev: Amazon, Up: EXAMPLES
Here's a real-world rules file for (customised) Paypal CSV, with some
Paypal-specific rules, and a second rules file included:
+
"Date","Time","TimeZone","Name","Type","Status","Currency","Gross","Fee","Net","From Email Address","To Email Address","Transaction ID","Item Title","Item ID","Reference Txn ID","Receipt ID","Balance","Note"
"10/01/2019","03:46:20","PDT","Calm Radio","Subscription Payment","Completed","USD","-6.99","0.00","-6.99","simon@joyful.com","memberships@calmradio.com","60P57143A8206782E","MONTHLY - $1 for the first 2 Months: Me - Order 99309. Item total: $1.00 USD first 2 months, then $6.99 / Month","","I-R8YLY094FJYR","","-6.99",""
"10/01/2019","03:46:20","PDT","","Bank Deposit to PP Account ","Pending","USD","6.99","0.00","6.99","","simon@joyful.com","0TU1544T080463733","","","60P57143A8206782E","","0.00",""
@@ -234,6 +245,7 @@ Paypal-specific rules, and a second rules file included:
"10/19/2019","03:02:12","PDT","","Bank Deposit to PP Account ","Pending","USD","2.00","0.00","2.00","","simon@joyful.com","3XJ107139A851061F","","","K9U43044RY432050M","","0.00",""
"10/22/2019","05:07:06","PDT","Noble Benefactor","Subscription Payment","Completed","USD","10.00","-0.59","9.41","noble@bene.fac.tor","simon@joyful.com","6L8L1662YP1334033","Joyful Systems","","I-KC9VBGY2GWDB","","9.41",""
+
# paypal-custom.csv.rules
# Tips:
@@ -316,6 +328,7 @@ Bank Deposit to PP Account
if Currency Conversion
account2 equity:currency conversion
+
# common.rules
if
@@ -339,6 +352,7 @@ if Google
account2 expenses:online:apps
description google | music
+
$ hledger -f paypal-custom.csv print
2019-10-01 (60P57143A8206782E) Calm Radio MONTHLY - $1 for the first 2 Months: Me - Order 99309. Item total: $1.00 USD first 2 months, then $6.99 / Month ; itemid:, fromemail:simon@joyful.com, toemail:memberships@calmradio.com, time:03:46:20, type:Subscription Payment, status:Completed
assets:online:paypal $-6.99 = $-6.99
@@ -377,7 +391,7 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: CSV RULES, Next: TIPS, Prev: EXAMPLES, Up: Top
***********
The following kinds of rule can appear in the rules file, in any order.
-Blank lines and lines beginning with '#' or ';' are ignored.
+Blank lines and lines beginning with `#' or `;' are ignored.
* Menu:
@@ -397,15 +411,16 @@ Blank lines and lines beginning with '#' or ';' are ignored.

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: skip, Next: fields, Up: CSV RULES
-2.1 'skip'
+2.1 `skip'
==========
+
skip N
- The word "skip" followed by a number (or no number, meaning 1) tells
+The word "skip" followed by a number (or no number, meaning 1) tells
hledger to ignore this many non-empty lines preceding the CSV data.
-(Empty/blank lines are skipped automatically.) You'll need this
-whenever your CSV data contains header lines.
+(Empty/blank lines are skipped automatically.) You'll need this whenever
+your CSV data contains header lines.
It also has a second purpose: it can be used inside if blocks to
ignore certain CSV records (described below).
@@ -413,35 +428,38 @@ ignore certain CSV records (described below).

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: fields, Next: field assignment, Prev: skip, Up: CSV RULES
-2.2 'fields'
+2.2 `fields'
============
+
fields FIELDNAME1, FIELDNAME2, ...
- A fields list (the word "fields" followed by comma-separated field
-names) is the quick way to assign CSV field values to hledger fields.
-It does two things:
+A fields list (the word "fields" followed by comma-separated field
+names) is the quick way to assign CSV field values to hledger fields. It
+does two things:
- 1. it names the CSV fields. This is optional, but can be convenient
+ 1. it names the CSV fields. This is optional, but can be convenient
later for interpolating them.
2. when you use a standard hledger field name, it assigns the CSV
value to that part of the hledger transaction.
+
Here's an example that says "use the 1st, 2nd and 4th fields as the
transaction's date, description and amount; name the last two fields for
later reference; and ignore the others":
+
fields date, description, , amount, , , somefield, anotherfield
- Field names may not contain whitespace. Fields you don't care about
-can be left unnamed. Currently there must be least two items (there
+ Field names may not contain whitespace. Fields you don't care about
+can be left unnamed. Currently there must be least two items (there
must be at least one comma).
Note, always use comma in the fields list, even if your CSV uses
another separator character.
- Here are the standard hledger field/pseudo-field names. For more
+ Here are the standard hledger field/pseudo-field names. For more
about the transaction parts they refer to, see the manual for hledger's
journal format.
@@ -456,7 +474,7 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Transaction field names, Next: Posting field nam
2.2.1 Transaction field names
-----------------------------
-'date', 'date2', 'status', 'code', 'description', 'comment' can be used
+`date', `date2', `status', `code', `description', `comment' can be used
to form the transaction's first line.

@@ -479,12 +497,12 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: account, Next: amount, Up: Posting field names
2.2.2.1 account
...............
-'accountN', where N is 1 to 99, causes a posting to be generated, with
+`accountN', where N is 1 to 99, causes a posting to be generated, with
that account name.
- Most often there are two postings, so you'll want to set 'account1'
-and 'account2'. Typically 'account1' is associated with the CSV file,
-and is set once with a top-level assignment, while 'account2' is set
+ Most often there are two postings, so you'll want to set `account1'
+and `account2'. Typically `account1' is associated with the CSV file,
+and is set once with a top-level assignment, while `account2' is set
based on each transaction's description, and in conditional blocks.
If a posting's account name is left unset but its amount is set (see
@@ -497,14 +515,14 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: amount, Next: currency, Prev: account, Up: Pos
2.2.2.2 amount
..............
-'amountN' sets posting N's amount. If the CSV uses separate fields for
-inflows and outflows, you can use 'amountN-in' and 'amountN-out'
-instead. By assigning to 'amount1', 'amount2', ... etc. you can
+`amountN' sets posting N's amount. If the CSV uses separate fields for
+inflows and outflows, you can use `amountN-in' and `amountN-out'
+instead. By assigning to `amount1', `amount2', ... etc. you can
generate anywhere from 0 to 99 postings.
There is also an older, unnumbered form of these names, suitable for
2-posting transactions, which sets both posting 1's and (negated)
-posting 2's amount: 'amount', or 'amount-in' and 'amount-out'. This is
+posting 2's amount: `amount', or `amount-in' and `amount-out'. This is
still supported because it keeps pre-hledger-1.17 csv rules files
working, and because it can be more succinct, and because it converts
posting 2's amount to cost if there's a transaction price, which can be
@@ -512,11 +530,11 @@ useful.
If you have an existing rules file using the unnumbered form, you
might want to use the numbered form in certain conditional blocks,
-without having to update and retest all the old rules. To facilitate
-this, posting 1 ignores 'amount'/'amount-in'/'amount-out' if any of
-'amount1'/'amount1-in'/'amount1-out' are assigned, and posting 2 ignores
-them if any of 'amount2'/'amount2-in'/'amount2-out' are assigned,
-avoiding conflicts.
+without having to update and retest all the old rules. To facilitate
+this, posting 1 ignores `amount'/`amount-in'/`amount-out' if any of
+`amount1'/`amount1-in'/`amount1-out' are assigned, and posting 2
+ignores them if any of `amount2'/`amount2-in'/`amount2-out' are
+assigned, avoiding conflicts.

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: currency, Next: balance, Prev: amount, Up: Posting field names
@@ -525,8 +543,8 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: currency, Next: balance, Prev: amount, Up: Pos
................
If the CSV has the currency symbol in a separate field (ie, not part of
-the amount field), you can use 'currencyN' to prepend it to posting N's
-amount. Or, 'currency' with no number affects all postings.
+the amount field), you can use `currencyN' to prepend it to posting N's
+amount. Or, `currency' with no number affects all postings.

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: balance, Next: comment, Prev: currency, Up: Posting field names
@@ -534,14 +552,14 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: balance, Next: comment, Prev: currency, Up: Po
2.2.2.4 balance
...............
-'balanceN' sets a balance assertion amount (or if the posting amount is
+`balanceN' sets a balance assertion amount (or if the posting amount is
left empty, a balance assignment) on posting N.
- Also, for compatibility with hledger <1.17: 'balance' with no number
-is equivalent to 'balance1'.
+ Also, for compatibility with hledger <1.17: `balance' with no number
+is equivalent to `balance1'.
You can adjust the type of assertion/assignment with the
-'balance-type' rule (see below).
+`balance-type' rule (see below).

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: comment, Prev: balance, Up: Posting field names
@@ -549,7 +567,7 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: comment, Prev: balance, Up: Posting field names
2.2.2.5 comment
...............
-Finally, 'commentN' sets a comment on the Nth posting. Comments can
+Finally, `commentN' sets a comment on the Nth posting. Comments can
also contain tags, as usual.
See TIPS below for more about setting amounts and currency.
@@ -560,14 +578,16 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: field assignment, Next: separator, Prev: fields
2.3 field assignment
====================
+
HLEDGERFIELDNAME FIELDVALUE
- Instead of or in addition to a fields list, you can use a "field
+Instead of or in addition to a fields list, you can use a "field
assignment" rule to set the value of a single hledger field, by writing
its name (any of the standard hledger field names above) followed by a
-text value. The value may contain interpolated CSV fields, referenced
-by their 1-based position in the CSV record ('%N'), or by the name they
-were given in the fields list ('%CSVFIELDNAME'). Some examples:
+text value. The value may contain interpolated CSV fields, referenced by
+their 1-based position in the CSV record (`%N'), or by the name they
+were given in the fields list (`%CSVFIELDNAME'). Some examples:
+
# set the amount to the 4th CSV field, with " USD" appended
amount %4 USD
@@ -575,41 +595,45 @@ amount %4 USD
# combine three fields to make a comment, containing note: and date: tags
comment note: %somefield - %anotherfield, date: %1
- Interpolation strips outer whitespace (so a CSV value like '" 1 "'
-becomes '1' when interpolated) (#1051). See TIPS below for more about
+ Interpolation strips outer whitespace (so a CSV value like `" 1 "'
+becomes `1' when interpolated) (#1051). See TIPS below for more about
referencing other fields.

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: separator, Next: if block, Prev: field assignment, Up: CSV RULES
-2.4 'separator'
+2.4 `separator'
===============
-You can use the 'separator' rule to read other kinds of
-character-separated data. The argument is any single separator
-character, or the words 'tab' or 'space' (case insensitive). Eg, for
+You can use the `separator' rule to read other kinds of
+character-separated data. The argument is any single separator
+character, or the words `tab' or `space' (case insensitive). Eg, for
comma-separated values (CSV):
+
separator ,
or for semicolon-separated values (SSV):
+
separator ;
or for tab-separated values (TSV):
+
separator TAB
- If the input file has a '.csv', '.ssv' or '.tsv' file extension (or a
-'csv:', 'ssv:', 'tsv:' prefix), the appropriate separator will be
+ If the input file has a `.csv', `.ssv' or `.tsv' file extension (or
+a `csv:', `ssv:', `tsv:' prefix), the appropriate separator will be
inferred automatically, and you won't need this rule.

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: if block, Next: if table, Prev: separator, Up: CSV RULES
-2.5 'if' block
+2.5 `if' block
==============
+
if MATCHER
RULE
@@ -620,10 +644,9 @@ MATCHER
RULE
RULE
- Conditional blocks ("if blocks") are a block of rules that are
-applied only to CSV records which match certain patterns. They are
-often used for customising account names based on transaction
-descriptions.
+Conditional blocks ("if blocks") are a block of rules that are applied
+only to CSV records which match certain patterns. They are often used
+for customising account names based on transaction descriptions.
* Menu:
@@ -640,20 +663,21 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Matching the whole record, Next: Matching indivi
Each MATCHER can be a record matcher, which looks like this:
+
REGEX
REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression which tries to match
-anywhere within the CSV record. It is a POSIX ERE (extended regular
-expression) that also supports GNU word boundaries ('\b', '\B', '\<',
-'\>'), and nothing else. If you have trouble, be sure to check our
+anywhere within the CSV record. It is a POSIX ERE (extended regular
+expression) that also supports GNU word boundaries (`\b', `\B', `\<',
+`\>'), and nothing else. If you have trouble, be sure to check our
https://hledger.org/hledger.html#regular-expressions doc.
Important note: the record that is matched is not the original
record, but a synthetic one, with any enclosing double quotes (but not
enclosing whitespace) removed, and always comma-separated (which means
-that a field containing a comma will appear like two fields). Eg, if
-the original record is '2020-01-01; "Acme, Inc."; 1,000', the REGEX will
-actually see '2020-01-01,Acme, Inc., 1,000').
+that a field containing a comma will appear like two fields). Eg, if the
+original record is `2020-01-01; "Acme, Inc."; 1,000', the REGEX will
+actually see `2020-01-01,Acme, Inc., 1,000').

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Matching individual fields, Next: Combining matchers, Prev: Matching the whole record, Up: if block
@@ -663,11 +687,12 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Matching individual fields, Next: Combining matc
Or, MATCHER can be a field matcher, like this:
+
%CSVFIELD REGEX
- which matches just the content of a particular CSV field. CSVFIELD
+ which matches just the content of a particular CSV field. CSVFIELD
is a percent sign followed by the field's name or column number, like
-'%date' or '%1'.
+`%date' or `%1'.

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Combining matchers, Next: Rules applied on successful match, Prev: Matching individual fields, Up: if block
@@ -678,9 +703,10 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Combining matchers, Next: Rules applied on succe
A single matcher can be written on the same line as the "if"; or
multiple matchers can be written on the following lines, non-indented.
Multiple matchers are OR'd (any one of them can match), unless one
-begins with an '&' symbol, in which case it is AND'ed with the previous
+begins with an `&' symbol, in which case it is AND'ed with the previous
matcher.
+
if
MATCHER
& MATCHER
@@ -693,19 +719,23 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Rules applied on successful match, Prev: Combini
---------------------------------------
After the patterns there should be one or more rules to apply, all
-indented by at least one space. Three kinds of rule are allowed in
+indented by at least one space. Three kinds of rule are allowed in
conditional blocks:
* field assignments (to set a hledger field)
+
* skip (to skip the matched CSV record)
+
* end (to skip all remaining CSV records).
Examples:
+
# if the CSV record contains "groceries", set account2 to "expenses:groceries"
if groceries
account2 expenses:groceries
+
# if the CSV record contains any of these patterns, set account2 and comment as shown
if
monthly service fee
@@ -717,26 +747,28 @@ banking thru software

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: if table, Next: end, Prev: if block, Up: CSV RULES
-2.6 'if' table
+2.6 `if' table
==============
+
if,CSVFIELDNAME1,CSVFIELDNAME2,...,CSVFIELDNAMEn
MATCHER1,VALUE11,VALUE12,...,VALUE1n
MATCHER2,VALUE21,VALUE22,...,VALUE2n
MATCHER3,VALUE31,VALUE32,...,VALUE3n
<empty line>
- Conditional tables ("if tables") are a different syntax to specify
-field assignments that will be applied only to CSV records which match
-certain patterns.
+Conditional tables ("if tables") are a different syntax to specify field
+assignments that will be applied only to CSV records which match certain
+patterns.
MATCHER could be either field or record matcher, as described above.
When MATCHER matches, values from that row would be assigned to the CSV
-fields named on the 'if' line, in the same order.
+fields named on the `if' line, in the same order.
- Therefore 'if' table is exactly equivalent to a sequence of of 'if'
+ Therefore `if' table is exactly equivalent to a sequence of of `if'
blocks:
+
if MATCHER1
CSVFIELDNAME1 VALUE11
CSVFIELDNAME2 VALUE12
@@ -759,17 +791,18 @@ if MATCHER3
empty) values for all the listed fields.
Rules would be checked and applied in the order they are listed in
-the table and, like with 'if' blocks, later rules (in the same or
-another table) or 'if' blocks could override the effect of any rule.
+the table and, like with `if' blocks, later rules (in the same or
+another table) or `if' blocks could override the effect of any rule.
Instead of ',' you can use a variety of other non-alphanumeric
-characters as a separator. First character after 'if' is taken to be
-the separator for the rest of the table. It is the responsibility of
+characters as a separator. First character after `if' is taken to be
+the separator for the rest of the table. It is the responsibility of
the user to ensure that separator does not occur inside MATCHERs and
values - there is no way to escape separator.
Example:
+
if,account2,comment
atm transaction fee,expenses:business:banking,deductible? check it
%description groceries,expenses:groceries,
@@ -778,12 +811,13 @@ atm transaction fee,expenses:business:banking,deductible? check it

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: end, Next: date-format, Prev: if table, Up: CSV RULES
-2.7 'end'
+2.7 `end'
=========
This rule can be used inside if blocks (only), to make hledger stop
reading this CSV file and move on to the next input file, or to command
-execution. Eg:
+execution. Eg:
+
# ignore everything following the first empty record
if ,,,,
@@ -792,27 +826,32 @@ if ,,,,

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: date-format, Next: decimal-mark, Prev: end, Up: CSV RULES
-2.8 'date-format'
+2.8 `date-format'
=================
+
date-format DATEFMT
- This is a helper for the 'date' (and 'date2') fields. If your CSV
-dates are not formatted like 'YYYY-MM-DD', 'YYYY/MM/DD' or 'YYYY.MM.DD',
+This is a helper for the `date' (and `date2') fields. If your CSV dates
+are not formatted like `YYYY-MM-DD', `YYYY/MM/DD' or `YYYY.MM.DD',
you'll need to add a date-format rule describing them with a strptime
date parsing pattern, which must parse the CSV date value completely.
Some examples:
+
# MM/DD/YY
date-format %m/%d/%y
+
# D/M/YYYY
# The - makes leading zeros optional.
date-format %-d/%-m/%Y
+
# YYYY-Mmm-DD
date-format %Y-%h-%d
+
# M/D/YYYY HH:MM AM some other junk
# Note the time and junk must be fully parsed, though only the date is used.
date-format %-m/%-d/%Y %l:%M %p some other junk
@@ -823,17 +862,19 @@ https://hackage.haskell.org/package/time/docs/Data-Time-Format.html#v:formatTime

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: decimal-mark, Next: newest-first, Prev: date-format, Up: CSV RULES
-2.9 'decimal-mark'
+2.9 `decimal-mark'
==================
+
decimal-mark .
- or:
+or:
+
decimal-mark ,
hledger automatically accepts either period or comma as a decimal
-mark when parsing numbers (cf Amounts). However if any numbers in the
+mark when parsing numbers (cf Amounts). However if any numbers in the
CSV contain digit group marks, such as thousand-separating commas, you
should declare the decimal mark explicitly with this rule, to avoid
misparsed numbers.
@@ -841,21 +882,24 @@ misparsed numbers.

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: newest-first, Next: include, Prev: decimal-mark, Up: CSV RULES
-2.10 'newest-first'
+2.10 `newest-first'
===================
-hledger always sorts the generated transactions by date. Transactions
-on the same date should appear in the same order as their CSV records,
-as hledger can usually auto-detect whether the CSV's normal order is
-oldest first or newest first. But if all of the following are true:
+hledger always sorts the generated transactions by date. Transactions on
+the same date should appear in the same order as their CSV records, as
+hledger can usually auto-detect whether the CSV's normal order is oldest
+first or newest first. But if all of the following are true:
* the CSV might sometimes contain just one day of data (all records
having the same date)
- * the CSV records are normally in reverse chronological order (newest
- at the top)
+
+ * the CSV records are normally in reverse chronological order
+ (newest at the top)
+
* and you care about preserving the order of same-day transactions
- then, you should add the 'newest-first' rule as a hint. Eg:
+ then, you should add the `newest-first' rule as a hint. Eg:
+
# tell hledger explicitly that the CSV is normally newest first
newest-first
@@ -863,16 +907,18 @@ newest-first

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: include, Next: balance-type, Prev: newest-first, Up: CSV RULES
-2.11 'include'
+2.11 `include'
==============
+
include RULESFILE
- This includes the contents of another CSV rules file at this point.
-'RULESFILE' is an absolute file path or a path relative to the current
-file's directory. This can be useful for sharing common rules between
+This includes the contents of another CSV rules file at this point.
+`RULESFILE' is an absolute file path or a path relative to the current
+file's directory. This can be useful for sharing common rules between
several rules files, eg:
+
# someaccount.csv.rules
## someaccount-specific rules
@@ -886,21 +932,23 @@ include categorisation.rules

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: balance-type, Prev: include, Up: CSV RULES
-2.12 'balance-type'
+2.12 `balance-type'
===================
Balance assertions generated by assigning to balanceN are of the simple
-'=' type by default, which is a single-commodity, subaccount-excluding
-assertion. You may find the subaccount-including variants more useful,
-eg if you have created some virtual subaccounts of checking to help with
-budgeting. You can select a different type of assertion with the
-'balance-type' rule:
+`=' type by default, which is a single-commodity, subaccount-excluding
+assertion. You may find the subaccount-including variants more useful,
+eg if you have created some virtual subaccounts of checking to help
+with budgeting. You can select a different type of assertion with the
+`balance-type' rule:
+
# balance assertions will consider all commodities and all subaccounts
balance-type ==*
Here are the balance assertion types for quick reference:
+
= single commodity, exclude subaccounts
=* single commodity, include subaccounts
== multi commodity, exclude subaccounts
@@ -932,15 +980,16 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Rapid feedback, Next: Valid CSV, Up: TIPS
==================
It's a good idea to get rapid feedback while creating/troubleshooting
-CSV rules. Here's a good way, using entr from
+CSV rules. Here's a good way, using entr from
http://eradman.com/entrproject :
+
$ ls foo.csv* | entr bash -c 'echo ----; hledger -f foo.csv print desc:SOMEDESC'
- A desc: query (eg) is used to select just one, or a few, transactions
-of interest. "bash -c" is used to run multiple commands, so we can echo
-a separator each time the command re-runs, making it easier to read the
-output.
+ A desc: query (eg) is used to select just one, or a few,
+transactions of interest. "bash -c" is used to run multiple commands,
+so we can echo a separator each time the command re-runs, making it
+easier to read the output.

File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Valid CSV, Next: File Extension, Prev: Rapid feedback, Up: TIPS
@@ -948,10 +997,11 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Valid CSV, Next: File Extension, Prev: Rapid fe
3.2 Valid CSV
=============
-hledger accepts CSV conforming to RFC 4180. When CSV values are
-enclosed in quotes, note:
+hledger accepts CSV conforming to RFC 4180. When CSV values are enclosed
+in quotes, note:
* they must be double quotes (not single quotes)
+
* spaces outside the quotes are not allowed

@@ -961,14 +1011,16 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: File Extension, Next: Reading multiple CSV files
==================
To help hledger identify the format and show the right error messages,
-CSV/SSV/TSV files should normally be named with a '.csv', '.ssv' or
-'.tsv' filename extension. Or, the file path should be prefixed with
-'csv:', 'ssv:' or 'tsv:'. Eg:
+CSV/SSV/TSV files should normally be named with a `.csv', `.ssv' or
+`.tsv' filename extension. Or, the file path should be prefixed with
+`csv:', `ssv:' or `tsv:'. Eg:
+
$ hledger -f foo.ssv print
or:
+
$ cat foo | hledger -f ssv:- foo
You can override the file extension with a separator rule if needed.
@@ -980,9 +1032,9 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Reading multiple CSV files, Next: Valid transact
3.4 Reading multiple CSV files
==============================
-If you use multiple '-f' options to read multiple CSV files at once,
+If you use multiple `-f' options to read multiple CSV files at once,
hledger will look for a correspondingly-named rules file for each CSV
-file. But if you use the '--rules-file' option, that rules file will be
+file. But if you use the `--rules-file' option, that rules file will be
used for all the CSV files.

@@ -999,9 +1051,10 @@ the problem entry.
There is one exception: balance assertions, if you have generated
them, will not be checked, since normally these will work only when the
-CSV data is part of the main journal. If you do need to check balance
+CSV data is part of the main journal. If you do need to check balance
assertions generated from CSV right away, pipe into another hledger:
+
$ hledger -f file.csv print | hledger -f- print

@@ -1015,23 +1068,25 @@ transactions, the new file may overlap with the old one, containing some
of the same records.
The import command will (a) detect the new transactions, and (b)
-append just those transactions to your main journal. It is idempotent,
+append just those transactions to your main journal. It is idempotent,
so you don't have to remember how many times you ran it or with which
-version of the CSV. (It keeps state in a hidden '.latest.FILE.csv'
-file.) This is the easiest way to import CSV data. Eg:
+version of the CSV. (It keeps state in a hidden `.latest.FILE.csv'
+file.) This is the easiest way to import CSV data. Eg:
+
# download the latest CSV files, then run this command.
# Note, no -f flags needed here.
$ hledger import *.csv [--dry]
- This method works for most CSV files. (Where records have a stable
+ This method works for most CSV files. (Where records have a stable
chronological order, and new records appear only at the new end.)
A number of other tools and workflows, hledger-specific and
-otherwise, exist for converting, deduplicating, classifying and managing
-CSV data. See:
+otherwise, exist for converting, deduplicating, classifying and
+managing CSV data. See:
* https://hledger.org -> sidebar -> real world setups
+
* https://plaintextaccounting.org -> data import/conversion

@@ -1042,25 +1097,28 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Setting amounts, Next: Setting currency/commodit
A posting amount can be set in one of these ways:
- * by assigning (with a fields list or field assignment) to 'amountN'
- (posting N's amount) or 'amount' (posting 1's amount)
+ * by assigning (with a fields list or field assignment) to `amountN'
+ (posting N's amount) or `amount' (posting 1's amount)
- * by assigning to 'amountN-in' and 'amountN-out' (or 'amount-in' and
- 'amount-out'). For each CSV record, whichever of these has a
- non-zero value will be used, with appropriate sign. If both
+ * by assigning to `amountN-in' and `amountN-out' (or `amount-in' and
+ `amount-out'). For each CSV record, whichever of these has a
+ non-zero value will be used, with appropriate sign. If both
contain a non-zero value, this may not work.
- * by assigning to 'balanceN' (or 'balance') instead of the above,
- setting the amount indirectly via a balance assignment. If you do
+ * by assigning to `balanceN' (or `balance') instead of the above,
+ setting the amount indirectly via a balance assignment. If you do
this the default account name may be wrong, so you should set that
explicitly.
+
There is some special handling for an amount's sign:
* If an amount value is parenthesised, it will be de-parenthesised
and sign-flipped.
+
* If an amount value begins with a double minus sign, those cancel
out and are removed.
+
* If an amount value begins with a plus sign, that will be removed

@@ -1072,43 +1130,51 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Setting currency/commodity, Next: Referencing ot
If the currency/commodity symbol is included in the CSV's amount
field(s):
+
2020-01-01,foo,$123.00
you don't have to do anything special for the commodity symbol, it
-will be assigned as part of the amount. Eg:
+will be assigned as part of the amount. Eg:
+
fields date,description,amount
+
2020-01-01 foo
expenses:unknown $123.00
income:unknown $-123.00
If the currency is provided as a separate CSV field:
+
2020-01-01,foo,USD,123.00
- You can assign that to the 'currency' pseudo-field, which has the
+ You can assign that to the `currency' pseudo-field, which has the
special effect of prepending itself to every amount in the transaction
(on the left, with no separating space):
+
fields date,description,currency,amount
+
2020-01-01 foo
expenses:unknown USD123.00
income:unknown USD-123.00
Or, you can use a field assignment to construct the amount yourself,
-with more control. Eg to put the symbol on the right, and separated by
-a space:
+with more control. Eg to put the symbol on the right, and separated by a
+space:
+
fields date,description,cur,amt
amount %amt %cur
+
2020-01-01 foo
expenses:unknown 123.00 USD
income:unknown -123.00 USD
- Note we used a temporary field name ('cur') that is not 'currency' -
+ Note we used a temporary field name (`cur') that is not `currency' -
that would trigger the prepending effect, which we don't want here.

@@ -1118,10 +1184,11 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: Referencing other fields, Next: How CSV rules ar
============================
In field assignments, you can interpolate only CSV fields, not hledger
-fields. In the example below, there's both a CSV field and a hledger
+fields. In the example below, there's both a CSV field and a hledger
field named amount1, but %amount1 always means the CSV field, not the
hledger field:
+
# Name the third CSV field "amount1"
fields date,description,amount1
@@ -1134,14 +1201,16 @@ comment %amount1
Here, since there's no CSV amount1 field, %amount1 will produce a
literal "amount1":
+
fields date,description,csvamount
amount1 %csvamount USD
# Can't interpolate amount1 here
comment %amount1
When there are multiple field assignments to the same hledger field,
-only the last one takes effect. Here, comment's value will be be B, or
-C if "something" is matched, but never A:
+only the last one takes effect. Here, comment's value will be be B, or C
+if "something" is matched, but never A:
+
comment A
comment B
@@ -1155,122 +1224,129 @@ File: hledger_csv.info, Node: How CSV rules are evaluated, Prev: Referencing o
================================
Here's how to think of CSV rules being evaluated (if you really need
-to). First,
+to). First,
- * 'include' - all includes are inlined, from top to bottom, depth
- first. (At each include point the file is inlined and scanned for
+ * `include' - all includes are inlined, from top to bottom, depth
+ first. (At each include point the file is inlined and scanned for
further includes, recursively, before proceeding.)
- Then "global" rules are evaluated, top to bottom. If a rule is
+ Then "global" rules are evaluated, top to bottom. If a rule is
repeated, the last one wins:
- * 'skip' (at top level)
- * 'date-format'
- * 'newest-first'
- * 'fields' - names the CSV fields, optionally sets up initial
+ * `skip' (at top level)
+
+ * `date-format'
+
+ * `newest-first'
+
+ * `fields' - names the CSV fields, optionally sets up initial
assignments to hledger fields
Then for each CSV record in turn:
- * test all 'if' blocks. If any of them contain a 'end' rule, skip
- all remaining CSV records. Otherwise if any of them contain a
- 'skip' rule, skip that many CSV records. If there are multiple
- matched 'skip' rules, the first one wins.
- * collect all field assignments at top level and in matched 'if'
- blocks. When there are multiple assignments for a field, keep only
+ * test all `if' blocks. If any of them contain a `end' rule, skip
+ all remaining CSV records. Otherwise if any of them contain a
+ `skip' rule, skip that many CSV records. If there are multiple
+ matched `skip' rules, the first one wins.
+
+ * collect all field assignments at top level and in matched `if'
+ blocks. When there are multiple assignments for a field, keep only
the last one.
+
* compute a value for each hledger field - either the one that was
assigned to it (and interpolate the %CSVFIELDNAME references), or a
default
+
* generate a synthetic hledger transaction from these values.
This is all part of the CSV reader, one of several readers hledger
-can use to parse input files. When all files have been read
+can use to parse input files. When all files have been read
successfully, the transactions are passed as input to whichever hledger
command the user specified.
+

Tag Table:
-Node: Top72
-Node: EXAMPLES2756
-Ref: #examples2862
-Node: Basic3070
-Ref: #basic3170
-Node: Bank of Ireland3712
-Ref: #bank-of-ireland3847
-Node: Amazon5309
-Ref: #amazon5427
-Node: Paypal7146
-Ref: #paypal7240
+Node: Top84
+Node: EXAMPLES2746
+Ref: #examples2852
+Node: Basic3059
+Ref: #basic3159
+Node: Bank of Ireland3703
+Ref: #bank-of-ireland3838
+Node: Amazon5303
+Ref: #amazon5421
+Node: Paypal7142
+Ref: #paypal7236
Node: CSV RULES14884
Ref: #csv-rules14993
Node: skip15305
Ref: #skip15398
-Node: fields15773
-Ref: #fields15895
-Node: Transaction field names17060
-Ref: #transaction-field-names17220
-Node: Posting field names17331
-Ref: #posting-field-names17483
-Node: account17553
-Ref: #account17669
-Node: amount18206
-Ref: #amount18337
-Node: currency19444
-Ref: #currency19579
-Node: balance19785
-Ref: #balance19919
-Node: comment20236
-Ref: #comment20353
-Node: field assignment20516
-Ref: #field-assignment20659
-Node: separator21477
-Ref: #separator21612
-Node: if block22152
-Ref: #if-block22277
-Node: Matching the whole record22678
-Ref: #matching-the-whole-record22853
-Node: Matching individual fields23657
-Ref: #matching-individual-fields23861
-Node: Combining matchers24085
-Ref: #combining-matchers24281
-Node: Rules applied on successful match24594
-Ref: #rules-applied-on-successful-match24785
-Node: if table25439
-Ref: #if-table25558
-Node: end27296
-Ref: #end27408
-Node: date-format27632
-Ref: #date-format27764
-Node: decimal-mark28513
-Ref: #decimal-mark28656
-Node: newest-first28995
-Ref: #newest-first29136
-Node: include29819
-Ref: #include29950
-Node: balance-type30394
-Ref: #balance-type30514
-Node: TIPS31214
-Ref: #tips31296
-Node: Rapid feedback31552
-Ref: #rapid-feedback31669
-Node: Valid CSV32129
-Ref: #valid-csv32259
-Node: File Extension32451
-Ref: #file-extension32603
-Node: Reading multiple CSV files33032
-Ref: #reading-multiple-csv-files33217
-Node: Valid transactions33458
-Ref: #valid-transactions33636
-Node: Deduplicating importing34264
-Ref: #deduplicating-importing34443
-Node: Setting amounts35476
-Ref: #setting-amounts35645
-Node: Setting currency/commodity36632
-Ref: #setting-currencycommodity36824
-Node: Referencing other fields37998
-Ref: #referencing-other-fields38198
-Node: How CSV rules are evaluated39095
-Ref: #how-csv-rules-are-evaluated39268
+Node: fields15770
+Ref: #fields15892
+Node: Transaction field names17053
+Ref: #transaction-field-names17213
+Node: Posting field names17324
+Ref: #posting-field-names17476
+Node: account17546
+Ref: #account17662
+Node: amount18198
+Ref: #amount18329
+Node: currency19430
+Ref: #currency19565
+Node: balance19770
+Ref: #balance19904
+Node: comment20221
+Ref: #comment20338
+Node: field assignment20500
+Ref: #field-assignment20643
+Node: separator21457
+Ref: #separator21592
+Node: if block22134
+Ref: #if-block22259
+Node: Matching the whole record22657
+Ref: #matching-the-whole-record22832
+Node: Matching individual fields23636
+Ref: #matching-individual-fields23840
+Node: Combining matchers24064
+Ref: #combining-matchers24260
+Node: Rules applied on successful match24574
+Ref: #rules-applied-on-successful-match24765
+Node: if table25422
+Ref: #if-table25541
+Node: end27277
+Ref: #end27389
+Node: date-format27613
+Ref: #date-format27745
+Node: decimal-mark28495
+Ref: #decimal-mark28638
+Node: newest-first28975
+Ref: #newest-first29116
+Node: include29799
+Ref: #include29930
+Node: balance-type30372
+Ref: #balance-type30492
+Node: TIPS31192
+Ref: #tips31274
+Node: Rapid feedback31530
+Ref: #rapid-feedback31647
+Node: Valid CSV32106
+Ref: #valid-csv32236
+Node: File Extension32428
+Ref: #file-extension32580
+Node: Reading multiple CSV files33009
+Ref: #reading-multiple-csv-files33194
+Node: Valid transactions33434
+Ref: #valid-transactions33612
+Node: Deduplicating importing34240
+Ref: #deduplicating-importing34419
+Node: Setting amounts35451
+Ref: #setting-amounts35620
+Node: Setting currency/commodity36607
+Ref: #setting-currencycommodity36799
+Node: Referencing other fields37979
+Ref: #referencing-other-fields38179
+Node: How CSV rules are evaluated39077
+Ref: #how-csv-rules-are-evaluated39250

End Tag Table
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.txt b/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.txt
index ccb55da..766402d 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.txt
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_csv.txt
@@ -24,8 +24,9 @@ DESCRIPTION
layout, date format etc.), and how to construct hledger journal entries
(transactions) from it. Often there will also be a list of conditional
rules for categorising transactions based on their descriptions.
- Here's an overview of the CSV rules; these are described more fully be-
- low, after the examples:
+ Here's an overview of the CSV rules; these are described more fully
+ below, after the examples:
+
skip skip one or more header lines or matched
CSV records
@@ -366,8 +367,8 @@ CSV RULES
can be left unnamed. Currently there must be least two items (there
must be at least one comma).
- Note, always use comma in the fields list, even if your CSV uses an-
- other separator character.
+ Note, always use comma in the fields list, even if your CSV uses
+ another separator character.
Here are the standard hledger field/pseudo-field names. For more about
the transaction parts they refer to, see the manual for hledger's jour-
@@ -405,26 +406,26 @@ CSV RULES
2's amount to cost if there's a transaction price, which can be useful.
If you have an existing rules file using the unnumbered form, you might
- want to use the numbered form in certain conditional blocks, without
- having to update and retest all the old rules. To facilitate this,
- posting 1 ignores amount/amount-in/amount-out if any of
+ want to use the numbered form in certain conditional blocks, without
+ having to update and retest all the old rules. To facilitate this,
+ posting 1 ignores amount/amount-in/amount-out if any of
amount1/amount1-in/amount1-out are assigned, and posting 2 ignores them
- if any of amount2/amount2-in/amount2-out are assigned, avoiding con-
+ if any of amount2/amount2-in/amount2-out are assigned, avoiding con-
flicts.
currency
If the CSV has the currency symbol in a separate field (ie, not part of
- the amount field), you can use currencyN to prepend it to posting N's
+ the amount field), you can use currencyN to prepend it to posting N's
amount. Or, currency with no number affects all postings.
balance
- balanceN sets a balance assertion amount (or if the posting amount is
+ balanceN sets a balance assertion amount (or if the posting amount is
left empty, a balance assignment) on posting N.
- Also, for compatibility with hledger <1.17: balance with no number is
+ Also, for compatibility with hledger <1.17: balance with no number is
equivalent to balance1.
- You can adjust the type of assertion/assignment with the balance-type
+ You can adjust the type of assertion/assignment with the balance-type
rule (see below).
comment
@@ -436,11 +437,11 @@ CSV RULES
field assignment
HLEDGERFIELDNAME FIELDVALUE
- Instead of or in addition to a fields list, you can use a "field as-
- signment" rule to set the value of a single hledger field, by writing
- its name (any of the standard hledger field names above) followed by a
- text value. The value may contain interpolated CSV fields, referenced
- by their 1-based position in the CSV record (%N), or by the name they
+ Instead of or in addition to a fields list, you can use a "field
+ assignment" rule to set the value of a single hledger field, by writing
+ its name (any of the standard hledger field names above) followed by a
+ text value. The value may contain interpolated CSV fields, referenced
+ by their 1-based position in the CSV record (%N), or by the name they
were given in the fields list (%CSVFIELDNAME). Some examples:
# set the amount to the 4th CSV field, with " USD" appended
@@ -449,14 +450,14 @@ CSV RULES
# combine three fields to make a comment, containing note: and date: tags
comment note: %somefield - %anotherfield, date: %1
- Interpolation strips outer whitespace (so a CSV value like " 1 " be-
- comes 1 when interpolated) (#1051). See TIPS below for more about ref-
- erencing other fields.
+ Interpolation strips outer whitespace (so a CSV value like " 1 "
+ becomes 1 when interpolated) (#1051). See TIPS below for more about
+ referencing other fields.
separator
- You can use the separator rule to read other kinds of character-sepa-
- rated data. The argument is any single separator character, or the
- words tab or space (case insensitive). Eg, for comma-separated values
+ You can use the separator rule to read other kinds of character-sepa-
+ rated data. The argument is any single separator character, or the
+ words tab or space (case insensitive). Eg, for comma-separated values
(CSV):
separator ,
@@ -469,7 +470,7 @@ CSV RULES
separator TAB
- If the input file has a .csv, .ssv or .tsv file extension (or a csv:,
+ If the input file has a .csv, .ssv or .tsv file extension (or a csv:,
ssv:, tsv: prefix), the appropriate separator will be inferred automat-
ically, and you won't need this rule.
@@ -484,8 +485,8 @@ CSV RULES
RULE
RULE
- Conditional blocks ("if blocks") are a block of rules that are applied
- only to CSV records which match certain patterns. They are often used
+ Conditional blocks ("if blocks") are a block of rules that are applied
+ only to CSV records which match certain patterns. They are often used
for customising account names based on transaction descriptions.
Matching the whole record
@@ -493,32 +494,32 @@ CSV RULES
REGEX
- REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression which tries to match
- anywhere within the CSV record. It is a POSIX ERE (extended regular
- expression) that also supports GNU word boundaries (\b, \B, \<, \>),
+ REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression which tries to match
+ anywhere within the CSV record. It is a POSIX ERE (extended regular
+ expression) that also supports GNU word boundaries (\b, \B, \<, \>),
and nothing else. If you have trouble, be sure to check our
https://hledger.org/hledger.html#regular-expressions doc.
- Important note: the record that is matched is not the original record,
- but a synthetic one, with any enclosing double quotes (but not enclos-
+ Important note: the record that is matched is not the original record,
+ but a synthetic one, with any enclosing double quotes (but not enclos-
ing whitespace) removed, and always comma-separated (which means that a
- field containing a comma will appear like two fields). Eg, if the
- original record is 2020-01-01; "Acme, Inc."; 1,000, the REGEX will ac-
- tually see 2020-01-01,Acme, Inc., 1,000).
+ field containing a comma will appear like two fields). Eg, if the
+ original record is 2020-01-01; "Acme, Inc."; 1,000, the REGEX will
+ actually see 2020-01-01,Acme, Inc., 1,000).
Matching individual fields
Or, MATCHER can be a field matcher, like this:
%CSVFIELD REGEX
- which matches just the content of a particular CSV field. CSVFIELD is
- a percent sign followed by the field's name or column number, like
+ which matches just the content of a particular CSV field. CSVFIELD is
+ a percent sign followed by the field's name or column number, like
%date or %1.
Combining matchers
A single matcher can be written on the same line as the "if"; or multi-
ple matchers can be written on the following lines, non-indented. Mul-
- tiple matchers are OR'd (any one of them can match), unless one begins
+ tiple matchers are OR'd (any one of them can match), unless one begins
with an & symbol, in which case it is AND'ed with the previous matcher.
if
@@ -527,9 +528,9 @@ CSV RULES
RULE
Rules applied on successful match
- After the patterns there should be one or more rules to apply, all in-
- dented by at least one space. Three kinds of rule are allowed in con-
- ditional blocks:
+ After the patterns there should be one or more rules to apply, all
+ indented by at least one space. Three kinds of rule are allowed in
+ conditional blocks:
o field assignments (to set a hledger field)
@@ -586,17 +587,17 @@ CSV RULES
...
CSVFIELDNAMEn VALUE3n
- Each line starting with MATCHER should contain enough (possibly empty)
+ Each line starting with MATCHER should contain enough (possibly empty)
values for all the listed fields.
- Rules would be checked and applied in the order they are listed in the
+ Rules would be checked and applied in the order they are listed in the
table and, like with if blocks, later rules (in the same or another ta-
ble) or if blocks could override the effect of any rule.
- Instead of ',' you can use a variety of other non-alphanumeric charac-
+ Instead of ',' you can use a variety of other non-alphanumeric charac-
ters as a separator. First character after if is taken to be the sepa-
- rator for the rest of the table. It is the responsibility of the user
- to ensure that separator does not occur inside MATCHERs and values -
+ rator for the rest of the table. It is the responsibility of the user
+ to ensure that separator does not occur inside MATCHERs and values -
there is no way to escape separator.
Example:
@@ -607,7 +608,7 @@ CSV RULES
2020/01/12.*Plumbing LLC,expenses:house:upkeep,emergency plumbing call-out
end
- This rule can be used inside if blocks (only), to make hledger stop
+ This rule can be used inside if blocks (only), to make hledger stop
reading this CSV file and move on to the next input file, or to command
execution. Eg:
@@ -618,10 +619,10 @@ CSV RULES
date-format
date-format DATEFMT
- This is a helper for the date (and date2) fields. If your CSV dates
- are not formatted like YYYY-MM-DD, YYYY/MM/DD or YYYY.MM.DD, you'll
- need to add a date-format rule describing them with a strptime date
- parsing pattern, which must parse the CSV date value completely. Some
+ This is a helper for the date (and date2) fields. If your CSV dates
+ are not formatted like YYYY-MM-DD, YYYY/MM/DD or YYYY.MM.DD, you'll
+ need to add a date-format rule describing them with a strptime date
+ parsing pattern, which must parse the CSV date value completely. Some
examples:
# MM/DD/YY
@@ -649,22 +650,22 @@ CSV RULES
decimal-mark ,
- hledger automatically accepts either period or comma as a decimal mark
- when parsing numbers (cf Amounts). However if any numbers in the CSV
- contain digit group marks, such as thousand-separating commas, you
- should declare the decimal mark explicitly with this rule, to avoid
+ hledger automatically accepts either period or comma as a decimal mark
+ when parsing numbers (cf Amounts). However if any numbers in the CSV
+ contain digit group marks, such as thousand-separating commas, you
+ should declare the decimal mark explicitly with this rule, to avoid
misparsed numbers.
newest-first
- hledger always sorts the generated transactions by date. Transactions
- on the same date should appear in the same order as their CSV records,
- as hledger can usually auto-detect whether the CSV's normal order is
+ hledger always sorts the generated transactions by date. Transactions
+ on the same date should appear in the same order as their CSV records,
+ as hledger can usually auto-detect whether the CSV's normal order is
oldest first or newest first. But if all of the following are true:
- o the CSV might sometimes contain just one day of data (all records
+ o the CSV might sometimes contain just one day of data (all records
having the same date)
- o the CSV records are normally in reverse chronological order (newest
+ o the CSV records are normally in reverse chronological order (newest
at the top)
o and you care about preserving the order of same-day transactions
@@ -677,9 +678,9 @@ CSV RULES
include
include RULESFILE
- This includes the contents of another CSV rules file at this point.
- RULESFILE is an absolute file path or a path relative to the current
- file's directory. This can be useful for sharing common rules between
+ This includes the contents of another CSV rules file at this point.
+ RULESFILE is an absolute file path or a path relative to the current
+ file's directory. This can be useful for sharing common rules between
several rules files, eg:
# someaccount.csv.rules
@@ -694,10 +695,10 @@ CSV RULES
balance-type
Balance assertions generated by assigning to balanceN are of the simple
- = type by default, which is a single-commodity, subaccount-excluding
+ = type by default, which is a single-commodity, subaccount-excluding
assertion. You may find the subaccount-including variants more useful,
- eg if you have created some virtual subaccounts of checking to help
- with budgeting. You can select a different type of assertion with the
+ eg if you have created some virtual subaccounts of checking to help
+ with budgeting. You can select a different type of assertion with the
balance-type rule:
# balance assertions will consider all commodities and all subaccounts
@@ -712,29 +713,29 @@ CSV RULES
TIPS
Rapid feedback
- It's a good idea to get rapid feedback while creating/troubleshooting
+ It's a good idea to get rapid feedback while creating/troubleshooting
CSV rules. Here's a good way, using entr from http://eradman.com/entr-
project :
$ ls foo.csv* | entr bash -c 'echo ----; hledger -f foo.csv print desc:SOMEDESC'
- A desc: query (eg) is used to select just one, or a few, transactions
- of interest. "bash -c" is used to run multiple commands, so we can
- echo a separator each time the command re-runs, making it easier to
+ A desc: query (eg) is used to select just one, or a few, transactions
+ of interest. "bash -c" is used to run multiple commands, so we can
+ echo a separator each time the command re-runs, making it easier to
read the output.
Valid CSV
- hledger accepts CSV conforming to RFC 4180. When CSV values are en-
- closed in quotes, note:
+ hledger accepts CSV conforming to RFC 4180. When CSV values are
+ enclosed in quotes, note:
o they must be double quotes (not single quotes)
o spaces outside the quotes are not allowed
File Extension
- To help hledger identify the format and show the right error messages,
- CSV/SSV/TSV files should normally be named with a .csv, .ssv or .tsv
- filename extension. Or, the file path should be prefixed with csv:,
+ To help hledger identify the format and show the right error messages,
+ CSV/SSV/TSV files should normally be named with a .csv, .ssv or .tsv
+ filename extension. Or, the file path should be prefixed with csv:,
ssv: or tsv:. Eg:
$ hledger -f foo.ssv print
@@ -743,48 +744,48 @@ TIPS
$ cat foo | hledger -f ssv:- foo
- You can override the file extension with a separator rule if needed.
+ You can override the file extension with a separator rule if needed.
See also: Input files in the hledger manual.
Reading multiple CSV files
- If you use multiple -f options to read multiple CSV files at once,
- hledger will look for a correspondingly-named rules file for each CSV
- file. But if you use the --rules-file option, that rules file will be
+ If you use multiple -f options to read multiple CSV files at once,
+ hledger will look for a correspondingly-named rules file for each CSV
+ file. But if you use the --rules-file option, that rules file will be
used for all the CSV files.
Valid transactions
After reading a CSV file, hledger post-processes and validates the gen-
erated journal entries as it would for a journal file - balancing them,
- applying balance assignments, and canonicalising amount styles. Any
- errors at this stage will be reported in the usual way, displaying the
+ applying balance assignments, and canonicalising amount styles. Any
+ errors at this stage will be reported in the usual way, displaying the
problem entry.
There is one exception: balance assertions, if you have generated them,
- will not be checked, since normally these will work only when the CSV
- data is part of the main journal. If you do need to check balance as-
- sertions generated from CSV right away, pipe into another hledger:
+ will not be checked, since normally these will work only when the CSV
+ data is part of the main journal. If you do need to check balance
+ assertions generated from CSV right away, pipe into another hledger:
$ hledger -f file.csv print | hledger -f- print
Deduplicating, importing
- When you download a CSV file periodically, eg to get your latest bank
- transactions, the new file may overlap with the old one, containing
+ When you download a CSV file periodically, eg to get your latest bank
+ transactions, the new file may overlap with the old one, containing
some of the same records.
The import command will (a) detect the new transactions, and (b) append
just those transactions to your main journal. It is idempotent, so you
- don't have to remember how many times you ran it or with which version
- of the CSV. (It keeps state in a hidden .latest.FILE.csv file.) This
+ don't have to remember how many times you ran it or with which version
+ of the CSV. (It keeps state in a hidden .latest.FILE.csv file.) This
is the easiest way to import CSV data. Eg:
# download the latest CSV files, then run this command.
# Note, no -f flags needed here.
$ hledger import *.csv [--dry]
- This method works for most CSV files. (Where records have a stable
+ This method works for most CSV files. (Where records have a stable
chronological order, and new records appear only at the new end.)
- A number of other tools and workflows, hledger-specific and otherwise,
+ A number of other tools and workflows, hledger-specific and otherwise,
exist for converting, deduplicating, classifying and managing CSV data.
See:
@@ -795,16 +796,16 @@ TIPS
Setting amounts
A posting amount can be set in one of these ways:
- o by assigning (with a fields list or field assignment) to amountN
+ o by assigning (with a fields list or field assignment) to amountN
(posting N's amount) or amount (posting 1's amount)
- o by assigning to amountN-in and amountN-out (or amount-in and amount-
- out). For each CSV record, whichever of these has a non-zero value
- will be used, with appropriate sign. If both contain a non-zero
+ o by assigning to amountN-in and amountN-out (or amount-in and amount-
+ out). For each CSV record, whichever of these has a non-zero value
+ will be used, with appropriate sign. If both contain a non-zero
value, this may not work.
- o by assigning to balanceN (or balance) instead of the above, setting
- the amount indirectly via a balance assignment. If you do this the
+ o by assigning to balanceN (or balance) instead of the above, setting
+ the amount indirectly via a balance assignment. If you do this the
default account name may be wrong, so you should set that explicitly.
There is some special handling for an amount's sign:
@@ -900,8 +901,8 @@ TIPS
(At each include point the file is inlined and scanned for further
includes, recursively, before proceeding.)
- Then "global" rules are evaluated, top to bottom. If a rule is re-
- peated, the last one wins:
+ Then "global" rules are evaluated, top to bottom. If a rule is
+ repeated, the last one wins:
o skip (at top level)
@@ -914,8 +915,8 @@ TIPS
Then for each CSV record in turn:
- o test all if blocks. If any of them contain a end rule, skip all re-
- maining CSV records. Otherwise if any of them contain a skip rule,
+ o test all if blocks. If any of them contain a end rule, skip all
+ remaining CSV records. Otherwise if any of them contain a skip rule,
skip that many CSV records. If there are multiple matched skip
rules, the first one wins.
@@ -923,9 +924,9 @@ TIPS
When there are multiple assignments for a field, keep only the last
one.
- o compute a value for each hledger field - either the one that was as-
- signed to it (and interpolate the %CSVFIELDNAME references), or a de-
- fault
+ o compute a value for each hledger field - either the one that was
+ assigned to it (and interpolate the %CSVFIELDNAME references), or a
+ default
o generate a synthetic hledger transaction from these values.
@@ -958,4 +959,4 @@ SEE ALSO
-hledger-lib-1.20.3 December 2020 HLEDGER_CSV(5)
+hledger-lib-1.20.4 December 2020 HLEDGER_CSV(5)
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.5 b/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.5
index 47dc69d..c1b6c53 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.5
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.5
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
.\"t
-.TH "HLEDGER_JOURNAL" "5" "December 2020" "hledger-lib-1.20.3 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER_JOURNAL" "5" "December 2020" "hledger-lib-1.20.4 " "hledger User Manuals"
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.info b/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.info
index 75a33e1..a94b728 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.info
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.info
@@ -1,8 +1,8 @@
-This is hledger_journal.info, produced by makeinfo version 6.7 from
-stdin.
+This is hledger-lib/hledger_journal.info, produced by makeinfo version
+4.8 from stdin.

-File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Top, Next: TRANSACTIONS, Up: (dir)
+File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Top, Up: (dir)
hledger_journal(5)
******************
@@ -10,30 +10,30 @@ hledger_journal(5)
hledger's default file format, representing a General Journal.
hledger's usual data source is a plain text file containing journal
-entries in hledger journal format. This file represents a standard
-accounting general journal. I use file names ending in '.journal', but
-that's not required. The journal file contains a number of transaction
+entries in hledger journal format. This file represents a standard
+accounting general journal. I use file names ending in `.journal', but
+that's not required. The journal file contains a number of transaction
entries, each describing a transfer of money (or any commodity) between
two or more named accounts, in a simple format readable by both hledger
and humans.
hledger's journal format is a compatible subset, mostly, of ledger's
journal format, so hledger can work with compatible ledger journal files
-as well. It's safe, and encouraged, to run both hledger and ledger on
+as well. It's safe, and encouraged, to run both hledger and ledger on
the same journal file, eg to validate the results you're getting.
You can use hledger without learning any more about this file; just
use the add or web or import commands to create and update it.
Many users, though, edit the journal file with a text editor, and
-track changes with a version control system such as git. Editor addons
+track changes with a version control system such as git. Editor addons
such as ledger-mode or hledger-mode for Emacs, vim-ledger for Vim, and
hledger-vscode for Visual Studio Code, make this easier, adding colour,
-formatting, tab completion, and useful commands. See Editor
+formatting, tab completion, and useful commands. See Editor
configuration at hledger.org for the full list.
Here's a description of each part of the file format (and hledger's
-data model). These are mostly in the order you'll use them, but in some
+data model). These are mostly in the order you'll use them, but in some
cases related concepts have been grouped together for easy reference, or
linked before they are introduced, so feel free to skip over anything
that looks unnecessary right now.
@@ -63,25 +63,30 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: TRANSACTIONS, Next: DATES, Prev: Top, Up:
1 TRANSACTIONS
**************
-Transactions are the main unit of information in a journal file. They
+Transactions are the main unit of information in a journal file. They
represent events, typically a movement of some quantity of commodities
between two or more named accounts.
Each transaction is recorded as a journal entry, beginning with a
-simple date in column 0. This can be followed by any of the following
+simple date in column 0. This can be followed by any of the following
optional fields, separated by spaces:
- * a status character (empty, '!', or '*')
+ * a status character (empty, `!', or `*')
+
* a code (any short number or text, enclosed in parentheses)
+
* a description (any remaining text until end of line or a semicolon)
+
* a comment (any remaining text following a semicolon until end of
line, and any following indented lines beginning with a semicolon)
+
* 0 or more indented _posting_ lines, describing what was transferred
- and the accounts involved (indented comment lines are also allowed,
- but not blank lines or non-indented lines).
+ and the accounts involved (indented comment lines are also
+ allowed, but not blank lines or non-indented lines).
Here's a simple journal file containing one transaction:
+
2008/01/01 income
assets:bank:checking $1
income:salary $-1
@@ -104,12 +109,12 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Simple dates, Next: Secondary dates, Up: DA
2.1 Simple dates
================
-Dates in the journal file use _simple dates_ format: 'YYYY-MM-DD' or
-'YYYY/MM/DD' or 'YYYY.MM.DD', with leading zeros optional. The year may
+Dates in the journal file use _simple dates_ format: `YYYY-MM-DD' or
+`YYYY/MM/DD' or `YYYY.MM.DD', with leading zeros optional. The year may
be omitted, in which case it will be inferred from the context: the
-current transaction, the default year set with a default year directive,
-or the current date when the command is run. Some examples:
-'2010-01-31', '2010/01/31', '2010.1.31', '1/31'.
+current transaction, the default year set with a default year
+directive, or the current date when the command is run. Some examples:
+`2010-01-31', `2010/01/31', `2010.1.31', `1/31'.
(The UI also accepts simple dates, as well as the more flexible smart
dates documented in the hledger manual.)
@@ -121,32 +126,35 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Secondary dates, Next: Posting dates, Prev:
===================
Real-life transactions sometimes involve more than one date - eg the
-date you write a cheque, and the date it clears in your bank. When you
+date you write a cheque, and the date it clears in your bank. When you
want to model this, for more accurate daily balances, you can specify
individual posting dates.
Or, you can use the older _secondary date_ feature (Ledger calls it
-auxiliary date or effective date). Note: we support this for
+auxiliary date or effective date). Note: we support this for
compatibility, but I usually recommend avoiding this feature; posting
dates are almost always clearer and simpler.
A secondary date is written after the primary date, following an
-equals sign. If the year is omitted, the primary date's year is
-assumed. When running reports, the primary (left) date is used by
-default, but with the '--date2' flag (or '--aux-date' or '--effective'),
+equals sign. If the year is omitted, the primary date's year is
+assumed. When running reports, the primary (left) date is used by
+default, but with the `--date2' flag (or `--aux-date' or `--effective'),
the secondary (right) date will be used instead.
The meaning of secondary dates is up to you, but it's best to follow
-a consistent rule. Eg "primary = the bank's clearing date, secondary =
+a consistent rule. Eg "primary = the bank's clearing date, secondary =
date the transaction was initiated, if different", as shown here:
+
2010/2/23=2/19 movie ticket
expenses:cinema $10
assets:checking
+
$ hledger register checking
2010-02-23 movie ticket assets:checking $-10 $-10
+
$ hledger register checking --date2
2010-02-19 movie ticket assets:checking $-10 $-10
@@ -158,31 +166,34 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Posting dates, Prev: Secondary dates, Up: D
You can give individual postings a different date from their parent
transaction, by adding a posting comment containing a tag (see below)
-like 'date:DATE'. This is probably the best way to control posting
-dates precisely. Eg in this example the expense should appear in May
+like `date:DATE'. This is probably the best way to control posting
+dates precisely. Eg in this example the expense should appear in May
reports, and the deduction from checking should be reported on 6/1 for
easy bank reconciliation:
+
2015/5/30
expenses:food $10 ; food purchased on saturday 5/30
assets:checking ; bank cleared it on monday, date:6/1
+
$ hledger -f t.j register food
2015-05-30 expenses:food $10 $10
+
$ hledger -f t.j register checking
2015-06-01 assets:checking $-10 $-10
DATE should be a simple date; if the year is not specified it will
-use the year of the transaction's date. You can set the secondary date
-similarly, with 'date2:DATE2'. The 'date:' or 'date2:' tags must have a
-valid simple date value if they are present, eg a 'date:' tag with no
+use the year of the transaction's date. You can set the secondary date
+similarly, with `date2:DATE2'. The `date:' or `date2:' tags must have a
+valid simple date value if they are present, eg a `date:' tag with no
value is not allowed.
Ledger's earlier, more compact bracketed date syntax is also
-supported: '[DATE]', '[DATE=DATE2]' or '[=DATE2]'. hledger will attempt
-to parse any square-bracketed sequence of the '0123456789/-.='
-characters in this way. With this syntax, DATE infers its year from the
+supported: `[DATE]', `[DATE=DATE2]' or `[=DATE2]'. hledger will attempt
+to parse any square-bracketed sequence of the `0123456789/-.='
+characters in this way. With this syntax, DATE infers its year from the
transaction and DATE2 infers its year from DATE.

@@ -197,43 +208,42 @@ description or posting account name, separated from it by a space,
indicating one of three statuses:
mark status
-
------------------
+-----------------
unmarked
-'!' pending
-'*' cleared
+`!' pending
+`*' cleared
- When reporting, you can filter by status with the '-U/--unmarked',
-'-P/--pending', and '-C/--cleared' flags; or the 'status:', 'status:!',
-and 'status:*' queries; or the U, P, C keys in hledger-ui.
+ When reporting, you can filter by status with the `-U/--unmarked',
+`-P/--pending', and `-C/--cleared' flags; or the `status:', `status:!',
+and `status:*' queries; or the U, P, C keys in hledger-ui.
Note, in Ledger and in older versions of hledger, the "unmarked"
-state is called "uncleared". As of hledger 1.3 we have renamed it to
+state is called "uncleared". As of hledger 1.3 we have renamed it to
unmarked for clarity.
To replicate Ledger and old hledger's behaviour of also matching
pending, combine -U and -P.
Status marks are optional, but can be helpful eg for reconciling with
-real-world accounts. Some editor modes provide highlighting and
-shortcuts for working with status. Eg in Emacs ledger-mode, you can
+real-world accounts. Some editor modes provide highlighting and
+shortcuts for working with status. Eg in Emacs ledger-mode, you can
toggle transaction status with C-c C-e, or posting status with C-c C-c.
What "uncleared", "pending", and "cleared" actually mean is up to
you. Here's one suggestion:
status meaning
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------
uncleared recorded but not yet reconciled; needs review
pending tentatively reconciled (if needed, eg during a big
reconciliation)
cleared complete, reconciled as far as possible, and considered
correct
- With this scheme, you would use '-PC' to see the current balance at
-your bank, '-U' to see things which will probably hit your bank soon
-(like uncashed checks), and no flags to see the most up-to-date state of
-your finances.
+ With this scheme, you would use `-PC' to see the current balance at
+your bank, `-U' to see things which will probably hit your bank soon
+(like uncashed checks), and no flags to see the most up-to-date state
+of your finances.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: DESCRIPTION, Next: COMMENTS, Prev: STATUS, Up: Top
@@ -242,9 +252,9 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: DESCRIPTION, Next: COMMENTS, Prev: STATUS,
*************
A transaction's description is the rest of the line following the date
-and status mark (or until a comment begins). Sometimes called the
+and status mark (or until a comment begins). Sometimes called the
"narration" in traditional bookkeeping, it can be used for whatever you
-wish, or left blank. Transaction descriptions can be queried, unlike
+wish, or left blank. Transaction descriptions can be queried, unlike
comments.
* Menu:
@@ -257,11 +267,11 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Payee and note, Up: DESCRIPTION
4.1 Payee and note
==================
-You can optionally include a '|' (pipe) character in descriptions to
+You can optionally include a `|' (pipe) character in descriptions to
subdivide the description into separate fields for payee/payer name on
-the left (up to the first '|') and an additional note field on the right
-(after the first '|'). This may be worthwhile if you need to do more
-precise querying and pivoting by payee or by note.
+the left (up to the first `|') and an additional note field on the
+right (after the first `|'). This may be worthwhile if you need to do
+more precise querying and pivoting by payee or by note.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: COMMENTS, Next: TAGS, Prev: DESCRIPTION, Up: Top
@@ -269,19 +279,20 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: COMMENTS, Next: TAGS, Prev: DESCRIPTION, U
5 COMMENTS
**********
-Lines in the journal beginning with a semicolon (';') or hash ('#') or
-star ('*') are comments, and will be ignored. (Star comments cause
+Lines in the journal beginning with a semicolon (`;') or hash (`#') or
+star (`*') are comments, and will be ignored. (Star comments cause
org-mode nodes to be ignored, allowing emacs users to fold and navigate
their journals with org-mode or orgstruct-mode.)
You can attach comments to a transaction by writing them after the
description and/or indented on the following lines (before the
-postings). Similarly, you can attach comments to an individual posting
+postings). Similarly, you can attach comments to an individual posting
by writing them after the amount and/or indented on the following lines.
-Transaction and posting comments must begin with a semicolon (';').
+Transaction and posting comments must begin with a semicolon (`;').
Some examples:
+
# a file comment
; another file comment
* also a file comment, useful in org/orgstruct mode
@@ -300,8 +311,8 @@ end comment
; another comment line for posting 2
; a file comment (because not indented)
- You can also comment larger regions of a file using 'comment' and
-'end comment' directives.
+ You can also comment larger regions of a file using `comment' and
+`end comment' directives.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: TAGS, Next: POSTINGS, Prev: COMMENTS, Up: Top
@@ -315,29 +326,35 @@ transactions, which you can then search or pivot on.
A simple tag is a word (which may contain hyphens) followed by a full
colon, written inside a transaction or posting comment line:
+
2017/1/16 bought groceries ; sometag:
Tags can have a value, which is the text after the colon, up to the
next comma or end of line, with leading/trailing whitespace removed:
+
expenses:food $10 ; a-posting-tag: the tag value
Note this means hledger's tag values can not contain commas or
newlines. Ending at commas means you can write multiple short tags on
one line, comma separated:
+
assets:checking ; a comment containing tag1:, tag2: some value ...
Here,
- * "'a comment containing'" is just comment text, not a tag
- * "'tag1'" is a tag with no value
- * "'tag2'" is another tag, whose value is "'some value ...'"
+ * "`a comment containing'" is just comment text, not a tag
+
+ * "`tag1'" is a tag with no value
+
+ * "`tag2'" is another tag, whose value is "`some value ...'"
Tags in a transaction comment affect the transaction and all of its
-postings, while tags in a posting comment affect only that posting. For
-example, the following transaction has three tags ('A', 'TAG2',
-'third-tag') and the posting has four (those plus 'posting-tag'):
+postings, while tags in a posting comment affect only that posting. For
+example, the following transaction has three tags (`A', `TAG2',
+`third-tag') and the posting has four (those plus `posting-tag'):
+
1/1 a transaction ; A:, TAG2:
; third-tag: a third transaction tag, <- with a value
@@ -353,25 +370,27 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: POSTINGS, Next: ACCOUNT NAMES, Prev: TAGS,
**********
A posting is an addition of some amount to, or removal of some amount
-from, an account. Each posting line begins with at least one space or
+from, an account. Each posting line begins with at least one space or
tab (2 or 4 spaces is common), followed by:
- * (optional) a status character (empty, '!', or '*'), followed by a
+ * (optional) a status character (empty, `!', or `*'), followed by a
space
- * (required) an account name (any text, optionally containing *single
- spaces*, until end of line or a double space)
+
+ * (required) an account name (any text, optionally containing
+ *single spaces*, until end of line or a double space)
+
* (optional) *two or more spaces* or tabs followed by an amount.
Positive amounts are being added to the account, negative amounts are
being removed.
- The amounts within a transaction must always sum up to zero. As a
+ The amounts within a transaction must always sum up to zero. As a
convenience, one amount may be left blank; it will be inferred so as to
balance the transaction.
Be sure to note the unusual two-space delimiter between account name
-and amount. This makes it easy to write account names containing
-spaces. But if you accidentally leave only one space (or tab) before
+and amount. This makes it easy to write account names containing
+spaces. But if you accidentally leave only one space (or tab) before
the amount, the amount will be considered part of the account name.
* Menu:
@@ -389,17 +408,19 @@ posting_ or _unbalanced posting_, which means it is exempt from the
usual rule that a transaction's postings must balance add up to zero.
This is not part of double entry accounting, so you might choose to
-avoid this feature. Or you can use it sparingly for certain special
-cases where it can be convenient. Eg, you could set opening balances
+avoid this feature. Or you can use it sparingly for certain special
+cases where it can be convenient. Eg, you could set opening balances
without using a balancing equity account:
+
1/1 opening balances
(assets:checking) $1000
(assets:savings) $2000
- A posting with a bracketed account name is called a _balanced virtual
-posting_. The balanced virtual postings in a transaction must add up to
-zero (separately from other postings). Eg:
+ A posting with a bracketed account name is called a _balanced
+virtual posting_. The balanced virtual postings in a transaction must
+add up to zero (separately from other postings). Eg:
+
1/1 buy food with cash, update budget envelope subaccounts, & something else
assets:cash $-10 ; <- these balance
@@ -410,8 +431,8 @@ zero (separately from other postings). Eg:
(something:else) $5 ; <- not required to balance
Ordinary non-parenthesised, non-bracketed postings are called _real
-postings_. You can exclude virtual postings from reports with the
-'-R/--real' flag or 'real:1' query.
+postings_. You can exclude virtual postings from reports with the
+`-R/--real' flag or `real:1' query.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: ACCOUNT NAMES, Next: AMOUNTS, Prev: POSTINGS, Up: Top
@@ -420,13 +441,12 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: ACCOUNT NAMES, Next: AMOUNTS, Prev: POSTING
***************
Account names typically have several parts separated by a full colon,
-from which hledger derives a hierarchical chart of accounts. They can
-be anything you like, but in finance there are traditionally five
-top-level accounts: 'assets', 'liabilities', 'income', 'expenses', and
-'equity'.
+from which hledger derives a hierarchical chart of accounts. They can be
+anything you like, but in finance there are traditionally five top-level
+accounts: `assets', `liabilities', `income', `expenses', and `equity'.
- Account names may contain single spaces, eg: 'assets:accounts
-receivable'. Because of this, they must always be followed by *two or
+ Account names may contain single spaces, eg: `assets:accounts
+receivable'. Because of this, they must always be followed by *two or
more spaces* (or newline).
Account names can be aliased.
@@ -437,18 +457,19 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: AMOUNTS, Next: TRANSACTION PRICES, Prev: AC
9 AMOUNTS
*********
-After the account name, there is usually an amount. (Important: between
+After the account name, there is usually an amount. (Important: between
account name and amount, there must be *two or more spaces*.)
hledger's amount format is flexible, supporting several international
-formats. Here are some examples. Amounts have a number (the
-"quantity"):
+formats. Here are some examples. Amounts have a number (the "quantity"):
+
1
- ..and usually a currency or commodity name (the "commodity"). This
-is a symbol, word, or phrase, to the left or right of the quantity, with
-or without a separating space:
+ ..and usually a currency or commodity name (the "commodity"). This
+is a symbol, word, or phrase, to the left or right of the quantity,
+with or without a separating space:
+
$1
4000 AAPL
@@ -456,28 +477,33 @@ $1
If the commodity name contains spaces, numbers, or punctuation, it
must be enclosed in double quotes:
+
3 "no. 42 green apples"
Amounts can be preceded by a minus sign (or a plus sign, though plus
is the default), The sign can be written before or after a left-side
commodity symbol:
+
-$1
$-1
One or more spaces between the sign and the number are acceptable
when parsing (but they won't be displayed in output):
+
+ $1
$- 1
Scientific E notation is allowed:
+
1E-6
EUR 1E3
A decimal mark can be written as a period or a comma:
+
1.23
1,23456780000009
@@ -497,13 +523,15 @@ In the integer part of the quantity (left of the decimal mark), groups
of digits can optionally be separated by a "digit group mark" - a space,
comma, or period (different from the decimal mark):
+
$1,000,000.00
EUR 2.000.000,00
INR 9,99,99,999.00
1 000 000.9455
Note, a number containing a single group mark and no decimal mark is
-ambiguous. Are these group marks or decimal marks ?
+ambiguous. Are these group marks or decimal marks ?
+
1,000
1.000
@@ -515,6 +543,7 @@ explicitly declare the decimal mark (and optionally a digit group mark).
Note, these formats ("amount styles") are specific to each commodity, so
if your data uses multiple formats, hledger can handle it:
+
commodity $1,000.00
commodity EUR 1.000,00
commodity INR 9,99,99,999.00
@@ -527,8 +556,8 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Commodity display style, Next: Rounding, Pr
===========================
For each commodity, hledger chooses a consistent style to use when
-displaying amounts. (Except price amounts, which are always displayed
-as written). The display style is chosen as follows:
+displaying amounts. (Except price amounts, which are always displayed as
+written). The display style is chosen as follows:
* If there is a commodity directive (or default commodity directive)
for the commodity, its style is used (see examples above).
@@ -537,26 +566,30 @@ as written). The display style is chosen as follows:
seen in the journal.
* Or if there are no such amounts in the journal, a default style is
- used (like '$1000.00').
+ used (like `$1000.00').
+
A style is inferred from the journal amounts in a commodity as
follows:
* Use the general style (decimal mark, symbol placement) of the first
amount
+
* Use the first-seen digit group style (digit group mark, digit group
sizes), if any
+
* Use the maximum number of decimal places of all.
Transaction price amounts don't affect the commodity display style
directly, but occasionally they can do so indirectly (eg when a
-posting's amount is inferred using a transaction price). If you find
+posting's amount is inferred using a transaction price). If you find
this causing problems, use a commodity directive to fix the display
style.
In summary, each commodity's amounts will be normalised to
- * the style declared by a 'commodity' directive
+ * the style declared by a `commodity' directive
+
* or, the style of the first posting amount in the journal, with the
first-seen digit group style and the maximum-seen number of decimal
places.
@@ -573,10 +606,10 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Rounding, Prev: Commodity display style, Up
Amounts are stored internally as decimal numbers with up to 255 decimal
places, and displayed with the number of decimal places specified by the
-commodity display style. Note, hledger uses banker's rounding: it
-rounds to the nearest even number, eg 0.5 displayed with zero decimal
-places is "0"). (Guaranteed since hledger 1.17.1; in older versions
-this could vary if hledger was built with Decimal < 0.5.1.)
+commodity display style. Note, hledger uses banker's rounding: it rounds
+to the nearest even number, eg 0.5 displayed with zero decimal places is
+"0"). (Guaranteed since hledger 1.17.1; in older versions this could
+vary if hledger was built with Decimal < 0.5.1.)

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: TRANSACTION PRICES, Next: LOT PRICES LOT DATES, Prev: AMOUNTS, Up: Top
@@ -585,22 +618,24 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: TRANSACTION PRICES, Next: LOT PRICES LOT DAT
*********************
Within a transaction, you can note an amount's price in another
-commodity. This can be used to document the cost (in a purchase) or
-selling price (in a sale). For example, transaction prices are useful
-to record purchases of a foreign currency. Note transaction prices are
-fixed at the time of the transaction, and do not change over time. See
+commodity. This can be used to document the cost (in a purchase) or
+selling price (in a sale). For example, transaction prices are useful to
+record purchases of a foreign currency. Note transaction prices are
+fixed at the time of the transaction, and do not change over time. See
also market prices, which represent prevailing exchange rates on a
certain date.
There are several ways to record a transaction price:
- 1. Write the price per unit, as '@ UNITPRICE' after the amount:
+ 1. Write the price per unit, as `@ UNITPRICE' after the amount:
+
2009/1/1
assets:euros €100 @ $1.35 ; one hundred euros purchased at $1.35 each
assets:dollars ; balancing amount is -$135.00
- 2. Write the total price, as '@@ TOTALPRICE' after the amount:
+ 2. Write the total price, as `@@ TOTALPRICE' after the amount:
+
2009/1/1
assets:euros €100 @@ $135 ; one hundred euros purchased at $135 for the lot
@@ -609,22 +644,25 @@ certain date.
3. Specify amounts for all postings, using exactly two commodities,
and let hledger infer the price that balances the transaction:
+
2009/1/1
assets:euros €100 ; one hundred euros purchased
assets:dollars $-135 ; for $135
- 4. Like 1, but the '@' is parenthesised, i.e. '(@)'; this is for
+ 4. Like 1, but the `@' is parenthesised, i.e. `(@)'; this is for
compatibility with Ledger journals (Virtual posting costs), and is
equivalent to 1 in hledger.
- 5. Like 2, but as in 4 the '@@' is parenthesised, i.e. '(@@)'; in
+ 5. Like 2, but as in 4 the `@@' is parenthesised, i.e. `(@@)'; in
hledger, this is equivalent to 2.
- Use the '-B/--cost' flag to convert amounts to their transaction
-price's commodity, if any. (mnemonic: "B" is from "cost Basis", as in
-Ledger). Eg here is how -B affects the balance report for the example
+
+ Use the `-B/--cost' flag to convert amounts to their transaction
+price's commodity, if any. (mnemonic: "B" is from "cost Basis", as in
+Ledger). Eg here is how -B affects the balance report for the example
above:
+
$ hledger bal -N --flat
$-135 assets:dollars
€100 assets:euros
@@ -634,13 +672,15 @@ $ hledger bal -N --flat -B
Note -B is sensitive to the order of postings when a transaction
price is inferred: the inferred price will be in the commodity of the
-last amount. So if example 3's postings are reversed, while the
+last amount. So if example 3's postings are reversed, while the
transaction is equivalent, -B shows something different:
+
2009/1/1
assets:dollars $-135 ; 135 dollars sold
assets:euros €100 ; for 100 euros
+
$ hledger bal -N --flat -B
€-100 assets:dollars # <- the dollars' selling price
€100 assets:euros
@@ -652,13 +692,13 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: LOT PRICES LOT DATES, Next: BALANCE ASSERTIO
************************
Ledger allows another kind of price, lot price (four variants:
-'{UNITPRICE}', '{{TOTALPRICE}}', '{=FIXEDUNITPRICE}',
-'{{=FIXEDTOTALPRICE}}'), and/or a lot date ('[DATE]') to be specified.
+`{UNITPRICE}', `{{TOTALPRICE}}', `{=FIXEDUNITPRICE}',
+`{{=FIXEDTOTALPRICE}}'), and/or a lot date (`[DATE]') to be specified.
These are normally used to select a lot when selling investments.
hledger will parse these, for compatibility with Ledger journals, but
-currently ignores them. A transaction price, lot price and/or lot date
-may appear in any order, after the posting amount and before the balance
-assertion if any.
+currently ignores them. A transaction price, lot price and/or lot date
+may appear in any order, after the posting amount and before the
+balance assertion if any.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: BALANCE ASSERTIONS, Next: BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS, Prev: LOT PRICES LOT DATES, Up: Top
@@ -666,11 +706,12 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: BALANCE ASSERTIONS, Next: BALANCE ASSIGNMENT
12 BALANCE ASSERTIONS
*********************
-hledger supports Ledger-style balance assertions in journal files.
-These look like, for example, '= EXPECTEDBALANCE' following a posting's
-amount. Eg here we assert the expected dollar balance in accounts a and
+hledger supports Ledger-style balance assertions in journal files. These
+look like, for example, `= EXPECTEDBALANCE' following a posting's
+amount. Eg here we assert the expected dollar balance in accounts a and
b after each posting:
+
2013/1/1
a $1 =$1
b =$-1
@@ -680,12 +721,12 @@ b after each posting:
b $-1 =$-2
After reading a journal file, hledger will check all balance
-assertions and report an error if any of them fail. Balance assertions
+assertions and report an error if any of them fail. Balance assertions
can protect you from, eg, inadvertently disrupting reconciled balances
-while cleaning up old entries. You can disable them temporarily with
-the '-I/--ignore-assertions' flag, which can be useful for
-troubleshooting or for reading Ledger files. (Note: this flag currently
-does not disable balance assignments, below).
+while cleaning up old entries. You can disable them temporarily with the
+`-I/--ignore-assertions' flag, which can be useful for troubleshooting
+or for reading Ledger files. (Note: this flag currently does not
+disable balance assignments, below).
* Menu:
@@ -705,17 +746,17 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Assertions and ordering, Next: Assertions an
============================
hledger sorts an account's postings and assertions first by date and
-then (for postings on the same day) by parse order. Note this is
+then (for postings on the same day) by parse order. Note this is
different from Ledger, which sorts assertions only by parse order.
(Also, Ledger assertions do not see the accumulated effect of repeated
postings to the same account within a transaction.)
So, hledger balance assertions keep working if you reorder
-differently-dated transactions within the journal. But if you reorder
+differently-dated transactions within the journal. But if you reorder
same-dated transactions or postings, assertions might break and require
-updating. This order dependence does bring an advantage: precise
-control over the order of postings and assertions within a day, so you
-can assert intra-day balances.
+updating. This order dependence does bring an advantage: precise control
+over the order of postings and assertions within a day, so you can
+assert intra-day balances.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Assertions and included files, Next: Assertions and multiple -f options, Prev: Assertions and ordering, Up: BALANCE ASSERTIONS
@@ -723,8 +764,8 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Assertions and included files, Next: Asserti
12.2 Assertions and included files
==================================
-With included files, things are a little more complicated. Including
-preserves the ordering of postings and assertions. If you have multiple
+With included files, things are a little more complicated. Including
+preserves the ordering of postings and assertions. If you have multiple
postings to an account on the same day, split across different files,
and you also want to assert the account's balance on the same day,
you'll have to put the assertion in the right file.
@@ -736,7 +777,7 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Assertions and multiple -f options, Next: As
=======================================
Balance assertions don't work well across files specified with multiple
--f options. Use include or concatenate the files instead.
+-f options. Use include or concatenate the files instead.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Assertions and commodities, Next: Assertions and prices, Prev: Assertions and multiple -f options, Up: BALANCE ASSERTIONS
@@ -746,17 +787,18 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Assertions and commodities, Next: Assertions
The asserted balance must be a simple single-commodity amount, and in
fact the assertion checks only this commodity's balance within the
-(possibly multi-commodity) account balance. This is how assertions work
-in Ledger also. We could call this a "partial" balance assertion.
+(possibly multi-commodity) account balance. This is how assertions work
+in Ledger also. We could call this a "partial" balance assertion.
To assert the balance of more than one commodity in an account, you
can write multiple postings, each asserting one commodity's balance.
You can make a stronger "total" balance assertion by writing a double
-equals sign ('== EXPECTEDBALANCE'). This asserts that there are no
+equals sign (`== EXPECTEDBALANCE'). This asserts that there are no
other unasserted commodities in the account (or, that their balance is
0).
+
2013/1/1
a $1
a 1€
@@ -773,9 +815,10 @@ other unasserted commodities in the account (or, that their balance is
a 0 == $1
It's not yet possible to make a complete assertion about a balance
-that has multiple commodities. One workaround is to isolate each
+that has multiple commodities. One workaround is to isolate each
commodity into its own subaccount:
+
2013/1/1
a:usd $1
a:euro 1€
@@ -795,13 +838,14 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Assertions and prices, Next: Assertions and
Balance assertions ignore transaction prices, and should normally be
written without one:
+
2019/1/1
(a) $1 @ €1 = $1
We do allow prices to be written there, however, and print shows
them, even though they don't affect whether the assertion passes or
-fails. This is for backward compatibility (hledger's close command used
-to generate balance assertions with prices), and because balance
+fails. This is for backward compatibility (hledger's close command
+used to generate balance assertions with prices), and because balance
_assignments_ do use them (see below).

@@ -810,11 +854,12 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Assertions and subaccounts, Next: Assertions
12.6 Assertions and subaccounts
===============================
-The balance assertions above ('=' and '==') do not count the balance
-from subaccounts; they check the account's exclusive balance only. You
-can assert the balance including subaccounts by writing '=*' or '==*',
+The balance assertions above (`=' and `==') do not count the balance
+from subaccounts; they check the account's exclusive balance only. You
+can assert the balance including subaccounts by writing `=*' or `==*',
eg:
+
2019/1/1
equity:opening balances
checking:a 5
@@ -828,8 +873,7 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Assertions and virtual postings, Next: Asser
====================================
Balance assertions are checked against all postings, both real and
-virtual. They are not affected by the '--real/-R' flag or 'real:'
-query.
+virtual. They are not affected by the `--real/-R' flag or `real:' query.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Assertions and precision, Prev: Assertions and virtual postings, Up: BALANCE ASSERTIONS
@@ -838,8 +882,8 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Assertions and precision, Prev: Assertions a
=============================
Balance assertions compare the exactly calculated amounts, which are not
-always what is shown by reports. Eg a commodity directive may limit the
-display precision, but this will not affect balance assertions. Balance
+always what is shown by reports. Eg a commodity directive may limit the
+display precision, but this will not affect balance assertions. Balance
assertion failure messages show exact amounts.

@@ -848,12 +892,13 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS, Next: DIRECTIVES, Prev
13 BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS
**********************
-Ledger-style balance assignments are also supported. These are like
+Ledger-style balance assignments are also supported. These are like
balance assertions, but with no posting amount on the left side of the
equals sign; instead it is calculated automatically so as to satisfy the
-assertion. This can be a convenience during data entry, eg when setting
+assertion. This can be a convenience during data entry, eg when setting
opening balances:
+
; starting a new journal, set asset account balances
2016/1/1 opening balances
assets:checking = $409.32
@@ -863,6 +908,7 @@ opening balances:
or when adjusting a balance to reality:
+
; no cash left; update balance, record any untracked spending as a generic expense
2016/1/15
assets:cash = $0
@@ -871,7 +917,7 @@ opening balances:
The calculated amount depends on the account's balance in the
commodity at that point (which depends on the previously-dated postings
of the commodity to that account since the last balance assertion or
-assignment). Note that using balance assignments makes your journal a
+assignment). Note that using balance assignments makes your journal a
little less explicit; to know the exact amount posted, you have to run
hledger or do the calculations yourself, instead of just reading it.
@@ -888,9 +934,11 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Balance assignments and prices, Up: BALANCE
A transaction price in a balance assignment will cause the calculated
amount to have that price attached:
+
2019/1/1
(a) = $1 @ €2
+
$ hledger print --explicit
2019-01-01
(a) $1 @ €2 = $1 @ €2
@@ -902,34 +950,34 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: DIRECTIVES, Next: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS, Pr
*************
A directive is a line in the journal beginning with a special keyword,
-that influences how the journal is processed. hledger's directives are
+that influences how the journal is processed. hledger's directives are
based on a subset of Ledger's, but there are many differences (and also
some differences between hledger versions).
Directives' behaviour and interactions can get a little bit complex,
so here is a table summarising the directives and their effects, with
-links to more detailed docs. Note part of this table is hidden when
+links to more detailed docs. Note part of this table is hidden when
viewed in a web browser - scroll it sideways to see more.
-directiveend subdirectivespurpose can affect (as of
+directiveend subdirectivespurpose can affect (as of
directive 2018/06)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-'account' any document account names, all entries in
- text declare account types & all files, before
- display order or after
-'alias' 'end rewrite account names following entries
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+`account' any document account names, all entries in all
+ text declare account types & files, before or
+ display order after
+`alias' `end rewrite account names following entries
aliases' until end of
current file or
end directive
-'apply 'end prepend a common parent to following entries
+`apply `end prepend a common parent to following entries
account' apply account names until end of
account' current file or
end directive
-'comment''end ignore part of journal following entries
+`comment'`end ignore part of journal following entries
comment' until end of
current file or
end directive
-'commodity' 'format'declare a commodity and its number notation:
+`commodity' `format'declare a commodity and its number notation:
number notation & display following entries
style in that commodity
in all files ;
@@ -937,11 +985,10 @@ account' apply account names until end of
amounts of that
commodity in
reports
-'D' declare a commodity to be default
- used for commodityless commodity:
- amounts, and its number following
- notation & display style commodityless
- entries until end
+`D' declare a commodity to be default commodity:
+ used for commodityless following
+ amounts, and its number commodityless
+ notation & display style entries until end
of current file;
number notation:
following entries
@@ -952,36 +999,36 @@ account' apply account names until end of
amounts of that
commodity in
reports
-'include' include entries/directives what the included
+`include' include entries/directives what the included
from another file directives affect
-'P' declare a market price for amounts of that
- a commodity commodity in
+`P' declare a market price for a amounts of that
+ commodity commodity in
reports, when -V
is used
-'Y' declare a year for yearless following entries
+`Y' declare a year for yearless following entries
dates until end of
current file
-'=' declare an auto posting all entries in
+`=' declare an auto posting all entries in
rule, adding postings to parent/current/child
other transactions files (but not
- sibling files,
- see #1212)
+ sibling files, see
+ #1212)
And some definitions:
subdirectiveoptional indented directive line immediately following a parent
directive
number how to interpret numbers when parsing journal entries (the
-notationidentity of the decimal separator character). (Currently each
+notationidentity of the decimal separator character). (Currently each
commodity can have its own notation, even in the same file.)
-displayhow to display amounts of a commodity in reports (symbol side
-style and spacing, digit groups, decimal separator, decimal places)
-directivewhich entries and (when there are multiple files) which files
-scope are affected by a directive
+displayhow to display amounts of a commodity in reports (symbol side and
+style spacing, digit groups, decimal separator, decimal places)
+directivewhich entries and (when there are multiple files) which files are
+scope affected by a directive
As you can see, directives vary in which journal entries and files
they affect, and whether they are focussed on input (parsing) or output
-(reports). Some directives have multiple effects.
+(reports). Some directives have multiple effects.
* Menu:
@@ -1002,18 +1049,18 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Directives and multiple files, Next: Comment
14.1 Directives and multiple files
==================================
-If you use multiple '-f'/'--file' options, or the 'include' directive,
-hledger will process multiple input files. But note that directives
+If you use multiple `-f'/`--file' options, or the `include' directive,
+hledger will process multiple input files. But note that directives
which affect input (see above) typically last only until the end of the
file in which they occur.
This may seem inconvenient, but it's intentional; it makes reports
-stable and deterministic, independent of the order of input. Otherwise
+stable and deterministic, independent of the order of input. Otherwise
you could see different numbers if you happened to write -f options in a
different order, or if you moved includes around while cleaning up your
files.
- It can be surprising though; for example, it means that 'alias'
+ It can be surprising though; for example, it means that `alias'
directives do not affect parent or sibling files (see below).

@@ -1022,9 +1069,9 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Comment blocks, Next: Including other files,
14.2 Comment blocks
===================
-A line containing just 'comment' starts a commented region of the file,
-and a line containing just 'end comment' (or the end of the current
-file) ends it. See also comments.
+A line containing just `comment' starts a commented region of the file,
+and a line containing just `end comment' (or the end of the current
+file) ends it. See also comments.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Including other files, Next: Default year, Prev: Comment blocks, Up: DIRECTIVES
@@ -1035,6 +1082,7 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Including other files, Next: Default year,
You can pull in the content of additional files by writing an include
directive, like this:
+
include FILEPATH
Only journal files can include, and only journal, timeclock or
@@ -1043,19 +1091,19 @@ timedot files can be included (not CSV files, currently).
If the file path does not begin with a slash, it is relative to the
current file's folder.
- A tilde means home directory, eg: 'include ~/main.journal'.
+ A tilde means home directory, eg: `include ~/main.journal'.
The path may contain glob patterns to match multiple files, eg:
-'include *.journal'.
+`include *.journal'.
- There is limited support for recursive wildcards: '**/' (the slash is
-required) matches 0 or more subdirectories. It's not super convenient
+ There is limited support for recursive wildcards: `**/' (the slash
+is required) matches 0 or more subdirectories. It's not super convenient
since you have to avoid include cycles and including directories, but
-this can be done, eg: 'include */**/*.journal'.
+this can be done, eg: `include */**/*.journal'.
The path may also be prefixed to force a specific file format,
overriding the file extension (as described in hledger.1 -> Input
-files): 'include timedot:~/notes/2020*.md'.
+files): `include timedot:~/notes/2020*.md'.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Default year, Next: Declaring commodities, Prev: Including other files, Up: DIRECTIVES
@@ -1064,9 +1112,10 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Default year, Next: Declaring commodities,
=================
You can set a default year to be used for subsequent dates which don't
-specify a year. This is a line beginning with 'Y' followed by the year.
+specify a year. This is a line beginning with `Y' followed by the year.
Eg:
+
Y2009 ; set default year to 2009
12/15 ; equivalent to 2009/12/15
@@ -1089,25 +1138,27 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Declaring commodities, Next: Default commodi
14.5 Declaring commodities
==========================
-The 'commodity' directive has several functions:
+The `commodity' directive has several functions:
- 1. It declares commodities which may be used in the journal. This is
+ 1. It declares commodities which may be used in the journal. This is
currently not enforced, but can serve as documentation.
- 2. It declares what decimal mark character (period or comma) to expect
- when parsing input - useful to disambiguate international number
- formats in your data. (Without this, hledger will parse both
- '1,000' and '1.000' as 1).
+ 2. It declares what decimal mark character (period or comma) to
+ expect when parsing input - useful to disambiguate international
+ number formats in your data. (Without this, hledger will parse
+ both `1,000' and `1.000' as 1).
3. It declares a commodity's display style in output - decimal and
digit group marks, number of decimal places, symbol placement etc.
+
You are likely to run into one of the problems solved by commodity
directives, sooner or later, so it's a good idea to just always use them
to declare your commodities.
- A commodity directive is just the word 'commodity' followed by an
-amount. It may be written on a single line, like this:
+ A commodity directive is just the word `commodity' followed by an
+amount. It may be written on a single line, like this:
+
; commodity EXAMPLEAMOUNT
@@ -1116,10 +1167,11 @@ amount. It may be written on a single line, like this:
; separating thousands with comma.
commodity 1,000.0000 AAAA
- or on multiple lines, using the "format" subdirective. (In this case
+ or on multiple lines, using the "format" subdirective. (In this case
the commodity symbol appears twice and should be the same in both
places.):
+
; commodity SYMBOL
; format EXAMPLEAMOUNT
@@ -1130,11 +1182,11 @@ commodity INR
format INR 1,00,00,000.00
The quantity of the amount does not matter; only the format is
-significant. The number must include a decimal mark: either a period or
+significant. The number must include a decimal mark: either a period or
a comma, followed by 0 or more decimal digits.
Note hledger normally uses banker's rounding, so 0.5 displayed with
-zero decimal digits is "0". (More at Commodity display style.)
+zero decimal digits is "0". (More at Commodity display style.)
* Menu:
@@ -1146,10 +1198,10 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Commodity error checking, Up: Declaring comm
14.5.1 Commodity error checking
-------------------------------
-In strict mode, enabled with the '-s'/'--strict' flag, hledger will
-report an error if a commodity symbol is used that has not been declared
-by a 'commodity' directive. This works similarly to account error
-checking, see the notes there for more details.
+In strict mode, enabled with the `-s'/`--strict' flag, hledger will
+report an error if a commodity symbol is used that has not been
+declared by a `commodity' directive. This works similarly to account
+error checking, see the notes there for more details.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Default commodity, Next: Declaring market prices, Prev: Declaring commodities, Up: DIRECTIVES
@@ -1157,18 +1209,19 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Default commodity, Next: Declaring market pr
14.6 Default commodity
======================
-The 'D' directive sets a default commodity, to be used for amounts
-without a commodity symbol (ie, plain numbers). This commodity will be
-applied to all subsequent commodity-less amounts, or until the next 'D'
-directive. (Note, this is different from Ledger's 'D'.)
+The `D' directive sets a default commodity, to be used for amounts
+without a commodity symbol (ie, plain numbers). This commodity will be
+applied to all subsequent commodity-less amounts, or until the next `D'
+directive. (Note, this is different from Ledger's `D'.)
+
+ For compatibility/historical reasons, `D' also acts like a
+`commodity' directive, setting the commodity's display style (for
+output) and decimal mark (for parsing input). As with `commodity', the
+amount must always be written with a decimal mark (period or comma).
+If both directives are used, `commodity''s style takes precedence.
- For compatibility/historical reasons, 'D' also acts like a
-'commodity' directive, setting the commodity's display style (for
-output) and decimal mark (for parsing input). As with 'commodity', the
-amount must always be written with a decimal mark (period or comma). If
-both directives are used, 'commodity''s style takes precedence.
+ The syntax is `D AMOUNT'. Eg:
- The syntax is 'D AMOUNT'. Eg:
; commodity-less amounts should be treated as dollars
; (and displayed with the dollar sign on the left, thousands separators and two decimal places)
@@ -1184,29 +1237,33 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Declaring market prices, Next: Declaring acc
14.7 Declaring market prices
============================
-The 'P' directive declares a market price, which is an exchange rate
-between two commodities on a certain date. (In Ledger, they are called
-"historical prices".) These are often obtained from a stock exchange,
+The `P' directive declares a market price, which is an exchange rate
+between two commodities on a certain date. (In Ledger, they are called
+"historical prices".) These are often obtained from a stock exchange,
cryptocurrency exchange, or the foreign exchange market.
Here is the format:
+
P DATE COMMODITYA COMMODITYBAMOUNT
* DATE is a simple date
+
* COMMODITYA is the symbol of the commodity being priced
+
* COMMODITYBAMOUNT is an amount (symbol and quantity) in a second
- commodity, giving the price in commodity B of one unit of commodity
- A.
+ commodity, giving the price in commodity B of one unit of
+ commodity A.
These two market price directives say that one euro was worth 1.35 US
dollars during 2009, and $1.40 from 2010 onward:
+
P 2009/1/1 € $1.35
P 2010/1/1 € $1.40
- The '-V', '-X' and '--value' flags use these market prices to show
-amount values in another commodity. See Valuation.
+ The `-V', `-X' and `--value' flags use these market prices to show
+amount values in another commodity. See Valuation.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Declaring accounts, Next: Rewriting accounts, Prev: Declaring market prices, Up: DIRECTIVES
@@ -1214,27 +1271,33 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Declaring accounts, Next: Rewriting accounts
14.8 Declaring accounts
=======================
-'account' directives can be used to declare accounts (ie, the places
-that amounts are transferred from and to). Though not required, these
+`account' directives can be used to declare accounts (ie, the places
+that amounts are transferred from and to). Though not required, these
declarations can provide several benefits:
* They can document your intended chart of accounts, providing a
reference.
+
* They can help hledger know your accounts' types (asset, liability,
equity, revenue, expense), useful for reports like balancesheet and
incomestatement.
+
* They control account display order in reports, allowing
non-alphabetic sorting (eg Revenues to appear above Expenses).
+
* They can store extra information about accounts (account numbers,
notes, etc.)
+
* They help with account name completion in the add command,
hledger-iadd, hledger-web, ledger-mode etc.
+
* In strict mode, they restrict which accounts may be posted to by
transactions, which helps detect typos.
- The simplest form is just the word 'account' followed by a
+ The simplest form is just the word `account' followed by a
hledger-style account name, eg this account directive declares the
-'assets:bank:checking' account:
+`assets:bank:checking' account:
+
account assets:bank:checking
@@ -1253,24 +1316,27 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Account error checking, Next: Account commen
-----------------------------
By default, accounts come into existence when a transaction references
-them by name. This is convenient, but it means hledger can't warn you
-when you mis-spell an account name in the journal. Usually you'll find
+them by name. This is convenient, but it means hledger can't warn you
+when you mis-spell an account name in the journal. Usually you'll find
the error later, as an extra account in balance reports, or an incorrect
balance when reconciling.
- In strict mode, enabled with the '-s'/'--strict' flag, hledger will
+ In strict mode, enabled with the `-s'/`--strict' flag, hledger will
report an error if any transaction uses an account name that has not
-been declared by an account directive. Some notes:
+been declared by an account directive. Some notes:
* The declaration is case-sensitive; transactions must use the
correct account name capitalisation.
+
* The account directive's scope is "whole file and below" (see
- directives). This means it affects all of the current file, and
- any files it includes, but not parent or sibling files. The
- position of account directives within the file does not matter,
- though it's usual to put them at the top.
- * Accounts can only be declared in 'journal' files (but will affect
+ directives). This means it affects all of the current file, and any
+ files it includes, but not parent or sibling files. The position of
+ account directives within the file does not matter, though it's
+ usual to put them at the top.
+
+ * Accounts can only be declared in `journal' files (but will affect
included files in other formats).
+
* It's currently not possible to declare "all possible subaccounts"
with a wildcard; every account posted to must be declared.
@@ -1284,10 +1350,12 @@ Comments, beginning with a semicolon, can be added:
* on the same line, *after two or more spaces* (because ; is allowed
in account names)
+
* on the next lines, indented
An example of both:
+
account assets:bank:checking ; same-line comment, note 2+ spaces before ;
; next-line comment
; another with tag, acctno:12345 (not used yet)
@@ -1303,11 +1371,13 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Account subdirectives, Next: Account types,
We also allow (and ignore) Ledger-style indented subdirectives, just for
compatibility.:
+
account assets:bank:checking
format blah blah ; <- subdirective, ignored
Here is the full syntax of account directives:
+
account ACCTNAME [ACCTTYPE] [;COMMENT]
[;COMMENTS]
[LEDGER-STYLE SUBDIRECTIVES, IGNORED]
@@ -1321,16 +1391,16 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Account types, Next: Account display order,
hledger recognises five main types of account, corresponding to the
account classes in the accounting equation:
- 'Asset', 'Liability', 'Equity', 'Revenue', 'Expense'.
+ `Asset', `Liability', `Equity', `Revenue', `Expense'.
These account types are important for controlling which accounts
appear in the balancesheet, balancesheetequity, incomestatement reports
(and probably for other things in future).
- Additionally, we recognise the 'Cash' type, which is also an 'Asset',
-and which causes accounts to appear in the cashflow report. ("Cash"
-here means liquid assets, eg bank balances but typically not investments
-or receivables.)
+ Additionally, we recognise the `Cash' type, which is also an
+`Asset', and which causes accounts to appear in the cashflow report.
+("Cash" here means liquid assets, eg bank balances but typically not
+investments or receivables.)
* Menu:
@@ -1346,13 +1416,14 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Declaring account types, Next: Auto-detected
................................
Generally, to make these reports work you should declare your top-level
-accounts and their types, using account directives with 'type:' tags.
+accounts and their types, using account directives with `type:' tags.
- The tag's value should be one of: 'Asset', 'Liability', 'Equity',
-'Revenue', 'Expense', 'Cash', 'A', 'L', 'E', 'R', 'X', 'C' (all case
+ The tag's value should be one of: `Asset', `Liability', `Equity',
+`Revenue', `Expense', `Cash', `A', `L', `E', `R', `X', `C' (all case
insensitive). The type is inherited by all subaccounts except where
they override it. Here's a complete example:
+
account assets ; type: Asset
account assets:bank ; type: Cash
account assets:cash ; type: Cash
@@ -1371,19 +1442,19 @@ If you happen to use common english top-level account names, you may not
need to declare account types, as they will be detected automatically
using the following rules:
-If name matches regular account
-expression: type is:
--------------------------------------------------
-'^assets?(:|$)' 'Asset'
-'^(debts?|liabilit(y|ies))(:|$)' 'Liability'
-'^equity(:|$)' 'Equity'
-'^(income|revenue)s?(:|$)' 'Revenue'
-'^expenses?(:|$)' 'Expense'
+If name matches regular account type
+expression: is:
+-------------------------------------------------
+`^assets?(:|$)' `Asset'
+`^(debts?|liabilit(y|ies))(:|$)' `Liability'
+`^equity(:|$)' `Equity'
+`^(income|revenue)s?(:|$)' `Revenue'
+`^expenses?(:|$)' `Expense'
-If account type is 'Asset' and name does not contain account type
+If account type is `Asset' and name does not contain account type
regular expression: is:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
-'(investment|receivable|:A/R|:fixed)' 'Cash'
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------
+`(investment|receivable|:A/R|:fixed)' `Cash'
Even so, explicit declarations may be a good idea, for clarity and
predictability.
@@ -1397,9 +1468,10 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Interference from auto-detected account types
If you assign any account type, it's a good idea to assign all of them,
to prevent any confusion from mixing declared and auto-detected types.
Although it's unlikely to happen in real life, here's an example: with
-the following journal, 'balancesheetequity' shows "liabilities" in both
-Liabilities and Equity sections. Declaring another account as
-'type:Liability' would fix it:
+the following journal, `balancesheetequity' shows "liabilities" in both
+Liabilities and Equity sections. Declaring another account as
+`type:Liability' would fix it:
+
account liabilities ; type:Equity
@@ -1418,6 +1490,7 @@ In some hledger journals you might instead see this old syntax (the
letters ALERX, separated from the account name by two or more spaces);
this is deprecated and may be removed soon:
+
account assets A
account liabilities L
account equity E
@@ -1432,9 +1505,10 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Account display order, Prev: Account types,
Account directives also set the order in which accounts are displayed,
eg in reports, the hledger-ui accounts screen, and the hledger-web
-sidebar. By default accounts are listed in alphabetical order. But if
+sidebar. By default accounts are listed in alphabetical order. But if
you have these account directives in the journal:
+
account assets
account liabilities
account equity
@@ -1444,6 +1518,7 @@ account expenses
you'll see those accounts displayed in declaration order, not
alphabetically:
+
$ hledger accounts -1
assets
liabilities
@@ -1455,20 +1530,22 @@ expenses
order.
Note that sorting is done at each level of the account tree (within
-each group of sibling accounts under the same parent). And currently,
+each group of sibling accounts under the same parent). And currently,
this directive:
+
account other:zoo
- would influence the position of 'zoo' among 'other''s subaccounts,
-but not the position of 'other' among the top-level accounts. This
+ would influence the position of `zoo' among `other''s subaccounts,
+but not the position of `other' among the top-level accounts. This
means:
- * you will sometimes declare parent accounts (eg 'account other'
+ * you will sometimes declare parent accounts (eg `account other'
above) that you don't intend to post to, just to customize their
display order
- * sibling accounts stay together (you couldn't display 'x:y' in
- between 'a:b' and 'a:c').
+
+ * sibling accounts stay together (you couldn't display `x:y' in
+ between `a:b' and `a:c').

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Rewriting accounts, Next: Default parent account, Prev: Declaring accounts, Up: DIRECTIVES
@@ -1477,13 +1554,16 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Rewriting accounts, Next: Default parent acc
=======================
You can define account alias rules which rewrite your account names, or
-parts of them, before generating reports. This can be useful for:
+parts of them, before generating reports. This can be useful for:
* expanding shorthand account names to their full form, allowing
easier data entry and a less verbose journal
+
* adapting old journals to your current chart of accounts
+
* experimenting with new account organisations, like a new hierarchy
or combining two accounts into one
+
* customising reports
Account aliases also rewrite account names in account directives.
@@ -1506,19 +1586,21 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Basic aliases, Next: Regex aliases, Up: Rew
14.9.1 Basic aliases
--------------------
-To set an account alias, use the 'alias' directive in your journal file.
-This affects all subsequent journal entries in the current file or its
-included files. The spaces around the = are optional:
+To set an account alias, use the `alias' directive in your journal
+file. This affects all subsequent journal entries in the current file or
+its included files. The spaces around the = are optional:
+
alias OLD = NEW
- Or, you can use the '--alias 'OLD=NEW'' option on the command line.
-This affects all entries. It's useful for trying out aliases
+ Or, you can use the `--alias 'OLD=NEW'' option on the command line.
+This affects all entries. It's useful for trying out aliases
interactively.
- OLD and NEW are case sensitive full account names. hledger will
+ OLD and NEW are case sensitive full account names. hledger will
replace any occurrence of the old account name with the new one.
-Subaccounts are also affected. Eg:
+Subaccounts are also affected. Eg:
+
alias checking = assets:bank:wells fargo:checking
; rewrites "checking" to "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking", or "checking:a" to "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking:a"
@@ -1532,15 +1614,17 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Regex aliases, Next: Combining aliases, Pre
There is also a more powerful variant that uses a regular expression,
indicated by the forward slashes:
+
alias /REGEX/ = REPLACEMENT
- or '--alias '/REGEX/=REPLACEMENT''.
+ or `--alias '/REGEX/=REPLACEMENT''.
- REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression. Anywhere it matches
+ REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression. Anywhere it matches
inside an account name, the matched part will be replaced by
REPLACEMENT. If REGEX contains parenthesised match groups, these can be
referenced by the usual numeric backreferences in REPLACEMENT. Eg:
+
alias /^(.+):bank:([^:]+):(.*)/ = \1:\2 \3
; rewrites "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking" to "assets:wells fargo checking"
@@ -1558,31 +1642,34 @@ You can define as many aliases as you like, using journal directives
and/or command line options.
Recursive aliases - where an account name is rewritten by one alias,
-then by another alias, and so on - are allowed. Each alias sees the
+then by another alias, and so on - are allowed. Each alias sees the
effect of previously applied aliases.
In such cases it can be important to understand which aliases will be
-applied and in which order. For (each account name in) each journal
+applied and in which order. For (each account name in) each journal
entry, we apply:
- 1. 'alias' directives preceding the journal entry, most recently
+ 1. `alias' directives preceding the journal entry, most recently
parsed first (ie, reading upward from the journal entry, bottom to
top)
- 2. '--alias' options, in the order they appeared on the command line
+
+ 2. `--alias' options, in the order they appeared on the command line
(left to right).
In other words, for (an account name in) a given journal entry:
* the nearest alias declaration before/above the entry is applied
first
+
* the next alias before/above that will be be applied next, and so on
+
* aliases defined after/below the entry do not affect it.
This gives nearby aliases precedence over distant ones, and helps
provide semantic stability - aliases will keep working the same way
independent of which files are being read and in which order.
- In case of trouble, adding '--debug=6' to the command line will show
+ In case of trouble, adding `--debug=6' to the command line will show
which aliases are being applied when.

@@ -1591,14 +1678,16 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Aliases and multiple files, Next: end aliase
14.9.4 Aliases and multiple files
---------------------------------
-As explained at Directives and multiple files, 'alias' directives do not
-affect parent or sibling files. Eg in this command,
+As explained at Directives and multiple files, `alias' directives do
+not affect parent or sibling files. Eg in this command,
+
hledger -f a.aliases -f b.journal
account aliases defined in a.aliases will not affect b.journal.
Including the aliases doesn't work either:
+
include a.aliases
2020-01-01 ; not affected by a.aliases
@@ -1608,6 +1697,7 @@ include a.aliases
This means that account aliases should usually be declared at the
start of your top-most file, like this:
+
alias foo=Foo
alias bar=Bar
@@ -1620,12 +1710,13 @@ include c.journal ; also affected

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: end aliases, Prev: Aliases and multiple files, Up: Rewriting accounts
-14.9.5 'end aliases'
+14.9.5 `end aliases'
--------------------
-You can clear (forget) all currently defined aliases with the 'end
+You can clear (forget) all currently defined aliases with the `end
aliases' directive:
+
end aliases

@@ -1635,9 +1726,10 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Default parent account, Prev: Rewriting acco
============================
You can specify a parent account which will be prepended to all accounts
-within a section of the journal. Use the 'apply account' and 'end apply
+within a section of the journal. Use the `apply account' and `end apply
account' directives like so:
+
apply account home
2010/1/1
@@ -1648,12 +1740,14 @@ end apply account
which is equivalent to:
+
2010/01/01
home:food $10
home:cash $-10
- If 'end apply account' is omitted, the effect lasts to the end of the
-file. Included files are also affected, eg:
+ If `end apply account' is omitted, the effect lasts to the end of
+the file. Included files are also affected, eg:
+
apply account business
include biz.journal
@@ -1661,13 +1755,13 @@ end apply account
apply account personal
include personal.journal
- Prior to hledger 1.0, legacy 'account' and 'end' spellings were also
+ Prior to hledger 1.0, legacy `account' and `end' spellings were also
supported.
- A default parent account also affects account directives. It does
-not affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-web.
-If account aliases are present, they are applied after the default
-parent account.
+ A default parent account also affects account directives. It does not
+affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-web. If
+account aliases are present, they are applied after the default parent
+account.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS, Next: AUTO POSTINGS, Prev: DIRECTIVES, Up: Top
@@ -1675,7 +1769,7 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS, Next: AUTO POSTINGS,
15 PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS
************************
-Periodic transaction rules describe transactions that recur. They allow
+Periodic transaction rules describe transactions that recur. They allow
hledger to generate temporary future transactions to help with
forecasting, so you don't have to write out each one in the journal, and
it's easy to try out different forecasts.
@@ -1685,24 +1779,30 @@ read this whole section - or at least these tips:
1. Two spaces accidentally added or omitted will cause you trouble -
read about this below.
- 2. For troubleshooting, show the generated transactions with 'hledger
- print --forecast tag:generated' or 'hledger register --forecast
+
+ 2. For troubleshooting, show the generated transactions with `hledger
+ print --forecast tag:generated' or `hledger register --forecast
tag:generated'.
+
3. Forecasted transactions will begin only after the last
non-forecasted transaction's date.
+
4. Forecasted transactions will end 6 months from today, by default.
See below for the exact start/end rules.
- 5. period expressions can be tricky. Their documentation needs
+
+ 5. period expressions can be tricky. Their documentation needs
improvement, but is worth studying.
+
6. Some period expressions with a repeating interval must begin on a
- natural boundary of that interval. Eg in 'weekly from DATE', DATE
- must be a monday. '~ weekly from 2019/10/1' (a tuesday) will give
+ natural boundary of that interval. Eg in `weekly from DATE', DATE
+ must be a monday. `~ weekly from 2019/10/1' (a tuesday) will give
an error.
+
7. Other period expressions with an interval are automatically
- expanded to cover a whole number of that interval. (This is done
+ expanded to cover a whole number of that interval. (This is done
to improve reports, but it also affects periodic transactions.
- Yes, it's a bit inconsistent with the above.) Eg: '~ every 10th
- day of month from 2020/01', which is equivalent to '~ every 10th
+ Yes, it's a bit inconsistent with the above.) Eg: `~ every 10th
+ day of month from 2020/01', which is equivalent to `~ every 10th
day of month from 2020/01/01', will be adjusted to start on
2019/12/10.
@@ -1723,19 +1823,20 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Periodic rule syntax, Next: Two spaces betwe
=========================
A periodic transaction rule looks like a normal journal entry, with the
-date replaced by a tilde ('~') followed by a period expression
-(mnemonic: '~' looks like a recurring sine wave.):
+date replaced by a tilde (`~') followed by a period expression
+(mnemonic: `~' looks like a recurring sine wave.):
+
~ monthly
expenses:rent $2000
assets:bank:checking
There is an additional constraint on the period expression: the start
-date must fall on a natural boundary of the interval. Eg 'monthly from
-2018/1/1' is valid, but 'monthly from 2018/1/15' is not.
+date must fall on a natural boundary of the interval. Eg `monthly from
+2018/1/1' is valid, but `monthly from 2018/1/15' is not.
Partial or relative dates (M/D, D, tomorrow, last week) in the period
-expression can work (useful or not). They will be relative to today's
+expression can work (useful or not). They will be relative to today's
date, unless a Y default year directive is in effect, in which case they
will be relative to Y/1/1.
@@ -1746,10 +1847,11 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Two spaces between period expression and desc
==========================================================
If the period expression is followed by a transaction description, these
-must be separated by *two or more spaces*. This helps hledger know
+must be separated by *two or more spaces*. This helps hledger know
where the period expression ends, so that descriptions can not
accidentally alter their meaning, as in this example:
+
; 2 or more spaces needed here, so the period is not understood as "every 2 months in 2020"
; ||
; vv
@@ -1761,6 +1863,7 @@ accidentally alter their meaning, as in this example:
* Do write two spaces between your period expression and your
transaction description, if any.
+
* Don't accidentally write two spaces in the middle of your period
expression.
@@ -1770,25 +1873,26 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Forecasting with periodic transactions, Next
15.3 Forecasting with periodic transactions
===========================================
-The '--forecast' flag activates any periodic transaction rules in the
-journal. They will generate temporary recurring transactions, which are
+The `--forecast' flag activates any periodic transaction rules in the
+journal. They will generate temporary recurring transactions, which are
not saved in the journal, but will appear in all reports (eg print).
This can be useful for estimating balances into the future, or
-experimenting with different scenarios. Or, it can be used as a data
+experimenting with different scenarios. Or, it can be used as a data
entry aid: describe recurring transactions, and every so often copy the
-output of 'print --forecast' into the journal.
+output of `print --forecast' into the journal.
These transactions will have an extra tag indicating which periodic
-rule generated them: 'generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR'. And a
+rule generated them: `generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR'. And a
similar, hidden tag (beginning with an underscore) which, because it's
never displayed by print, can be used to match transactions generated
-"just now": '_generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR'.
+"just now": `_generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR'.
- Periodic transactions are generated within some forecast period. By
+ Periodic transactions are generated within some forecast period. By
default, this
* begins on the later of
* the report start date if specified with -b/-p/date:
+
* the day after the latest normal (non-periodic) transaction in
the journal, or today if there are no normal transactions.
@@ -1796,19 +1900,19 @@ default, this
months (180 days) from today.
This means that periodic transactions will begin only after the
-latest recorded transaction. And a recorded transaction dated in the
-future can prevent generation of periodic transactions. (You can avoid
+latest recorded transaction. And a recorded transaction dated in the
+future can prevent generation of periodic transactions. (You can avoid
that by writing the future transaction as a one-time periodic rule
-instead - put tilde before the date, eg '~ YYYY-MM-DD ...').
+instead - put tilde before the date, eg `~ YYYY-MM-DD ...').
Or, you can set your own arbitrary "forecast period", which can
overlap recorded transactions, and need not be in the future, by
-providing an option argument, like '--forecast=PERIODEXPR'. Note the
-equals sign is required, a space won't work. PERIODEXPR is a period
-expression, which can specify the start date, end date, or both, like in
-a 'date:' query. (See also hledger.1 -> Report start & end date). Some
-examples: '--forecast=202001-202004', '--forecast=jan-',
-'--forecast=2020'.
+providing an option argument, like `--forecast=PERIODEXPR'. Note the
+equals sign is required, a space won't work. PERIODEXPR is a period
+expression, which can specify the start date, end date, or both, like
+in a `date:' query. (See also hledger.1 -> Report start & end date).
+Some examples: `--forecast=202001-202004', `--forecast=jan-',
+`--forecast=2020'.

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Budgeting with periodic transactions, Prev: Forecasting with periodic transactions, Up: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS
@@ -1816,12 +1920,12 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Budgeting with periodic transactions, Prev:
15.4 Budgeting with periodic transactions
=========================================
-With the '--budget' flag, currently supported by the balance command,
+With the `--budget' flag, currently supported by the balance command,
each periodic transaction rule declares recurring budget goals for the
-specified accounts. Eg the first example above declares a goal of
+specified accounts. Eg the first example above declares a goal of
spending $2000 on rent (and also, a goal of depositing $2000 into
-checking) every month. Goals and actual performance can then be
-compared in budget reports.
+checking) every month. Goals and actual performance can then be compared
+in budget reports.
See also: Budgeting and Forecasting.
@@ -1833,40 +1937,46 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: AUTO POSTINGS, Prev: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS,
"Automated postings" or "auto postings" are extra postings which get
added automatically to transactions which match certain queries, defined
-by "auto posting rules", when you use the '--auto' flag.
+by "auto posting rules", when you use the `--auto' flag.
An auto posting rule looks a bit like a transaction:
+
= QUERY
ACCOUNT AMOUNT
...
ACCOUNT [AMOUNT]
- except the first line is an equals sign (mnemonic: '=' suggests
+ except the first line is an equals sign (mnemonic: `=' suggests
matching), followed by a query (which matches existing postings), and
each "posting" line describes a posting to be generated, and the posting
amounts can be:
- * a normal amount with a commodity symbol, eg '$2'. This will be
- used as-is.
- * a number, eg '2'. The commodity symbol (if any) from the matched
+ * a normal amount with a commodity symbol, eg `$2'. This will be used
+ as-is.
+
+ * a number, eg `2'. The commodity symbol (if any) from the matched
posting will be added to this.
- * a numeric multiplier, eg '*2' (a star followed by a number N). The
+
+ * a numeric multiplier, eg `*2' (a star followed by a number N). The
matched posting's amount (and total price, if any) will be
multiplied by N.
- * a multiplier with a commodity symbol, eg '*$2' (a star, number N,
+
+ * a multiplier with a commodity symbol, eg `*$2' (a star, number N,
and symbol S). The matched posting's amount will be multiplied by
N, and its commodity symbol will be replaced with S.
Any query term containing spaces must be enclosed in single or double
-quotes, as on the command line. Eg, note the quotes around the second
+quotes, as on the command line. Eg, note the quotes around the second
query term below:
+
= expenses:groceries 'expenses:dining out'
(budget:funds:dining out) *-1
Some examples:
+
; every time I buy food, schedule a dollar donation
= expenses:food
(liabilities:charity) $-1
@@ -1884,6 +1994,7 @@ query term below:
expenses:gifts $20
assets:checking
+
$ hledger print --auto
2017-12-01
expenses:food $10
@@ -1910,8 +2021,8 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Auto postings and multiple files, Next: Auto
=====================================
An auto posting rule can affect any transaction in the current file, or
-in any parent file or child file. Note, currently it will not affect
-sibling files (when multiple '-f'/'--file' are used - see #1212).
+in any parent file or child file. Note, currently it will not affect
+sibling files (when multiple `-f'/`--file' are used - see #1212).

File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Auto postings and dates, Next: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions, Prev: Auto postings and multiple files, Up: AUTO POSTINGS
@@ -1929,14 +2040,17 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inf
16.3 Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts /
=================================================================
-balance assertions Currently, auto postings are added:
+balance assertions
+
+ Currently, auto postings are added:
* after missing amounts are inferred, and transactions are checked
for balancedness,
+
* but before balance assertions are checked.
Note this means that journal entries must be balanced both before and
-after auto postings are added. This changed in hledger 1.12+; see #893
+after auto postings are added. This changed in hledger 1.12+; see #893
for background.

@@ -1947,154 +2061,157 @@ File: hledger_journal.info, Node: Auto posting tags, Prev: Auto postings and t
Automated postings will have some extra tags:
- * 'generated-posting:= QUERY' - shows this was generated by an auto
+ * `generated-posting:= QUERY' - shows this was generated by an auto
posting rule, and the query
- * '_generated-posting:= QUERY' - a hidden tag, which does not appear
- in hledger's output. This can be used to match postings generated
+
+ * `_generated-posting:= QUERY' - a hidden tag, which does not appear
+ in hledger's output. This can be used to match postings generated
"just now", rather than generated in the past and saved to the
journal.
Also, any transaction that has been changed by auto posting rules
will have these tags added:
- * 'modified:' - this transaction was modified
- * '_modified:' - a hidden tag not appearing in the comment; this
+ * `modified:' - this transaction was modified
+
+ * `_modified:' - a hidden tag not appearing in the comment; this
transaction was modified "just now".
+

Tag Table:
-Node: Top76
-Node: TRANSACTIONS2111
-Ref: #transactions2229
-Node: DATES3243
-Ref: #dates3350
-Node: Simple dates3415
-Ref: #simple-dates3537
-Node: Secondary dates4046
-Ref: #secondary-dates4196
-Node: Posting dates5532
-Ref: #posting-dates5657
-Node: STATUS7029
-Ref: #status7137
-Node: DESCRIPTION8845
-Ref: #description8966
-Node: Payee and note9286
-Ref: #payee-and-note9396
-Node: COMMENTS9731
-Ref: #comments9844
-Node: TAGS11038
-Ref: #tags11140
-Node: POSTINGS12533
-Ref: #postings12648
-Node: Virtual postings13674
-Ref: #virtual-postings13787
-Node: ACCOUNT NAMES15092
-Ref: #account-names15220
-Node: AMOUNTS15707
-Ref: #amounts15833
-Node: Digit group marks16957
-Ref: #digit-group-marks17104
-Node: Commodity display style18042
-Ref: #commodity-display-style18218
-Node: Rounding19761
-Ref: #rounding19881
-Node: TRANSACTION PRICES20293
-Ref: #transaction-prices20450
-Node: LOT PRICES LOT DATES22881
-Ref: #lot-prices-lot-dates23055
-Node: BALANCE ASSERTIONS23543
-Ref: #balance-assertions23712
-Node: Assertions and ordering24745
-Ref: #assertions-and-ordering24929
-Node: Assertions and included files25629
-Ref: #assertions-and-included-files25868
-Node: Assertions and multiple -f options26201
-Ref: #assertions-and-multiple--f-options26453
-Node: Assertions and commodities26585
-Ref: #assertions-and-commodities26813
-Node: Assertions and prices27970
-Ref: #assertions-and-prices28180
-Node: Assertions and subaccounts28620
-Ref: #assertions-and-subaccounts28845
-Node: Assertions and virtual postings29169
-Ref: #assertions-and-virtual-postings29407
-Node: Assertions and precision29549
-Ref: #assertions-and-precision29738
-Node: BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS30005
-Ref: #balance-assignments30166
-Node: Balance assignments and prices31330
-Ref: #balance-assignments-and-prices31498
-Node: DIRECTIVES31722
-Ref: #directives31868
-Node: Directives and multiple files37366
-Ref: #directives-and-multiple-files37545
-Node: Comment blocks38209
-Ref: #comment-blocks38388
-Node: Including other files38564
-Ref: #including-other-files38740
-Node: Default year39664
-Ref: #default-year39829
-Node: Declaring commodities40236
-Ref: #declaring-commodities40415
-Node: Commodity error checking42259
-Ref: #commodity-error-checking42415
-Node: Default commodity42672
-Ref: #default-commodity42854
-Node: Declaring market prices43743
-Ref: #declaring-market-prices43934
-Node: Declaring accounts44791
-Ref: #declaring-accounts44973
-Node: Account error checking46175
-Ref: #account-error-checking46347
-Node: Account comments47526
-Ref: #account-comments47716
-Node: Account subdirectives48140
-Ref: #account-subdirectives48331
-Node: Account types48644
-Ref: #account-types48824
-Node: Declaring account types49560
-Ref: #declaring-account-types49745
-Node: Auto-detected account types50395
-Ref: #auto-detected-account-types50642
-Node: Interference from auto-detected account types51539
-Ref: #interference-from-auto-detected-account-types51822
-Node: Old account type syntax52305
-Ref: #old-account-type-syntax52508
-Node: Account display order52808
-Ref: #account-display-order52974
-Node: Rewriting accounts54125
-Ref: #rewriting-accounts54306
-Node: Basic aliases55063
-Ref: #basic-aliases55205
-Node: Regex aliases55909
-Ref: #regex-aliases56077
-Node: Combining aliases56796
-Ref: #combining-aliases56985
-Node: Aliases and multiple files58261
-Ref: #aliases-and-multiple-files58466
-Node: end aliases59045
-Ref: #end-aliases59198
-Node: Default parent account59299
-Ref: #default-parent-account59463
-Node: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS60347
-Ref: #periodic-transactions60509
-Node: Periodic rule syntax62426
-Ref: #periodic-rule-syntax62628
-Node: Two spaces between period expression and description!63332
-Ref: #two-spaces-between-period-expression-and-description63647
-Node: Forecasting with periodic transactions64331
-Ref: #forecasting-with-periodic-transactions64632
-Node: Budgeting with periodic transactions66687
-Ref: #budgeting-with-periodic-transactions66922
-Node: AUTO POSTINGS67331
-Ref: #auto-postings67458
-Node: Auto postings and multiple files69637
-Ref: #auto-postings-and-multiple-files69837
-Node: Auto postings and dates70046
-Ref: #auto-postings-and-dates70316
-Node: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions70491
-Ref: #auto-postings-and-transaction-balancing-inferred-amounts-balance-assertions70838
-Node: Auto posting tags71180
-Ref: #auto-posting-tags71391
+Node: Top88
+Node: TRANSACTIONS2095
+Ref: #transactions2213
+Node: DATES3230
+Ref: #dates3337
+Node: Simple dates3402
+Ref: #simple-dates3524
+Node: Secondary dates4031
+Ref: #secondary-dates4181
+Node: Posting dates5515
+Ref: #posting-dates5640
+Node: STATUS7009
+Ref: #status7117
+Node: DESCRIPTION8822
+Ref: #description8943
+Node: Payee and note9261
+Ref: #payee-and-note9371
+Node: COMMENTS9705
+Ref: #comments9818
+Node: TAGS11011
+Ref: #tags11113
+Node: POSTINGS12511
+Ref: #postings12626
+Node: Virtual postings13650
+Ref: #virtual-postings13763
+Node: ACCOUNT NAMES15065
+Ref: #account-names15193
+Node: AMOUNTS15678
+Ref: #amounts15804
+Node: Digit group marks16931
+Ref: #digit-group-marks17078
+Node: Commodity display style18018
+Ref: #commodity-display-style18194
+Node: Rounding19738
+Ref: #rounding19858
+Node: TRANSACTION PRICES20268
+Ref: #transaction-prices20425
+Node: LOT PRICES LOT DATES22855
+Ref: #lot-prices-lot-dates23029
+Node: BALANCE ASSERTIONS23516
+Ref: #balance-assertions23685
+Node: Assertions and ordering24715
+Ref: #assertions-and-ordering24899
+Node: Assertions and included files25596
+Ref: #assertions-and-included-files25835
+Node: Assertions and multiple -f options26166
+Ref: #assertions-and-multiple--f-options26418
+Node: Assertions and commodities26549
+Ref: #assertions-and-commodities26777
+Node: Assertions and prices27932
+Ref: #assertions-and-prices28142
+Node: Assertions and subaccounts28583
+Ref: #assertions-and-subaccounts28808
+Node: Assertions and virtual postings29132
+Ref: #assertions-and-virtual-postings29370
+Node: Assertions and precision29511
+Ref: #assertions-and-precision29700
+Node: BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS29965
+Ref: #balance-assignments30126
+Node: Balance assignments and prices31289
+Ref: #balance-assignments-and-prices31457
+Node: DIRECTIVES31683
+Ref: #directives31829
+Node: Directives and multiple files37274
+Ref: #directives-and-multiple-files37453
+Node: Comment blocks38115
+Ref: #comment-blocks38294
+Node: Including other files38469
+Ref: #including-other-files38645
+Node: Default year39569
+Ref: #default-year39734
+Node: Declaring commodities40141
+Ref: #declaring-commodities40320
+Node: Commodity error checking42161
+Ref: #commodity-error-checking42317
+Node: Default commodity42573
+Ref: #default-commodity42755
+Node: Declaring market prices43640
+Ref: #declaring-market-prices43831
+Node: Declaring accounts44689
+Ref: #declaring-accounts44871
+Node: Account error checking46078
+Ref: #account-error-checking46250
+Node: Account comments47427
+Ref: #account-comments47617
+Node: Account subdirectives48043
+Ref: #account-subdirectives48234
+Node: Account types48549
+Ref: #account-types48729
+Node: Declaring account types49464
+Ref: #declaring-account-types49649
+Node: Auto-detected account types50300
+Ref: #auto-detected-account-types50547
+Node: Interference from auto-detected account types51446
+Ref: #interference-from-auto-detected-account-types51729
+Node: Old account type syntax52212
+Ref: #old-account-type-syntax52415
+Node: Account display order52716
+Ref: #account-display-order52882
+Node: Rewriting accounts54033
+Ref: #rewriting-accounts54214
+Node: Basic aliases54973
+Ref: #basic-aliases55115
+Node: Regex aliases55817
+Ref: #regex-aliases55985
+Node: Combining aliases56705
+Ref: #combining-aliases56894
+Node: Aliases and multiple files58171
+Ref: #aliases-and-multiple-files58376
+Node: end aliases58957
+Ref: #end-aliases59110
+Node: Default parent account59212
+Ref: #default-parent-account59376
+Node: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS60260
+Ref: #periodic-transactions60422
+Node: Periodic rule syntax62339
+Ref: #periodic-rule-syntax62541
+Node: Two spaces between period expression and description!63244
+Ref: #two-spaces-between-period-expression-and-description63559
+Node: Forecasting with periodic transactions64244
+Ref: #forecasting-with-periodic-transactions64545
+Node: Budgeting with periodic transactions66591
+Ref: #budgeting-with-periodic-transactions66826
+Node: AUTO POSTINGS67233
+Ref: #auto-postings67360
+Node: Auto postings and multiple files69543
+Ref: #auto-postings-and-multiple-files69743
+Node: Auto postings and dates69951
+Ref: #auto-postings-and-dates70221
+Node: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions70396
+Ref: #auto-postings-and-transaction-balancing-inferred-amounts-balance-assertions70744
+Node: Auto posting tags71089
+Ref: #auto-posting-tags71300

End Tag Table
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.txt b/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.txt
index 7f9579b..210741d 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.txt
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_journal.txt
@@ -7,9 +7,9 @@ NAME
hledger's default file format, representing a General Journal.
DESCRIPTION
- hledger's usual data source is a plain text file containing journal en-
- tries in hledger journal format. This file represents a standard ac-
- counting general journal. I use file names ending in .journal, but
+ hledger's usual data source is a plain text file containing journal
+ entries in hledger journal format. This file represents a standard
+ accounting general journal. I use file names ending in .journal, but
that's not required. The journal file contains a number of transaction
entries, each describing a transfer of money (or any commodity) between
two or more named accounts, in a simple format readable by both hledger
@@ -43,8 +43,8 @@ TRANSACTIONS
between two or more named accounts.
Each transaction is recorded as a journal entry, beginning with a sim-
- ple date in column 0. This can be followed by any of the following op-
- tional fields, separated by spaces:
+ ple date in column 0. This can be followed by any of the following
+ optional fields, separated by spaces:
o a status character (empty, !, or *)
@@ -112,8 +112,8 @@ DATES
You can give individual postings a different date from their parent
transaction, by adding a posting comment containing a tag (see below)
like date:DATE. This is probably the best way to control posting dates
- precisely. Eg in this example the expense should appear in May re-
- ports, and the deduction from checking should be reported on 6/1 for
+ precisely. Eg in this example the expense should appear in May
+ reports, and the deduction from checking should be reported on 6/1 for
easy bank reconciliation:
2015/5/30
@@ -140,9 +140,10 @@ DATES
STATUS
Transactions, or individual postings within a transaction, can have a
- status mark, which is a single character before the transaction de-
- scription or posting account name, separated from it by a space, indi-
- cating one of three statuses:
+ status mark, which is a single character before the transaction
+ description or posting account name, separated from it by a space,
+ indicating one of three statuses:
+
mark status
------------------
@@ -155,8 +156,8 @@ STATUS
status:* queries; or the U, P, C keys in hledger-ui.
Note, in Ledger and in older versions of hledger, the "unmarked" state
- is called "uncleared". As of hledger 1.3 we have renamed it to un-
- marked for clarity.
+ is called "uncleared". As of hledger 1.3 we have renamed it to
+ unmarked for clarity.
To replicate Ledger and old hledger's behaviour of also matching pend-
ing, combine -U and -P.
@@ -169,6 +170,7 @@ STATUS
What "uncleared", "pending", and "cleared" actually mean is up to you.
Here's one suggestion:
+
status meaning
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
uncleared recorded but not yet reconciled; needs review
@@ -178,8 +180,8 @@ STATUS
rect
With this scheme, you would use -PC to see the current balance at your
- bank, -U to see things which will probably hit your bank soon (like un-
- cashed checks), and no flags to see the most up-to-date state of your
+ bank, -U to see things which will probably hit your bank soon (like
+ uncashed checks), and no flags to see the most up-to-date state of your
finances.
DESCRIPTION
@@ -192,9 +194,9 @@ DESCRIPTION
Payee and note
You can optionally include a | (pipe) character in descriptions to sub-
divide the description into separate fields for payee/payer name on the
- left (up to the first |) and an additional note field on the right (af-
- ter the first |). This may be worthwhile if you need to do more pre-
- cise querying and pivoting by payee or by note.
+ left (up to the first |) and an additional note field on the right
+ (after the first |). This may be worthwhile if you need to do more
+ precise querying and pivoting by payee or by note.
COMMENTS
Lines in the journal beginning with a semicolon (;) or hash (#) or star
@@ -202,11 +204,11 @@ COMMENTS
nodes to be ignored, allowing emacs users to fold and navigate their
journals with org-mode or orgstruct-mode.)
- You can attach comments to a transaction by writing them after the de-
- scription and/or indented on the following lines (before the postings).
- Similarly, you can attach comments to an individual posting by writing
- them after the amount and/or indented on the following lines. Transac-
- tion and posting comments must begin with a semicolon (;).
+ You can attach comments to a transaction by writing them after the
+ description and/or indented on the following lines (before the post-
+ ings). Similarly, you can attach comments to an individual posting by
+ writing them after the amount and/or indented on the following lines.
+ Transaction and posting comments must begin with a semicolon (;).
Some examples:
@@ -338,8 +340,8 @@ ACCOUNT NAMES
Account names can be aliased.
AMOUNTS
- After the account name, there is usually an amount. (Important: be-
- tween account name and amount, there must be two or more spaces.)
+ After the account name, there is usually an amount. (Important:
+ between account name and amount, there must be two or more spaces.)
hledger's amount format is flexible, supporting several international
formats. Here are some examples. Amounts have a number (the "quan-
@@ -400,16 +402,17 @@ AMOUNTS
hledger will treat them both as decimal marks by default (cf #793). If
you use digit group marks, to prevent confusion and undetected typos we
- recommend you write commodity directives at the top of the file to ex-
- plicitly declare the decimal mark (and optionally a digit group mark).
- Note, these formats ("amount styles") are specific to each commodity,
- so if your data uses multiple formats, hledger can handle it:
+ recommend you write commodity directives at the top of the file to
+ explicitly declare the decimal mark (and optionally a digit group
+ mark). Note, these formats ("amount styles") are specific to each com-
+ modity, so if your data uses multiple formats, hledger can handle it:
commodity $1,000.00
commodity EUR 1.000,00
commodity INR 9,99,99,999.00
commodity 1 000 000.9455
+
Commodity display style
For each commodity, hledger chooses a consistent style to use when dis-
playing amounts. (Except price amounts, which are always displayed as
@@ -426,44 +429,44 @@ AMOUNTS
A style is inferred from the journal amounts in a commodity as follows:
- o Use the general style (decimal mark, symbol placement) of the first
+ o Use the general style (decimal mark, symbol placement) of the first
amount
- o Use the first-seen digit group style (digit group mark, digit group
+ o Use the first-seen digit group style (digit group mark, digit group
sizes), if any
o Use the maximum number of decimal places of all.
- Transaction price amounts don't affect the commodity display style di-
- rectly, but occasionally they can do so indirectly (eg when a posting's
- amount is inferred using a transaction price). If you find this caus-
- ing problems, use a commodity directive to fix the display style.
+ Transaction price amounts don't affect the commodity display style
+ directly, but occasionally they can do so indirectly (eg when a post-
+ ing's amount is inferred using a transaction price). If you find this
+ causing problems, use a commodity directive to fix the display style.
In summary, each commodity's amounts will be normalised to
o the style declared by a commodity directive
- o or, the style of the first posting amount in the journal, with the
- first-seen digit group style and the maximum-seen number of decimal
+ o or, the style of the first posting amount in the journal, with the
+ first-seen digit group style and the maximum-seen number of decimal
places.
- If reports are showing amounts in a way you don't like (eg, with too
- many decimal places), use a commodity directive to set your preferred
+ If reports are showing amounts in a way you don't like (eg, with too
+ many decimal places), use a commodity directive to set your preferred
style.
Rounding
Amounts are stored internally as decimal numbers with up to 255 decimal
- places, and displayed with the number of decimal places specified by
- the commodity display style. Note, hledger uses banker's rounding: it
- rounds to the nearest even number, eg 0.5 displayed with zero decimal
- places is "0"). (Guaranteed since hledger 1.17.1; in older versions
+ places, and displayed with the number of decimal places specified by
+ the commodity display style. Note, hledger uses banker's rounding: it
+ rounds to the nearest even number, eg 0.5 displayed with zero decimal
+ places is "0"). (Guaranteed since hledger 1.17.1; in older versions
this could vary if hledger was built with Decimal < 0.5.1.)
TRANSACTION PRICES
Within a transaction, you can note an amount's price in another commod-
- ity. This can be used to document the cost (in a purchase) or selling
- price (in a sale). For example, transaction prices are useful to
- record purchases of a foreign currency. Note transaction prices are
+ ity. This can be used to document the cost (in a purchase) or selling
+ price (in a sale). For example, transaction prices are useful to
+ record purchases of a foreign currency. Note transaction prices are
fixed at the time of the transaction, and do not change over time. See
also market prices, which represent prevailing exchange rates on a cer-
tain date.
@@ -489,14 +492,14 @@ TRANSACTION PRICES
assets:euros EUR100 ; one hundred euros purchased
assets:dollars $-135 ; for $135
- 4. Like 1, but the @ is parenthesised, i.e. (@); this is for compati-
- bility with Ledger journals (Virtual posting costs), and is equiva-
+ 4. Like 1, but the @ is parenthesised, i.e. (@); this is for compati-
+ bility with Ledger journals (Virtual posting costs), and is equiva-
lent to 1 in hledger.
5. Like 2, but as in 4 the @@ is parenthesised, i.e. (@@); in hledger,
this is equivalent to 2.
- Use the -B/--cost flag to convert amounts to their transaction price's
+ Use the -B/--cost flag to convert amounts to their transaction price's
commodity, if any. (mnemonic: "B" is from "cost Basis", as in Ledger).
Eg here is how -B affects the balance report for the example above:
@@ -507,8 +510,8 @@ TRANSACTION PRICES
$-135 assets:dollars
$135 assets:euros # <- the euros' cost
- Note -B is sensitive to the order of postings when a transaction price
- is inferred: the inferred price will be in the commodity of the last
+ Note -B is sensitive to the order of postings when a transaction price
+ is inferred: the inferred price will be in the commodity of the last
amount. So if example 3's postings are reversed, while the transaction
is equivalent, -B shows something different:
@@ -521,18 +524,18 @@ TRANSACTION PRICES
EUR100 assets:euros
LOT PRICES, LOT DATES
- Ledger allows another kind of price, lot price (four variants: {UNIT-
+ Ledger allows another kind of price, lot price (four variants: {UNIT-
PRICE}, {{TOTALPRICE}}, {=FIXEDUNITPRICE}, {{=FIXEDTOTALPRICE}}),
and/or a lot date ([DATE]) to be specified. These are normally used to
- select a lot when selling investments. hledger will parse these, for
- compatibility with Ledger journals, but currently ignores them. A
- transaction price, lot price and/or lot date may appear in any order,
+ select a lot when selling investments. hledger will parse these, for
+ compatibility with Ledger journals, but currently ignores them. A
+ transaction price, lot price and/or lot date may appear in any order,
after the posting amount and before the balance assertion if any.
BALANCE ASSERTIONS
- hledger supports Ledger-style balance assertions in journal files.
- These look like, for example, = EXPECTEDBALANCE following a posting's
- amount. Eg here we assert the expected dollar balance in accounts a
+ hledger supports Ledger-style balance assertions in journal files.
+ These look like, for example, = EXPECTEDBALANCE following a posting's
+ amount. Eg here we assert the expected dollar balance in accounts a
and b after each posting:
2013/1/1
@@ -544,32 +547,32 @@ BALANCE ASSERTIONS
b $-1 =$-2
After reading a journal file, hledger will check all balance assertions
- and report an error if any of them fail. Balance assertions can pro-
- tect you from, eg, inadvertently disrupting reconciled balances while
- cleaning up old entries. You can disable them temporarily with the
+ and report an error if any of them fail. Balance assertions can pro-
+ tect you from, eg, inadvertently disrupting reconciled balances while
+ cleaning up old entries. You can disable them temporarily with the
-I/--ignore-assertions flag, which can be useful for troubleshooting or
- for reading Ledger files. (Note: this flag currently does not disable
+ for reading Ledger files. (Note: this flag currently does not disable
balance assignments, below).
Assertions and ordering
- hledger sorts an account's postings and assertions first by date and
- then (for postings on the same day) by parse order. Note this is dif-
+ hledger sorts an account's postings and assertions first by date and
+ then (for postings on the same day) by parse order. Note this is dif-
ferent from Ledger, which sorts assertions only by parse order. (Also,
- Ledger assertions do not see the accumulated effect of repeated post-
+ Ledger assertions do not see the accumulated effect of repeated post-
ings to the same account within a transaction.)
So, hledger balance assertions keep working if you reorder differently-
- dated transactions within the journal. But if you reorder same-dated
- transactions or postings, assertions might break and require updating.
+ dated transactions within the journal. But if you reorder same-dated
+ transactions or postings, assertions might break and require updating.
This order dependence does bring an advantage: precise control over the
order of postings and assertions within a day, so you can assert intra-
day balances.
Assertions and included files
- With included files, things are a little more complicated. Including
- preserves the ordering of postings and assertions. If you have multi-
- ple postings to an account on the same day, split across different
- files, and you also want to assert the account's balance on the same
+ With included files, things are a little more complicated. Including
+ preserves the ordering of postings and assertions. If you have multi-
+ ple postings to an account on the same day, split across different
+ files, and you also want to assert the account's balance on the same
day, you'll have to put the assertion in the right file.
Assertions and multiple -f options
@@ -577,9 +580,9 @@ BALANCE ASSERTIONS
-f options. Use include or concatenate the files instead.
Assertions and commodities
- The asserted balance must be a simple single-commodity amount, and in
- fact the assertion checks only this commodity's balance within the
- (possibly multi-commodity) account balance. This is how assertions
+ The asserted balance must be a simple single-commodity amount, and in
+ fact the assertion checks only this commodity's balance within the
+ (possibly multi-commodity) account balance. This is how assertions
work in Ledger also. We could call this a "partial" balance assertion.
To assert the balance of more than one commodity in an account, you can
@@ -702,51 +705,63 @@ DIRECTIVES
links to more detailed docs. Note part of this table is hidden when
viewed in a web browser - scroll it sideways to see more.
- direc- end di- subdi- purpose can affect (as of
- tive rective rec- 2018/06)
+
+ direc- end subdi- purpose can affect (as of
+ tive directive rec- 2018/06)
tives
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- account any document account names, de- all entries in all
- text clare account types & dis- files, before or
+ account any document account names, all entries in all
+ text declare account types & dis- files, before or
play order after
alias end rewrite account names following entries
- aliases until end of cur-
+ aliases until end of cur-
rent file or end
directive
- apply end apply prepend a common parent to following entries
- account account account names until end of cur-
+ apply end apply prepend a common parent to following entries
+ account account account names until end of cur-
rent file or end
directive
comment end com- ignore part of journal following entries
- ment until end of cur-
+ ment until end of cur-
rent file or end
directive
- commod- format declare a commodity and its number notation:
+ commod- format declare a commodity and its number notation:
ity number notation & display following entries
style in that commodity
in all files ; dis-
play style: amounts
of that commodity
in reports
- D declare a commodity to be default commodity:
- used for commodityless following commod-
- amounts, and its number no- ityless entries un-
- tation & display style til end of current
- file; number nota-
- tion: following en-
- tries in that com-
- modity until end of
- current file; dis-
- play style: amounts
- of that commodity
- in reports
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ D declare a commodity to be default commodity:
+ used for commodityless following commod-
+ amounts, and its number ityless entries
+ notation & display style until end of cur-
+ rent file; number
+ notation: following
+ entries in that
+ commodity until end
+ of current file;
+ display style:
+ amounts of that
+ commodity in
+ reports
include include entries/directives what the included
from another file directives affect
P declare a market price for a amounts of that
- commodity commodity in re-
- ports, when -V is
+ commodity commodity in
+ reports, when -V is
used
Y declare a year for yearless following entries
dates until end of cur-
@@ -759,6 +774,7 @@ DIRECTIVES
And some definitions:
+
subdi- optional indented directive line immediately following a parent
rec- directive
tive
@@ -773,8 +789,8 @@ DIRECTIVES
scope
As you can see, directives vary in which journal entries and files they
- affect, and whether they are focussed on input (parsing) or output (re-
- ports). Some directives have multiple effects.
+ affect, and whether they are focussed on input (parsing) or output
+ (reports). Some directives have multiple effects.
Directives and multiple files
If you use multiple -f/--file options, or the include directive,
@@ -813,14 +829,14 @@ DIRECTIVES
The path may contain glob patterns to match multiple files, eg: include
*.journal.
- There is limited support for recursive wildcards: **/ (the slash is re-
- quired) matches 0 or more subdirectories. It's not super convenient
+ There is limited support for recursive wildcards: **/ (the slash is
+ required) matches 0 or more subdirectories. It's not super convenient
since you have to avoid include cycles and including directories, but
this can be done, eg: include */**/*.journal.
The path may also be prefixed to force a specific file format, overrid-
- ing the file extension (as described in hledger.1 -> Input files): in-
- clude timedot:~/notes/2020*.md.
+ ing the file extension (as described in hledger.1 -> Input files):
+ include timedot:~/notes/2020*.md.
Default year
You can set a default year to be used for subsequent dates which don't
@@ -857,9 +873,9 @@ DIRECTIVES
3. It declares a commodity's display style in output - decimal and
digit group marks, number of decimal places, symbol placement etc.
- You are likely to run into one of the problems solved by commodity di-
- rectives, sooner or later, so it's a good idea to just always use them
- to declare your commodities.
+ You are likely to run into one of the problems solved by commodity
+ directives, sooner or later, so it's a good idea to just always use
+ them to declare your commodities.
A commodity directive is just the word commodity followed by an amount.
It may be written on a single line, like this:
@@ -899,15 +915,15 @@ DIRECTIVES
Default commodity
The D directive sets a default commodity, to be used for amounts with-
- out a commodity symbol (ie, plain numbers). This commodity will be ap-
- plied to all subsequent commodity-less amounts, or until the next D di-
- rective. (Note, this is different from Ledger's D.)
+ out a commodity symbol (ie, plain numbers). This commodity will be
+ applied to all subsequent commodity-less amounts, or until the next D
+ directive. (Note, this is different from Ledger's D.)
- For compatibility/historical reasons, D also acts like a commodity di-
- rective, setting the commodity's display style (for output) and decimal
- mark (for parsing input). As with commodity, the amount must always be
- written with a decimal mark (period or comma). If both directives are
- used, commodity's style takes precedence.
+ For compatibility/historical reasons, D also acts like a commodity
+ directive, setting the commodity's display style (for output) and deci-
+ mal mark (for parsing input). As with commodity, the amount must
+ always be written with a decimal mark (period or comma). If both
+ directives are used, commodity's style takes precedence.
The syntax is D AMOUNT. Eg:
@@ -920,8 +936,8 @@ DIRECTIVES
b
Declaring market prices
- The P directive declares a market price, which is an exchange rate be-
- tween two commodities on a certain date. (In Ledger, they are called
+ The P directive declares a market price, which is an exchange rate
+ between two commodities on a certain date. (In Ledger, they are called
"historical prices".) These are often obtained from a stock exchange,
cryptocurrency exchange, or the foreign exchange market.
@@ -983,20 +999,20 @@ DIRECTIVES
rect balance when reconciling.
In strict mode, enabled with the -s/--strict flag, hledger will report
- an error if any transaction uses an account name that has not been de-
- clared by an account directive. Some notes:
+ an error if any transaction uses an account name that has not been
+ declared by an account directive. Some notes:
o The declaration is case-sensitive; transactions must use the correct
account name capitalisation.
o The account directive's scope is "whole file and below" (see direc-
tives). This means it affects all of the current file, and any files
- it includes, but not parent or sibling files. The position of ac-
- count directives within the file does not matter, though it's usual
+ it includes, but not parent or sibling files. The position of
+ account directives within the file does not matter, though it's usual
to put them at the top.
- o Accounts can only be declared in journal files (but will affect in-
- cluded files in other formats).
+ o Accounts can only be declared in journal files (but will affect
+ included files in other formats).
o It's currently not possible to declare "all possible subaccounts"
with a wildcard; every account posted to must be declared.
@@ -1031,8 +1047,8 @@ DIRECTIVES
[LEDGER-STYLE SUBDIRECTIVES, IGNORED]
Account types
- hledger recognises five main types of account, corresponding to the ac-
- count classes in the accounting equation:
+ hledger recognises five main types of account, corresponding to the
+ account classes in the accounting equation:
Asset, Liability, Equity, Revenue, Expense.
@@ -1067,6 +1083,7 @@ DIRECTIVES
not need to declare account types, as they will be detected automati-
cally using the following rules:
+
If name matches regular account type is:
expression:
----------------------------------------------
@@ -1077,6 +1094,7 @@ DIRECTIVES
^(income|revenue)s?(:|$) Revenue
^expenses?(:|$) Expense
+
If account type is Asset and name does not contain regu- account type
lar expression: is:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -1090,8 +1108,8 @@ DIRECTIVES
to prevent any confusion from mixing declared and auto-detected types.
Although it's unlikely to happen in real life, here's an example: with
the following journal, balancesheetequity shows "liabilities" in both
- Liabilities and Equity sections. Declaring another account as type:Li-
- ability would fix it:
+ Liabilities and Equity sections. Declaring another account as
+ type:Liability would fix it:
account liabilities ; type:Equity
@@ -1135,20 +1153,20 @@ DIRECTIVES
Undeclared accounts, if any, are displayed last, in alphabetical order.
- Note that sorting is done at each level of the account tree (within
- each group of sibling accounts under the same parent). And currently,
+ Note that sorting is done at each level of the account tree (within
+ each group of sibling accounts under the same parent). And currently,
this directive:
account other:zoo
- would influence the position of zoo among other's subaccounts, but not
+ would influence the position of zoo among other's subaccounts, but not
the position of other among the top-level accounts. This means:
- o you will sometimes declare parent accounts (eg account other above)
- that you don't intend to post to, just to customize their display or-
- der
+ o you will sometimes declare parent accounts (eg account other above)
+ that you don't intend to post to, just to customize their display
+ order
- o sibling accounts stay together (you couldn't display x:y in between
+ o sibling accounts stay together (you couldn't display x:y in between
a:b and a:c).
Rewriting accounts
@@ -1166,14 +1184,14 @@ DIRECTIVES
o customising reports
Account aliases also rewrite account names in account directives. They
- do not affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-
+ do not affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-
web.
See also Rewrite account names.
Basic aliases
- To set an account alias, use the alias directive in your journal file.
- This affects all subsequent journal entries in the current file or its
+ To set an account alias, use the alias directive in your journal file.
+ This affects all subsequent journal entries in the current file or its
included files. The spaces around the = are optional:
alias OLD = NEW
@@ -1181,9 +1199,9 @@ DIRECTIVES
Or, you can use the --alias 'OLD=NEW' option on the command line. This
affects all entries. It's useful for trying out aliases interactively.
- OLD and NEW are case sensitive full account names. hledger will re-
- place any occurrence of the old account name with the new one. Subac-
- counts are also affected. Eg:
+ OLD and NEW are case sensitive full account names. hledger will
+ replace any occurrence of the old account name with the new one. Sub-
+ accounts are also affected. Eg:
alias checking = assets:bank:wells fargo:checking
; rewrites "checking" to "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking", or "checking:a" to "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking:a"
@@ -1234,21 +1252,21 @@ DIRECTIVES
o aliases defined after/below the entry do not affect it.
- This gives nearby aliases precedence over distant ones, and helps pro-
- vide semantic stability - aliases will keep working the same way inde-
+ This gives nearby aliases precedence over distant ones, and helps pro-
+ vide semantic stability - aliases will keep working the same way inde-
pendent of which files are being read and in which order.
- In case of trouble, adding --debug=6 to the command line will show
+ In case of trouble, adding --debug=6 to the command line will show
which aliases are being applied when.
Aliases and multiple files
- As explained at Directives and multiple files, alias directives do not
+ As explained at Directives and multiple files, alias directives do not
affect parent or sibling files. Eg in this command,
hledger -f a.aliases -f b.journal
- account aliases defined in a.aliases will not affect b.journal. In-
- cluding the aliases doesn't work either:
+ account aliases defined in a.aliases will not affect b.journal.
+ Including the aliases doesn't work either:
include a.aliases
@@ -1269,15 +1287,15 @@ DIRECTIVES
include c.journal ; also affected
end aliases
- You can clear (forget) all currently defined aliases with the end
+ You can clear (forget) all currently defined aliases with the end
aliases directive:
end aliases
Default parent account
- You can specify a parent account which will be prepended to all ac-
- counts within a section of the journal. Use the apply account and end
- apply account directives like so:
+ You can specify a parent account which will be prepended to all
+ accounts within a section of the journal. Use the apply account and
+ end apply account directives like so:
apply account home
@@ -1293,7 +1311,7 @@ DIRECTIVES
home:food $10
home:cash $-10
- If end apply account is omitted, the effect lasts to the end of the
+ If end apply account is omitted, the effect lasts to the end of the
file. Included files are also affected, eg:
apply account business
@@ -1302,49 +1320,49 @@ DIRECTIVES
apply account personal
include personal.journal
- Prior to hledger 1.0, legacy account and end spellings were also sup-
+ Prior to hledger 1.0, legacy account and end spellings were also sup-
ported.
- A default parent account also affects account directives. It does not
- affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-web. If
- account aliases are present, they are applied after the default parent
+ A default parent account also affects account directives. It does not
+ affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-web. If
+ account aliases are present, they are applied after the default parent
account.
PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS
- Periodic transaction rules describe transactions that recur. They al-
- low hledger to generate temporary future transactions to help with
- forecasting, so you don't have to write out each one in the journal,
+ Periodic transaction rules describe transactions that recur. They
+ allow hledger to generate temporary future transactions to help with
+ forecasting, so you don't have to write out each one in the journal,
and it's easy to try out different forecasts.
- Periodic transactions can be a little tricky, so before you use them,
+ Periodic transactions can be a little tricky, so before you use them,
read this whole section - or at least these tips:
- 1. Two spaces accidentally added or omitted will cause you trouble -
+ 1. Two spaces accidentally added or omitted will cause you trouble -
read about this below.
- 2. For troubleshooting, show the generated transactions with hledger
- print --forecast tag:generated or hledger register --forecast
+ 2. For troubleshooting, show the generated transactions with hledger
+ print --forecast tag:generated or hledger register --forecast
tag:generated.
- 3. Forecasted transactions will begin only after the last non-fore-
+ 3. Forecasted transactions will begin only after the last non-fore-
casted transaction's date.
- 4. Forecasted transactions will end 6 months from today, by default.
+ 4. Forecasted transactions will end 6 months from today, by default.
See below for the exact start/end rules.
- 5. period expressions can be tricky. Their documentation needs im-
- provement, but is worth studying.
+ 5. period expressions can be tricky. Their documentation needs
+ improvement, but is worth studying.
- 6. Some period expressions with a repeating interval must begin on a
- natural boundary of that interval. Eg in weekly from DATE, DATE
- must be a monday. ~ weekly from 2019/10/1 (a tuesday) will give an
+ 6. Some period expressions with a repeating interval must begin on a
+ natural boundary of that interval. Eg in weekly from DATE, DATE
+ must be a monday. ~ weekly from 2019/10/1 (a tuesday) will give an
error.
7. Other period expressions with an interval are automatically expanded
- to cover a whole number of that interval. (This is done to improve
+ to cover a whole number of that interval. (This is done to improve
reports, but it also affects periodic transactions. Yes, it's a bit
- inconsistent with the above.) Eg: ~ every 10th day of month from
- 2020/01, which is equivalent to ~ every 10th day of month from
+ inconsistent with the above.) Eg: ~ every 10th day of month from
+ 2020/01, which is equivalent to ~ every 10th day of month from
2020/01/01, will be adjusted to start on 2019/12/10.
Periodic transaction rules also have a second meaning: they are used to
@@ -1359,17 +1377,17 @@ PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS
expenses:rent $2000
assets:bank:checking
- There is an additional constraint on the period expression: the start
- date must fall on a natural boundary of the interval. Eg monthly from
+ There is an additional constraint on the period expression: the start
+ date must fall on a natural boundary of the interval. Eg monthly from
2018/1/1 is valid, but monthly from 2018/1/15 is not.
- Partial or relative dates (M/D, D, tomorrow, last week) in the period
- expression can work (useful or not). They will be relative to today's
- date, unless a Y default year directive is in effect, in which case
+ Partial or relative dates (M/D, D, tomorrow, last week) in the period
+ expression can work (useful or not). They will be relative to today's
+ date, unless a Y default year directive is in effect, in which case
they will be relative to Y/1/1.
Two spaces between period expression and description!
- If the period expression is followed by a transaction description,
+ If the period expression is followed by a transaction description,
these must be separated by two or more spaces. This helps hledger know
where the period expression ends, so that descriptions can not acciden-
tally alter their meaning, as in this example:
@@ -1383,68 +1401,69 @@ PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS
So,
- o Do write two spaces between your period expression and your transac-
+ o Do write two spaces between your period expression and your transac-
tion description, if any.
- o Don't accidentally write two spaces in the middle of your period ex-
- pression.
+ o Don't accidentally write two spaces in the middle of your period
+ expression.
Forecasting with periodic transactions
- The --forecast flag activates any periodic transaction rules in the
- journal. They will generate temporary recurring transactions, which
- are not saved in the journal, but will appear in all reports (eg
+ The --forecast flag activates any periodic transaction rules in the
+ journal. They will generate temporary recurring transactions, which
+ are not saved in the journal, but will appear in all reports (eg
print). This can be useful for estimating balances into the future, or
- experimenting with different scenarios. Or, it can be used as a data
+ experimenting with different scenarios. Or, it can be used as a data
entry aid: describe recurring transactions, and every so often copy the
output of print --forecast into the journal.
- These transactions will have an extra tag indicating which periodic
+ These transactions will have an extra tag indicating which periodic
rule generated them: generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR. And a simi-
- lar, hidden tag (beginning with an underscore) which, because it's
- never displayed by print, can be used to match transactions generated
+ lar, hidden tag (beginning with an underscore) which, because it's
+ never displayed by print, can be used to match transactions generated
"just now": _generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR.
- Periodic transactions are generated within some forecast period. By
+ Periodic transactions are generated within some forecast period. By
default, this
o begins on the later of
o the report start date if specified with -b/-p/date:
- o the day after the latest normal (non-periodic) transaction in the
+ o the day after the latest normal (non-periodic) transaction in the
journal, or today if there are no normal transactions.
- o ends on the report end date if specified with -e/-p/date:, or 6
+ o ends on the report end date if specified with -e/-p/date:, or 6
months (180 days) from today.
- This means that periodic transactions will begin only after the latest
- recorded transaction. And a recorded transaction dated in the future
- can prevent generation of periodic transactions. (You can avoid that
+ This means that periodic transactions will begin only after the latest
+ recorded transaction. And a recorded transaction dated in the future
+ can prevent generation of periodic transactions. (You can avoid that
by writing the future transaction as a one-time periodic rule instead -
put tilde before the date, eg ~ YYYY-MM-DD ...).
Or, you can set your own arbitrary "forecast period", which can overlap
- recorded transactions, and need not be in the future, by providing an
- option argument, like --forecast=PERIODEXPR. Note the equals sign is
+ recorded transactions, and need not be in the future, by providing an
+ option argument, like --forecast=PERIODEXPR. Note the equals sign is
required, a space won't work. PERIODEXPR is a period expression, which
- can specify the start date, end date, or both, like in a date: query.
- (See also hledger.1 -> Report start & end date). Some examples:
+ can specify the start date, end date, or both, like in a date: query.
+ (See also hledger.1 -> Report start & end date). Some examples:
--forecast=202001-202004, --forecast=jan-, --forecast=2020.
Budgeting with periodic transactions
- With the --budget flag, currently supported by the balance command,
- each periodic transaction rule declares recurring budget goals for the
- specified accounts. Eg the first example above declares a goal of
- spending $2000 on rent (and also, a goal of depositing $2000 into
- checking) every month. Goals and actual performance can then be com-
+ With the --budget flag, currently supported by the balance command,
+ each periodic transaction rule declares recurring budget goals for the
+ specified accounts. Eg the first example above declares a goal of
+ spending $2000 on rent (and also, a goal of depositing $2000 into
+ checking) every month. Goals and actual performance can then be com-
pared in budget reports.
See also: Budgeting and Forecasting.
+
AUTO POSTINGS
- "Automated postings" or "auto postings" are extra postings which get
- added automatically to transactions which match certain queries, de-
- fined by "auto posting rules", when you use the --auto flag.
+ "Automated postings" or "auto postings" are extra postings which get
+ added automatically to transactions which match certain queries,
+ defined by "auto posting rules", when you use the --auto flag.
An auto posting rule looks a bit like a transaction:
@@ -1453,27 +1472,27 @@ AUTO POSTINGS
...
ACCOUNT [AMOUNT]
- except the first line is an equals sign (mnemonic: = suggests match-
- ing), followed by a query (which matches existing postings), and each
- "posting" line describes a posting to be generated, and the posting
+ except the first line is an equals sign (mnemonic: = suggests match-
+ ing), followed by a query (which matches existing postings), and each
+ "posting" line describes a posting to be generated, and the posting
amounts can be:
- o a normal amount with a commodity symbol, eg $2. This will be used
+ o a normal amount with a commodity symbol, eg $2. This will be used
as-is.
o a number, eg 2. The commodity symbol (if any) from the matched post-
ing will be added to this.
- o a numeric multiplier, eg *2 (a star followed by a number N). The
+ o a numeric multiplier, eg *2 (a star followed by a number N). The
matched posting's amount (and total price, if any) will be multiplied
by N.
- o a multiplier with a commodity symbol, eg *$2 (a star, number N, and
+ o a multiplier with a commodity symbol, eg *$2 (a star, number N, and
symbol S). The matched posting's amount will be multiplied by N, and
its commodity symbol will be replaced with S.
- Any query term containing spaces must be enclosed in single or double
- quotes, as on the command line. Eg, note the quotes around the second
+ Any query term containing spaces must be enclosed in single or double
+ quotes, as on the command line. Eg, note the quotes around the second
query term below:
= expenses:groceries 'expenses:dining out'
@@ -1512,24 +1531,24 @@ AUTO POSTINGS
Auto postings and multiple files
An auto posting rule can affect any transaction in the current file, or
- in any parent file or child file. Note, currently it will not affect
+ in any parent file or child file. Note, currently it will not affect
sibling files (when multiple -f/--file are used - see #1212).
Auto postings and dates
- A posting date (or secondary date) in the matched posting, or (taking
- precedence) a posting date in the auto posting rule itself, will also
+ A posting date (or secondary date) in the matched posting, or (taking
+ precedence) a posting date in the auto posting rule itself, will also
be used in the generated posting.
Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance asser-
tions
Currently, auto postings are added:
- o after missing amounts are inferred, and transactions are checked for
+ o after missing amounts are inferred, and transactions are checked for
balancedness,
o but before balance assertions are checked.
- Note this means that journal entries must be balanced both before and
+ Note this means that journal entries must be balanced both before and
after auto postings are added. This changed in hledger 1.12+; see #893
for background.
@@ -1539,11 +1558,11 @@ AUTO POSTINGS
o generated-posting:= QUERY - shows this was generated by an auto post-
ing rule, and the query
- o _generated-posting:= QUERY - a hidden tag, which does not appear in
+ o _generated-posting:= QUERY - a hidden tag, which does not appear in
hledger's output. This can be used to match postings generated "just
now", rather than generated in the past and saved to the journal.
- Also, any transaction that has been changed by auto posting rules will
+ Also, any transaction that has been changed by auto posting rules will
have these tags added:
o modified: - this transaction was modified
@@ -1554,7 +1573,7 @@ AUTO POSTINGS
REPORTING BUGS
- Report bugs at http://bugs.hledger.org (or on the #hledger IRC channel
+ Report bugs at http://bugs.hledger.org (or on the #hledger IRC channel
or hledger mail list)
@@ -1575,4 +1594,4 @@ SEE ALSO
-hledger-lib-1.20.3 December 2020 HLEDGER_JOURNAL(5)
+hledger-lib-1.20.4 December 2020 HLEDGER_JOURNAL(5)
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.5 b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.5
index 396a90e..f502693 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.5
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.5
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-.TH "HLEDGER_TIMECLOCK" "5" "December 2020" "hledger-lib-1.20.3 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER_TIMECLOCK" "5" "December 2020" "hledger-lib-1.20.4 " "hledger User Manuals"
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.info b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.info
index 9dc3958..4e13743 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.info
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.info
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-This is hledger_timeclock.info, produced by makeinfo version 6.7 from
-stdin.
+This is hledger-lib/hledger_timeclock.info, produced by makeinfo
+version 4.8 from stdin.

File: hledger_timeclock.info, Node: Top, Up: (dir)
@@ -9,12 +9,13 @@ hledger_timeclock(5)
The time logging format of timeclock.el, as read by hledger.
- hledger can read timeclock files. As with Ledger, these are (a
-subset of) timeclock.el's format, containing clock-in and clock-out
-entries as in the example below. The date is a simple date. The time
-format is HH:MM[:SS][+-ZZZZ]. Seconds and timezone are optional. The
-timezone, if present, must be four digits and is ignored (currently the
-time is always interpreted as a local time).
+ hledger can read timeclock files. As with Ledger, these are (a subset
+of) timeclock.el's format, containing clock-in and clock-out entries as
+in the example below. The date is a simple date. The time format is
+HH:MM[:SS][+-ZZZZ]. Seconds and timezone are optional. The timezone, if
+present, must be four digits and is ignored (currently the time is
+always interpreted as a local time).
+
i 2015/03/30 09:00:00 some:account name optional description after two spaces
o 2015/03/30 09:20:00
@@ -22,9 +23,10 @@ i 2015/03/31 22:21:45 another account
o 2015/04/01 02:00:34
hledger treats each clock-in/clock-out pair as a transaction posting
-some number of hours to an account. Or if the session spans more than
-one day, it is split into several transactions, one for each day. For
-the above time log, 'hledger print' generates these journal entries:
+some number of hours to an account. Or if the session spans more than
+one day, it is split into several transactions, one for each day. For
+the above time log, `hledger print' generates these journal entries:
+
$ hledger -f t.timeclock print
2015-03-30 * optional description after two spaces
@@ -38,6 +40,7 @@ $ hledger -f t.timeclock print
Here is a sample.timeclock to download and some queries to try:
+
$ hledger -f sample.timeclock balance # current time balances
$ hledger -f sample.timeclock register -p 2009/3 # sessions in march 2009
$ hledger -f sample.timeclock register -p weekly --depth 1 --empty # time summary by week
@@ -47,17 +50,18 @@ $ hledger -f sample.timeclock register -p weekly --depth 1 --empty # time summa
* use emacs and the built-in timeclock.el, or the extended
timeclock-x.el and perhaps the extras in ledgerutils.el
- * at the command line, use these bash aliases: 'shell alias ti="echo
- i `date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` \$* >>$TIMELOG" alias to="echo o
- `date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` >>$TIMELOG"'
+ * at the command line, use these bash aliases: `shell alias
+ ti="echo i `date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` \$* >>$TIMELOG" alias
+ to="echo o `date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` >>$TIMELOG"'
- * or use the old 'ti' and 'to' scripts in the ledger 2.x repository.
+ * or use the old `ti' and `to' scripts in the ledger 2.x repository.
These rely on a "timeclock" executable which I think is just the
ledger 2 executable renamed.
+

Tag Table:
-Node: Top78
+Node: Top90

End Tag Table
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.txt b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.txt
index a7e60d2..175b293 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.txt
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timeclock.txt
@@ -77,4 +77,4 @@ SEE ALSO
-hledger-lib-1.20.3 December 2020 HLEDGER_TIMECLOCK(5)
+hledger-lib-1.20.4 December 2020 HLEDGER_TIMECLOCK(5)
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.5 b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.5
index ecd238f..6d06f17 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.5
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.5
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-.TH "HLEDGER_TIMEDOT" "5" "December 2020" "hledger-lib-1.20.3 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER_TIMEDOT" "5" "December 2020" "hledger-lib-1.20.4 " "hledger User Manuals"
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.info b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.info
index 97adc54..c883661 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.info
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.info
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-This is hledger_timedot.info, produced by makeinfo version 6.7 from
-stdin.
+This is hledger-lib/hledger_timedot.info, produced by makeinfo version
+4.8 from stdin.

File: hledger_timedot.info, Node: Top, Up: (dir)
@@ -10,58 +10,61 @@ hledger_timedot(5)
hledger's human-friendly time logging format.
Timedot is a plain text format for logging dated, categorised
-quantities (of time, usually), supported by hledger. It is convenient
+quantities (of time, usually), supported by hledger. It is convenient
for approximate and retroactive time logging, eg when the real-time
clock-in/out required with a timeclock file is too precise or too
-interruptive. It can be formatted like a bar chart, making clear at a
+interruptive. It can be formatted like a bar chart, making clear at a
glance where time was spent.
Though called "timedot", this format is read by hledger as
commodityless quantities, so it could be used to represent dated
-quantities other than time. In the docs below we'll assume it's time.
+quantities other than time. In the docs below we'll assume it's time.
- A timedot file contains a series of day entries. A day entry begins
+ A timedot file contains a series of day entries. A day entry begins
with a non-indented hledger-style simple date (Y-M-D, Y/M/D, Y.M.D..)
Any additional text on the same line is used as a transaction
description for this day.
This is followed by optionally-indented timelog items for that day,
-one per line. Each timelog item is a note, usually a
+one per line. Each timelog item is a note, usually a
hledger:style:account:name representing a time category, followed by two
-or more spaces, and a quantity. Each timelog item generates a hledger
+or more spaces, and a quantity. Each timelog item generates a hledger
transaction.
Quantities can be written as:
- * dots: a sequence of dots (.) representing quarter hours. Spaces
- may optionally be used for grouping. Eg: .... ..
+ * dots: a sequence of dots (.) representing quarter hours. Spaces may
+ optionally be used for grouping. Eg: .... ..
- * an integral or decimal number, representing hours. Eg: 1.5
+ * an integral or decimal number, representing hours. Eg: 1.5
* an integral or decimal number immediately followed by a unit symbol
- 's', 'm', 'h', 'd', 'w', 'mo', or 'y', representing seconds,
- minutes, hours, days weeks, months or years respectively. Eg: 90m.
+ `s', `m', `h', `d', `w', `mo', or `y', representing seconds,
+ minutes, hours, days weeks, months or years respectively. Eg: 90m.
The following equivalencies are assumed, currently: 1m = 60s, 1h =
60m, 1d = 24h, 1w = 7d, 1mo = 30d, 1y=365d.
+
There is some flexibility allowing notes and todo lists to be kept
right in the time log, if needed:
- * Blank lines and lines beginning with '#' or ';' are ignored.
+ * Blank lines and lines beginning with `#' or `;' are ignored.
* Lines not ending with a double-space and quantity are parsed as
items taking no time, which will not appear in balance reports by
default. (Add -E to see them.)
- * Org mode headlines (lines beginning with one or more '*' followed
+ * Org mode headlines (lines beginning with one or more `*' followed
by a space) can be used as date lines or timelog items (the stars
- are ignored). Also all org headlines before the first date line
+ are ignored). Also all org headlines before the first date line
are ignored. This means org users can manage their timelog as an
org outline (eg using org-mode/orgstruct-mode in Emacs), for
organisation, faster navigation, controlling visibility etc.
+
Examples:
+
# on this day, 6h was spent on client work, 1.5h on haskell FOSS work, etc.
2016/2/1
inc:client1 .... .... .... .... .... ....
@@ -72,16 +75,19 @@ biz:research .
inc:client1 .... ....
biz:research .
+
2016/2/3
inc:client1 4
fos:hledger 3
biz:research 1
+
* Time log
** 2020-01-01
*** adm:time .
*** adm:finance .
+
* 2020 Work Diary
** Q1
*** 2020-02-29
@@ -100,6 +106,7 @@ adm:planning: trip
Reporting:
+
$ hledger -f t.timedot print date:2016/2/2
2016-02-02 *
(inc:client1) 2.00
@@ -107,28 +114,31 @@ $ hledger -f t.timedot print date:2016/2/2
2016-02-02 *
(biz:research) 0.25
+
$ hledger -f t.timedot bal --daily --tree
Balance changes in 2016-02-01-2016-02-03:
- || 2016-02-01d 2016-02-02d 2016-02-03d
+ || 2016-02-01d 2016-02-02d 2016-02-03d
============++========================================
- biz || 0.25 0.25 1.00
- research || 0.25 0.25 1.00
- fos || 1.50 0 3.00
- haskell || 1.50 0 0
- hledger || 0 0 3.00
- inc || 6.00 2.00 4.00
- client1 || 6.00 2.00 4.00
+ biz || 0.25 0.25 1.00
+ research || 0.25 0.25 1.00
+ fos || 1.50 0 3.00
+ haskell || 1.50 0 0
+ hledger || 0 0 3.00
+ inc || 6.00 2.00 4.00
+ client1 || 6.00 2.00 4.00
------------++----------------------------------------
- || 7.75 2.25 8.00
+ || 7.75 2.25 8.00
+
+ I prefer to use period for separating account components. We can make
+this work with an account alias:
- I prefer to use period for separating account components. We can
-make this work with an account alias:
2016/2/4
fos.hledger.timedot 4
fos.ledger ..
+
$ hledger -f t.timedot --alias /\\./=: bal date:2016/2/4 --tree
4.50 fos
4.00 hledger:timedot
@@ -138,8 +148,9 @@ $ hledger -f t.timedot --alias /\\./=: bal date:2016/2/4 --tree
Here is a sample.timedot.
+

Tag Table:
-Node: Top76
+Node: Top88

End Tag Table
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.txt b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.txt
index 5de20fc..f868bab 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.txt
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger_timedot.txt
@@ -24,10 +24,10 @@ DESCRIPTION
tion for this day.
This is followed by optionally-indented timelog items for that day, one
- per line. Each timelog item is a note, usually a hledger:style:ac-
- count:name representing a time category, followed by two or more spa-
- ces, and a quantity. Each timelog item generates a hledger transac-
- tion.
+ per line. Each timelog item is a note, usually a
+ hledger:style:account:name representing a time category, followed by
+ two or more spaces, and a quantity. Each timelog item generates a
+ hledger transaction.
Quantities can be written as:
@@ -52,11 +52,11 @@ DESCRIPTION
(Add -E to see them.)
o Org mode headlines (lines beginning with one or more * followed by a
- space) can be used as date lines or timelog items (the stars are ig-
- nored). Also all org headlines before the first date line are ig-
- nored. This means org users can manage their timelog as an org out-
- line (eg using org-mode/orgstruct-mode in Emacs), for organisation,
- faster navigation, controlling visibility etc.
+ space) can be used as date lines or timelog items (the stars are
+ ignored). Also all org headlines before the first date line are
+ ignored. This means org users can manage their timelog as an org
+ outline (eg using org-mode/orgstruct-mode in Emacs), for organisa-
+ tion, faster navigation, controlling visibility etc.
Examples:
@@ -160,4 +160,4 @@ SEE ALSO
-hledger-lib-1.20.3 December 2020 HLEDGER_TIMEDOT(5)
+hledger-lib-1.20.4 December 2020 HLEDGER_TIMEDOT(5)
diff --git a/hledger.1 b/hledger.1
index b4e15f1..a04baec 100644
--- a/hledger.1
+++ b/hledger.1
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
.\"t
-.TH "HLEDGER" "1" "December 2020" "hledger-1.20.3 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER" "1" "December 2020" "hledger-1.20.4 " "hledger User Manuals"
@@ -2690,41 +2690,59 @@ aregister, areg
.PD 0
.P
.PD
-Show transactions affecting a particular account, and the account\[aq]s
-running balance.
+.PP
+Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account, with
+each line item representing one transaction.
.PP
\f[C]aregister\f[R] shows the transactions affecting a particular
-account (and its subaccounts), from the point of view of that account.
-Each line shows:
+account and its subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole
+transaction - as in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other
+accounting apps.
+.PP
+Note this is unlike the \f[C]register\f[R] command, which shows
+individual postings and does not always show a single account or a
+historical balance.
+.PP
+A reminder, \[dq]historical\[dq] balances include any balance from
+transactions before the report start date, so (if opening balances are
+recorded correctly) \f[C]aregister\f[R] will show the real-world
+balances of an account, as you would see in a bank statement.
+.PP
+As a quick rule of thumb, use \f[C]aregister\f[R] for reconciling
+real-world asset/liability accounts and \f[C]register\f[R] for reviewing
+detailed revenues/expenses.
+.PP
+\f[C]aregister\f[R] shows the register for just one account (and its
+subaccounts).
+This account must be specified as the first argument.
+You can write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive
+regular expression which will select the alphabetically first matched
+account.
+(Eg if you have \f[C]assets:aaa:checking\f[R] and
+\f[C]assets:bbb:checking\f[R] accounts, \f[C]hledger areg checking\f[R]
+would select \f[C]assets:aaa:checking\f[R].)
+.PP
+Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transactions
+shown.
+.PP
+Each \f[C]aregister\f[R] line item shows:
.IP \[bu] 2
-the transaction\[aq]s (or posting\[aq]s, see below) date
+the transaction\[aq]s date (or the relevant posting\[aq]s date if
+different, see below)
.IP \[bu] 2
-the names of the other account(s) involved
+the names of all the other account(s) involved in this transaction
+(probably abbreviated)
.IP \[bu] 2
-the net change to this account\[aq]s balance
+the total change to this account\[aq]s balance from this transaction
.IP \[bu] 2
-the account\[aq]s historical running balance (including balance from
-transactions before the report start date).
-.PP
-With \f[C]aregister\f[R], each line represents a whole transaction - as
-in hledger-ui, hledger-web, and your bank statement.
-By contrast, the \f[C]register\f[R] command shows individual postings,
-across all accounts.
-You might prefer \f[C]aregister\f[R] for reconciling with real-world
-asset/liability accounts, and \f[C]register\f[R] for reviewing detailed
-revenues/expenses.
-.PP
-An account must be specified as the first argument, which should be the
-full account name or an account pattern (regular expression).
-aregister will show transactions in this account (the first one matched)
-and any of its subaccounts.
-.PP
-Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transactions
-shown.
+the account\[aq]s historical running balance after this transaction.
.PP
Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default; add
the \f[C]-E/--empty\f[R] flag to show them.
.PP
+\f[C]aregister\f[R] ignores a depth limit, so its final total will
+always match a balance report with similar arguments.
+.PP
This command also supports the output destination and output format
options The output formats supported are \f[C]txt\f[R], \f[C]csv\f[R],
and \f[C]json\f[R].
diff --git a/hledger.cabal b/hledger.cabal
index f7cfc4a..28fb34c 100644
--- a/hledger.cabal
+++ b/hledger.cabal
@@ -4,10 +4,10 @@ cabal-version: 1.12
--
-- see: https://github.com/sol/hpack
--
--- hash: c1a1aa83c66d0124e20f453304814e71a4a7fba409f00386ca6c831ec839b386
+-- hash: b054f014c84f0d85323a71542c11696e6dbd06510c67a8d1fd26064272dc16a5
name: hledger
-version: 1.20.3
+version: 1.20.4
synopsis: Command-line interface for the hledger accounting system
description: The command-line interface for the hledger accounting system.
Its basic function is to read a plain text file describing
@@ -150,7 +150,7 @@ library
other-modules:
Paths_hledger
ghc-options: -Wall -fno-warn-unused-do-bind -fno-warn-name-shadowing -fno-warn-missing-signatures -fno-warn-type-defaults -fno-warn-orphans -optP-Wno-nonportable-include-path
- cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.20.3"
+ cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.20.4"
build-depends:
Decimal >=0.5.1
, Diff
@@ -167,7 +167,7 @@ library
, filepath
, hashable >=1.2.4
, haskeline >=0.6
- , hledger-lib >=1.20.3 && <1.21
+ , hledger-lib >=1.20.4 && <1.21
, lucid
, math-functions >=0.3.3.0
, megaparsec >=7.0.0 && <9.1
@@ -201,7 +201,7 @@ executable hledger
hs-source-dirs:
app
ghc-options: -Wall -fno-warn-unused-do-bind -fno-warn-name-shadowing -fno-warn-missing-signatures -fno-warn-type-defaults -fno-warn-orphans -optP-Wno-nonportable-include-path
- cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.20.3"
+ cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.20.4"
build-depends:
Decimal >=0.5.1
, aeson >=1
@@ -217,7 +217,7 @@ executable hledger
, filepath
, haskeline >=0.6
, hledger
- , hledger-lib >=1.20.3 && <1.21
+ , hledger-lib >=1.20.4 && <1.21
, math-functions >=0.3.3.0
, megaparsec >=7.0.0 && <9.1
, mtl >=2.2.1
@@ -251,7 +251,7 @@ test-suite unittest
hs-source-dirs:
test
ghc-options: -Wall -fno-warn-unused-do-bind -fno-warn-name-shadowing -fno-warn-missing-signatures -fno-warn-type-defaults -fno-warn-orphans -optP-Wno-nonportable-include-path
- cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.20.3"
+ cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.20.4"
build-depends:
Decimal >=0.5.1
, aeson >=1
@@ -267,7 +267,7 @@ test-suite unittest
, filepath
, haskeline >=0.6
, hledger
- , hledger-lib >=1.20.3 && <1.21
+ , hledger-lib >=1.20.4 && <1.21
, math-functions >=0.3.3.0
, megaparsec >=7.0.0 && <9.1
, mtl >=2.2.1
@@ -315,7 +315,7 @@ benchmark bench
, filepath
, haskeline >=0.6
, hledger
- , hledger-lib >=1.20.3 && <1.21
+ , hledger-lib >=1.20.4 && <1.21
, html
, math-functions >=0.3.3.0
, megaparsec >=7.0.0 && <9.1
diff --git a/hledger.info b/hledger.info
index 4aba1cc..e036864 100644
--- a/hledger.info
+++ b/hledger.info
@@ -1,7 +1,8 @@
-This is hledger.info, produced by makeinfo version 6.7 from stdin.
+This is hledger/hledger.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.8 from
+stdin.

-File: hledger.info, Node: Top, Next: COMMON TASKS, Up: (dir)
+File: hledger.info, Node: Top, Up: (dir)
hledger(1)
**********
@@ -9,36 +10,37 @@ hledger(1)
A command-line accounting tool for both power users and folks new to
accounting.
- 'hledger'
+ `hledger'
- 'hledger [-f FILE] COMMAND [OPTIONS] [ARGS]'
+ `hledger [-f FILE] COMMAND [OPTIONS] [ARGS]'
- 'hledger [-f FILE] ADDONCMD -- [OPTIONS] [ARGS]'
+ `hledger [-f FILE] ADDONCMD -- [OPTIONS] [ARGS]'
hledger is a reliable, cross-platform set of programs for tracking
money, time, or any other commodity, using double-entry accounting and a
-simple, editable file format. hledger is inspired by and largely
+simple, editable file format. hledger is inspired by and largely
compatible with ledger(1).
This is hledger's command-line interface (there are also terminal and
-web interfaces). Its basic function is to read a plain text file
+web interfaces). Its basic function is to read a plain text file
describing financial transactions (in accounting terms, a general
journal) and print useful reports on standard output, or export them as
CSV. hledger can also read some other file formats such as CSV files,
-translating them to journal format. Additionally, hledger lists other
+translating them to journal format. Additionally, hledger lists other
hledger-* executables found in the user's $PATH and can invoke them as
subcommands.
hledger reads data from one or more files in hledger journal,
-timeclock, timedot, or CSV format specified with '-f', or
-'$LEDGER_FILE', or '$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
-'C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal'). If using '$LEDGER_FILE', note this
-must be a real environment variable, not a shell variable. You can
-specify standard input with '-f-'.
+timeclock, timedot, or CSV format specified with `-f', or
+`$LEDGER_FILE', or `$HOME/.hledger.journal' (on windows, perhaps
+`C:/Users/USER/.hledger.journal'). If using `$LEDGER_FILE', note this
+must be a real environment variable, not a shell variable. You can
+specify standard input with `-f-'.
Transactions are dated movements of money between two (or more) named
accounts, and are recorded with journal entries like this:
+
2015/10/16 bought food
expenses:food $10
assets:cash
@@ -46,14 +48,14 @@ accounts, and are recorded with journal entries like this:
For more about this format, see hledger_journal(5).
Most users use a text editor to edit the journal, usually with an
-editor mode such as ledger-mode for added convenience. hledger's
+editor mode such as ledger-mode for added convenience. hledger's
interactive add command is another way to record new transactions.
hledger never changes existing transactions.
To get started, you can either save some entries like the above in
-'~/.hledger.journal', or run 'hledger add' and follow the prompts. Then
-try some commands like 'hledger print' or 'hledger balance'. Run
-'hledger' with no arguments for a list of commands.
+`~/.hledger.journal', or run `hledger add' and follow the prompts. Then
+try some commands like `hledger print' or `hledger balance'. Run
+`hledger' with no arguments for a list of commands.
* Menu:
@@ -93,6 +95,7 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Getting help, Next: Constructing command lines, Up:
1.1 Getting help
================
+
$ hledger # show available commands
$ hledger --help # show common options
$ hledger CMD --help # show common and command options, and command help
@@ -101,7 +104,7 @@ $ hledger help hledger # show hledger manual as info/man/text (auto-chosen)
$ hledger help journal --man # show the journal manual as a man page
$ hledger help --help # show more detailed help for the help command
- Find more docs, chat, mail list, reddit, issue tracker:
+Find more docs, chat, mail list, reddit, issue tracker:
https://hledger.org#help-feedback

@@ -110,19 +113,23 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Constructing command lines, Next: Starting a journal
1.2 Constructing command lines
==============================
-hledger has an extensive and powerful command line interface. We strive
+hledger has an extensive and powerful command line interface. We strive
to keep it simple and ergonomic, but you may run into one of the
-confusing real world details described in OPTIONS, below. If that
+confusing real world details described in OPTIONS, below. If that
happens, here are some tips that may help:
* command-specific options must go after the command (it's fine to
- put all options there) ('hledger CMD OPTS ARGS')
+ put all options there) (`hledger CMD OPTS ARGS')
+
* running add-on executables directly simplifies command line parsing
- ('hledger-ui OPTS ARGS')
+ (`hledger-ui OPTS ARGS')
+
* enclose "problematic" args in single quotes
+
* if needed, also add a backslash to hide regular expression
metacharacters from the shell
- * to see how a misbehaving command is being parsed, add '--debug=2'.
+
+ * to see how a misbehaving command is being parsed, add `--debug=2'.

File: hledger.info, Node: Starting a journal file, Next: Setting opening balances, Prev: Constructing command lines, Up: COMMON TASKS
@@ -131,17 +138,19 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Starting a journal file, Next: Setting opening balan
===========================
hledger looks for your accounting data in a journal file,
-'$HOME/.hledger.journal' by default:
+`$HOME/.hledger.journal' by default:
+
$ hledger stats
The hledger journal file "/Users/simon/.hledger.journal" was not found.
Please create it first, eg with "hledger add" or a text editor.
Or, specify an existing journal file with -f or LEDGER_FILE.
- You can override this by setting the 'LEDGER_FILE' environment
-variable. It's a good practice to keep this important file under
-version control, and to start a new file each year. So you could do
-something like this:
+ You can override this by setting the `LEDGER_FILE' environment
+variable. It's a good practice to keep this important file under version
+control, and to start a new file each year. So you could do something
+like this:
+
$ mkdir ~/finance
$ cd ~/finance
@@ -152,7 +161,7 @@ $ echo "export LEDGER_FILE=$HOME/finance/2020.journal" >> ~/.bashrc
$ source ~/.bashrc
$ hledger stats
Main file : /Users/simon/finance/2020.journal
-Included files :
+Included files :
Transactions span : to (0 days)
Last transaction : none
Transactions : 0 (0.0 per day)
@@ -170,21 +179,22 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Setting opening balances, Next: Recording transactio
============================
Pick a starting date for which you can look up the balances of some
-real-world assets (bank accounts, wallet..) and liabilities (credit
+real-world assets (bank accounts, wallet..) and liabilities (credit
cards..).
To avoid a lot of data entry, you may want to start with just one or
two accounts, like your checking account or cash wallet; and pick a
-recent starting date, like today or the start of the week. You can
+recent starting date, like today or the start of the week. You can
always come back later and add more accounts and older transactions, eg
going back to january 1st.
Add an opening balances transaction to the journal, declaring the
-balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
+balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
* The first way: open the journal in any text editor and save an
entry like this:
+
2020-01-01 * opening balances
assets:bank:checking $1000 = $1000
assets:bank:savings $2000 = $2000
@@ -195,7 +205,7 @@ balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
These are start-of-day balances, ie whatever was in the account at
the end of the previous day.
- The * after the date is an optional status flag. Here it means
+ The * after the date is an optional status flag. Here it means
"cleared & confirmed".
The currency symbols are optional, but usually a good idea as
@@ -204,9 +214,10 @@ balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
The = amounts are optional balance assertions, providing extra
error checking.
- * The second way: run 'hledger add' and follow the prompts to record
+ * The second way: run `hledger add' and follow the prompts to record
a similar transaction:
+
$ hledger add
Adding transactions to journal file /Users/simon/finance/2020.journal
Any command line arguments will be used as defaults.
@@ -227,7 +238,7 @@ balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
Account 4: liabilities:creditcard
Amount 4 [$-3100]: $-50
Account 5: equity:opening/closing balances
- Amount 5 [$-3050]:
+ Amount 5 [$-3050]:
Account 6 (or . or enter to finish this transaction): .
2020-01-01 * opening balances
assets:bank:checking $1000
@@ -235,14 +246,16 @@ balances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
assets:cash $100
liabilities:creditcard $-50
equity:opening/closing balances $-3050
-
- Save this transaction to the journal ? [y]:
+
+ Save this transaction to the journal ? [y]:
Saved.
Starting the next transaction (. or ctrl-D/ctrl-C to quit)
Date [2020-01-01]: .
+
If you're using version control, this could be a good time to commit
-the journal. Eg:
+the journal. Eg:
+
$ git commit -m 'initial balances' 2020.journal
@@ -260,6 +273,7 @@ convert CSV data downloaded from your bank.
Here are some simple transactions, see the hledger_journal(5) manual
and hledger.org for more ideas:
+
2020/1/10 * gift received
assets:cash $20
income:gifts
@@ -282,49 +296,52 @@ Periodically you should reconcile - compare your hledger-reported
balances against external sources of truth, like bank statements or your
bank's website - to be sure that your ledger accurately represents the
real-world balances (and, that the real-world institutions have not made
-a mistake!). This gets easy and fast with (1) practice and (2)
-frequency. If you do it daily, it can take 2-10 minutes. If you let it
+a mistake!). This gets easy and fast with (1) practice and (2)
+frequency. If you do it daily, it can take 2-10 minutes. If you let it
pile up, expect it to take longer as you hunt down errors and
discrepancies.
A typical workflow:
- 1. Reconcile cash. Count what's in your wallet. Compare with what
- hledger reports ('hledger bal cash'). If they are different, try
- to remember the missing transaction, or look for the error in the
- already-recorded transactions. A register report can be helpful
- ('hledger reg cash'). If you can't find the error, add an
- adjustment transaction. Eg if you have $105 after the above, and
+ 1. Reconcile cash. Count what's in your wallet. Compare with what
+ hledger reports (`hledger bal cash'). If they are different, try to
+ remember the missing transaction, or look for the error in the
+ already-recorded transactions. A register report can be helpful
+ (`hledger reg cash'). If you can't find the error, add an
+ adjustment transaction. Eg if you have $105 after the above, and
can't explain the missing $2, it could be:
+
2020-01-16 * adjust cash
assets:cash $-2 = $105
expenses:misc
- 2. Reconcile checking. Log in to your bank's website. Compare
- today's (cleared) balance with hledger's cleared balance ('hledger
- bal checking -C'). If they are different, track down the error or
- record the missing transaction(s) or add an adjustment transaction,
- similar to the above. Unlike the cash case, you can usually
- compare the transaction history and running balance from your bank
- with the one reported by 'hledger reg checking -C'. This will be
- easier if you generally record transaction dates quite similar to
- your bank's clearing dates.
+ 2. Reconcile checking. Log in to your bank's website. Compare today's
+ (cleared) balance with hledger's cleared balance (`hledger bal
+ checking -C'). If they are different, track down the error or
+ record the missing transaction(s) or add an adjustment
+ transaction, similar to the above. Unlike the cash case, you can
+ usually compare the transaction history and running balance from
+ your bank with the one reported by `hledger reg checking -C'. This
+ will be easier if you generally record transaction dates quite
+ similar to your bank's clearing dates.
3. Repeat for other asset/liability accounts.
+
Tip: instead of the register command, use hledger-ui to see a
-live-updating register while you edit the journal: 'hledger-ui --watch
+live-updating register while you edit the journal: `hledger-ui --watch
--register checking -C'
After reconciling, it could be a good time to mark the reconciled
transactions' status as "cleared and confirmed", if you want to track
-that, by adding the '*' marker. Eg in the paycheck transaction above,
-insert '*' between '2020-01-15' and 'paycheck'
+that, by adding the `*' marker. Eg in the paycheck transaction above,
+insert `*' between `2020-01-15' and `paycheck'
If you're using version control, this can be another good time to
commit:
+
$ git commit -m 'txns' 2020.journal

@@ -337,6 +354,7 @@ Here are some basic reports.
Show all transactions:
+
$ hledger print
2020-01-01 * opening balances
assets:bank:checking $1000
@@ -363,6 +381,7 @@ $ hledger print
Show account names, and their hierarchy:
+
$ hledger accounts --tree
assets
bank
@@ -382,6 +401,7 @@ liabilities
Show all account totals:
+
$ hledger balance
$4105 assets
$4000 bank
@@ -402,6 +422,7 @@ $ hledger balance
Show only asset and liability balances, as a flat list, limited to
depth 2:
+
$ hledger bal assets liabilities --flat -2
$4000 assets:bank
$105 assets:cash
@@ -412,56 +433,59 @@ $ hledger bal assets liabilities --flat -2
Show the same thing without negative numbers, formatted as a simple
balance sheet:
+
$ hledger bs --flat -2
Balance Sheet 2020-01-16
- || 2020-01-16
+ || 2020-01-16
========================++============
- Assets ||
+ Assets ||
------------------------++------------
- assets:bank || $4000
- assets:cash || $105
+ assets:bank || $4000
+ assets:cash || $105
------------------------++------------
- || $4105
+ || $4105
========================++============
- Liabilities ||
+ Liabilities ||
------------------------++------------
- liabilities:creditcard || $50
+ liabilities:creditcard || $50
------------------------++------------
- || $50
+ || $50
========================++============
- Net: || $4055
+ Net: || $4055
- The final total is your "net worth" on the end date. (Or use 'bse'
+ The final total is your "net worth" on the end date. (Or use `bse'
for a full balance sheet with equity.)
Show income and expense totals, formatted as an income statement:
-hledger is
+
+hledger is
Income Statement 2020-01-01-2020-01-16
- || 2020-01-01-2020-01-16
+ || 2020-01-01-2020-01-16
===============++=======================
- Revenues ||
+ Revenues ||
---------------++-----------------------
- income:gifts || $20
- income:salary || $1000
+ income:gifts || $20
+ income:salary || $1000
---------------++-----------------------
- || $1020
+ || $1020
===============++=======================
- Expenses ||
+ Expenses ||
---------------++-----------------------
- expenses:food || $13
- expenses:misc || $2
+ expenses:food || $13
+ expenses:misc || $2
---------------++-----------------------
- || $15
+ || $15
===============++=======================
- Net: || $1005
+ Net: || $1005
The final total is your net income during this period.
Show transactions affecting your wallet, with running total:
+
$ hledger register cash
2020-01-01 opening balances assets:cash $100 $100
2020-01-10 gift received assets:cash $20 $120
@@ -470,6 +494,7 @@ $ hledger register cash
Show weekly posting counts as a bar chart:
+
$ hledger activity -W
2019-12-30 *****
2020-01-06 ****
@@ -483,10 +508,10 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Migrating to a new file, Prev: Reporting, Up: COMMO
At the end of the year, you may want to continue your journal in a new
file, so that old transactions don't slow down or clutter your reports,
-and to help ensure the integrity of your accounting history. See the
+and to help ensure the integrity of your accounting history. See the
close command.
- If using version control, don't forget to 'git add' the new file.
+ If using version control, don't forget to `git add' the new file.

File: hledger.info, Node: OPTIONS, Next: COMMANDS, Prev: COMMON TASKS, Up: Top
@@ -522,131 +547,128 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: General options, Next: Command options, Up: OPTIONS
===================
To see general usage help, including general options which are supported
-by most hledger commands, run 'hledger -h'.
+by most hledger commands, run `hledger -h'.
General help options:
-'-h --help'
-
+`-h --help'
show general usage (or after COMMAND, command usage)
-'--version'
+`--version'
show version
-'--debug[=N]'
+`--debug[=N]'
show debug output (levels 1-9, default: 1)
General input options:
-'-f FILE --file=FILE'
-
- use a different input file. For stdin, use - (default:
- '$LEDGER_FILE' or '$HOME/.hledger.journal')
-'--rules-file=RULESFILE'
+`-f FILE --file=FILE'
+ use a different input file. For stdin, use - (default:
+ `$LEDGER_FILE' or `$HOME/.hledger.journal')
+`--rules-file=RULESFILE'
Conversion rules file to use when reading CSV (default: FILE.rules)
-'--separator=CHAR'
+`--separator=CHAR'
Field separator to expect when reading CSV (default: ',')
-'--alias=OLD=NEW'
+`--alias=OLD=NEW'
rename accounts named OLD to NEW
-'--anon'
+`--anon'
anonymize accounts and payees
-'--pivot FIELDNAME'
+`--pivot FIELDNAME'
use some other field or tag for the account name
-'-I --ignore-assertions'
+`-I --ignore-assertions'
disable balance assertion checks (note: does not disable balance
assignments)
-'-s --strict'
+`-s --strict'
do extra error checking (check that all posted accounts are
declared)
General reporting options:
-'-b --begin=DATE'
-
+`-b --begin=DATE'
include postings/txns on or after this date
-'-e --end=DATE'
+`-e --end=DATE'
include postings/txns before this date
-'-D --daily'
+`-D --daily'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by day
-'-W --weekly'
+`-W --weekly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by week
-'-M --monthly'
+`-M --monthly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by month
-'-Q --quarterly'
+`-Q --quarterly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by quarter
-'-Y --yearly'
+`-Y --yearly'
multiperiod/multicolumn report by year
-'-p --period=PERIODEXP'
+`-p --period=PERIODEXP'
set start date, end date, and/or reporting interval all at once
using period expressions syntax
-'--date2'
+`--date2'
match the secondary date instead (see command help for other
effects)
-'-U --unmarked'
+`-U --unmarked'
include only unmarked postings/txns (can combine with -P or -C)
-'-P --pending'
+`-P --pending'
include only pending postings/txns
-'-C --cleared'
+`-C --cleared'
include only cleared postings/txns
-'-R --real'
+`-R --real'
include only non-virtual postings
-'-NUM --depth=NUM'
+`-NUM --depth=NUM'
hide/aggregate accounts or postings more than NUM levels deep
-'-E --empty'
+`-E --empty'
show items with zero amount, normally hidden (and vice-versa in
hledger-ui/hledger-web)
-'-B --cost'
+`-B --cost'
convert amounts to their cost/selling amount at transaction time
-'-V --market'
+`-V --market'
convert amounts to their market value in default valuation
commodities
-'-X --exchange=COMM'
+`-X --exchange=COMM'
convert amounts to their market value in commodity COMM
-'--value'
+`--value'
convert amounts to cost or market value, more flexibly than
-B/-V/-X
-'--infer-value'
+`--infer-value'
with -V/-X/-value, also infer market prices from transactions
-'--auto'
+`--auto'
apply automated posting rules to modify transactions.
-'--forecast'
+`--forecast'
generate future transactions from periodic transaction rules, for
- the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui, also
+ the next 6 months or till report end date. In hledger-ui, also
make ordinary future transactions visible.
-'--color=WHEN (or --colour=WHEN)'
+`--color=WHEN (or --colour=WHEN)'
Should color-supporting commands use ANSI color codes in text
output. 'auto' (default): whenever stdout seems to be a
color-supporting terminal. 'always' or 'yes': always, useful eg
- when piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
+ when piping output into 'less -R'. 'never' or 'no': never. A
NO_COLOR environment variable overrides this.
When a reporting option appears more than once in the command line,
@@ -661,14 +683,14 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Command options, Next: Command arguments, Prev: Gen
===================
To see options for a particular command, including command-specific
-options, run: 'hledger COMMAND -h'.
+options, run: `hledger COMMAND -h'.
Command-specific options must be written after the command name, eg:
-'hledger print -x'.
+`hledger print -x'.
Additionally, if the command is an add-on, you may need to put its
-options after a double-hyphen, eg: 'hledger ui -- --watch'. Or, you can
-run the add-on executable directly: 'hledger-ui --watch'.
+options after a double-hyphen, eg: `hledger ui -- --watch'. Or, you can
+run the add-on executable directly: `hledger-ui --watch'.

File: hledger.info, Node: Command arguments, Next: Queries, Prev: Command options, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -680,32 +702,36 @@ Most hledger commands accept arguments after the command name, which are
often a query, filtering the data in some way.
You can save a set of command line options/arguments in a file, and
-then reuse them by writing '@FILENAME' as a command line argument. Eg:
-'hledger bal @foo.args'. (To prevent this, eg if you have an argument
-that begins with a literal '@', precede it with '--', eg: 'hledger bal
+then reuse them by writing `@FILENAME' as a command line argument. Eg:
+`hledger bal @foo.args'. (To prevent this, eg if you have an argument
+that begins with a literal `@', precede it with `--', eg: `hledger bal
-- @ARG').
Inside the argument file, each line should contain just one option or
-argument. Avoid the use of spaces, except inside quotes (or you'll see
-a confusing error). Between a flag and its argument, use = (or
-nothing). Bad:
+argument. Avoid the use of spaces, except inside quotes (or you'll see a
+confusing error). Between a flag and its argument, use = (or nothing).
+Bad:
+
assets depth:2
-X USD
Good:
+
assets
depth:2
-X=USD
For special characters (see below), use one less level of quoting
-than you would at the command prompt. Bad:
+than you would at the command prompt. Bad:
+
-X"$"
Good:
+
-X$
See also: Save frequently used options.
@@ -717,107 +743,109 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Queries, Next: Special characters in arguments and q
===========
One of hledger's strengths is being able to quickly report on precise
-subsets of your data. Most commands accept an optional query
-expression, written as arguments after the command name, to filter the
-data by date, account name or other criteria. The syntax is similar to
-a web search: one or more space-separated search terms, quotes to
-enclose whitespace, prefixes to match specific fields, a not: prefix to
-negate the match.
+subsets of your data. Most commands accept an optional query expression,
+written as arguments after the command name, to filter the data by date,
+account name or other criteria. The syntax is similar to a web search:
+one or more space-separated search terms, quotes to enclose whitespace,
+prefixes to match specific fields, a not: prefix to negate the match.
We do not yet support arbitrary boolean combinations of search terms;
instead most commands show transactions/postings/accounts which match
(or negatively match):
* any of the description terms AND
+
* any of the account terms AND
+
* any of the status terms AND
+
* all the other terms.
The print command instead shows transactions which:
* match any of the description terms AND
+
* have any postings matching any of the positive account terms AND
- * have no postings matching any of the negative account terms AND
- * match all the other terms.
- The following kinds of search terms can be used. Remember these can
-also be prefixed with *'not:'*, eg to exclude a particular subaccount.
+ * have no postings matching any of the negative account terms AND
-*'REGEX', 'acct:REGEX'*
+ * match all the other terms.
- match account names by this regular expression. (With no prefix,
- 'acct:' is assumed.) same as above
+ The following kinds of search terms can be used. Remember these can
+also be prefixed with *`not:'*, eg to exclude a particular subaccount.
-*'amt:N, amt:<N, amt:<=N, amt:>N, amt:>=N'*
+*`REGEX', `acct:REGEX'*
+ match account names by this regular expression. (With no prefix,
+ `acct:' is assumed.) same as above
+*`amt:N, amt:<N, amt:<=N, amt:>N, amt:>=N'*
match postings with a single-commodity amount that is equal to,
less than, or greater than N. (Multi-commodity amounts are not
- tested, and will always match.) The comparison has two modes: if N
+ tested, and will always match.) The comparison has two modes: if N
is preceded by a + or - sign (or is 0), the two signed numbers are
- compared. Otherwise, the absolute magnitudes are compared,
+ compared. Otherwise, the absolute magnitudes are compared,
ignoring sign.
-*'code:REGEX'*
+*`code:REGEX'*
match by transaction code (eg check number)
-*'cur:REGEX'*
+*`cur:REGEX'*
match postings or transactions including any amounts whose
currency/commodity symbol is fully matched by REGEX. (For a partial
- match, use '.*REGEX.*'). Note, to match characters which are
- regex-significant, like the dollar sign ('$'), you need to prepend
- '\'. And when using the command line you need to add one more
- level of quoting to hide it from the shell, so eg do: 'hledger
- print cur:'\$'' or 'hledger print cur:\\$'.
-*'desc:REGEX'*
+ match, use `.*REGEX.*'). Note, to match characters which are
+ regex-significant, like the dollar sign (`$'), you need to prepend
+ `\'. And when using the command line you need to add one more level
+ of quoting to hide it from the shell, so eg do: `hledger print
+ cur:'\$'' or `hledger print cur:\\$'.
+*`desc:REGEX'*
match transaction descriptions.
-*'date:PERIODEXPR'*
- match dates within the specified period. PERIODEXPR is a period
- expression (with no report interval). Examples: 'date:2016',
- 'date:thismonth', 'date:2000/2/1-2/15', 'date:lastweek-'. If the
- '--date2' command line flag is present, this matches secondary
+*`date:PERIODEXPR'*
+ match dates within the specified period. PERIODEXPR is a period
+ expression (with no report interval). Examples: `date:2016',
+ `date:thismonth', `date:2000/2/1-2/15', `date:lastweek-'. If the
+ `--date2' command line flag is present, this matches secondary
dates instead.
-*'date2:PERIODEXPR'*
+*`date2:PERIODEXPR'*
match secondary dates within the specified period.
-*'depth:N'*
+*`depth:N'*
match (or display, depending on command) accounts at or above this
depth
-*'note:REGEX'*
- match transaction notes (part of description right of '|', or whole
- description when there's no '|')
-*'payee:REGEX'*
+*`note:REGEX'*
+ match transaction notes (part of description right of `|', or whole
+ description when there's no `|')
+*`payee:REGEX'*
match transaction payee/payer names (part of description left of
- '|', or whole description when there's no '|')
-*'real:, real:0'*
+ `|', or whole description when there's no `|')
+*`real:, real:0'*
match real or virtual postings respectively
-*'status:, status:!, status:*'*
+*`status:, status:!, status:*'*
match unmarked, pending, or cleared transactions respectively
-*'tag:REGEX[=REGEX]'*
- match by tag name, and optionally also by tag value. Note a tag:
- query is considered to match a transaction if it matches any of the
- postings. Also remember that postings inherit the tags of their
- parent transaction.
+*`tag:REGEX[=REGEX]'*
+ match by tag name, and optionally also by tag value. Note a tag:
+ query is considered to match a transaction if it matches any of
+ the postings. Also remember that postings inherit the tags of
+ their parent transaction.
The following special search term is used automatically in
hledger-web, only:
-*'inacct:ACCTNAME'*
-
+*`inacct:ACCTNAME'*
tells hledger-web to show the transaction register for this
- account. Can be filtered further with 'acct' etc.
+ account. Can be filtered further with `acct' etc.
Some of these can also be expressed as command-line options (eg
-'depth:2' is equivalent to '--depth 2'). Generally you can mix options
+`depth:2' is equivalent to `--depth 2'). Generally you can mix options
and query arguments, and the resulting query will be their intersection
-(perhaps excluding the '-p/--period' option).
+(perhaps excluding the `-p/--period' option).

File: hledger.info, Node: Special characters in arguments and queries, Next: Unicode characters, Prev: Queries, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -827,11 +855,11 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Special characters in arguments and queries, Next: U
In shell command lines, option and argument values which contain
"problematic" characters, ie spaces, and also characters significant to
-your shell such as '<', '>', '(', ')', '|' and '$', should be escaped by
-enclosing them in quotes or by writing backslashes before the
-characters. Eg:
+your shell such as `<', `>', `(', `)', `|' and `$', should be escaped
+by enclosing them in quotes or by writing backslashes before the
+characters. Eg:
- 'hledger register -p 'last year' "accounts receivable
+ `hledger register -p 'last year' "accounts receivable
(receivable|payable)" amt:\>100'.
* Menu:
@@ -847,15 +875,15 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: More escaping, Next: Even more escaping, Up: Specia
-------------------
Characters significant both to the shell and in regular expressions may
-need one extra level of escaping. These include parentheses, the pipe
-symbol and the dollar sign. Eg, to match the dollar symbol, bash users
+need one extra level of escaping. These include parentheses, the pipe
+symbol and the dollar sign. Eg, to match the dollar symbol, bash users
should do:
- 'hledger balance cur:'\$''
+ `hledger balance cur:'\$''
or:
- 'hledger balance cur:\\$'
+ `hledger balance cur:\\$'

File: hledger.info, Node: Even more escaping, Next: Less escaping, Prev: More escaping, Up: Special characters in arguments and queries
@@ -863,23 +891,23 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Even more escaping, Next: Less escaping, Prev: More
2.5.2 Even more escaping
------------------------
-When hledger runs an add-on executable (eg you type 'hledger ui',
-hledger runs 'hledger-ui'), it de-escapes command-line options and
-arguments once, so you might need to _triple_-escape. Eg in bash,
+When hledger runs an add-on executable (eg you type `hledger ui',
+hledger runs `hledger-ui'), it de-escapes command-line options and
+arguments once, so you might need to _triple_-escape. Eg in bash,
running the ui command and matching the dollar sign, it's:
- 'hledger ui cur:'\\$''
+ `hledger ui cur:'\\$''
or:
- 'hledger ui cur:\\\\$'
+ `hledger ui cur:\\\\$'
If you asked why _four_ slashes above, this may help:
-unescaped: '$'
-escaped: '\$'
-double-escaped: '\\$'
-triple-escaped: '\\\\$'
+unescaped: `$'
+escaped: `\$'
+double-escaped: `\\$'
+triple-escaped: `\\\\$'
(The number of backslashes in fish shell is left as an exercise for
the reader.)
@@ -887,7 +915,7 @@ the reader.)
You can always avoid the extra escaping for add-ons by running the
add-on directly:
- 'hledger-ui cur:\\$'
+ `hledger-ui cur:\\$'

File: hledger.info, Node: Less escaping, Prev: Even more escaping, Up: Special characters in arguments and queries
@@ -897,10 +925,10 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: Less escaping, Prev: Even more escaping, Up: Specia
Inside an argument file, or in the search field of hledger-ui or
hledger-web, or at a GHCI prompt, you need one less level of escaping
-than at the command line. And backslashes may work better than quotes.
+than at the command line. And backslashes may work better than quotes.
Eg:
- 'ghci> :main balance cur:\$'
+ `ghci> :main balance cur:\$'

File: hledger.info, Node: Unicode characters, Next: Input files, Prev: Special characters in arguments and queries, Up: OPTIONS
@@ -917,12 +945,13 @@ hledger is expected to handle non-ascii characters correctly:
* they should be displayed correctly by all hledger tools, and
on-screen alignment should be preserved.
- This requires a well-configured environment. Here are some tips:
+
+ This requires a w