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-rw-r--r--CHANGES.md50
-rw-r--r--Hledger/Cli/CliOptions.hs2
-rw-r--r--Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.hs4
-rw-r--r--Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.txt60
-rw-r--r--Hledger/Cli/Utils.hs47
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.14
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.info2
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.txt4
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-web.14
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-web.info2
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger-web.txt4
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger.1253
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger.info953
-rw-r--r--embeddedfiles/hledger.txt2358
-rw-r--r--hledger.1253
-rw-r--r--hledger.cabal16
-rw-r--r--hledger.info953
-rw-r--r--hledger.txt2358
18 files changed, 3724 insertions, 3603 deletions
diff --git a/CHANGES.md b/CHANGES.md
index b8f88b5..8d08d29 100644
--- a/CHANGES.md
+++ b/CHANGES.md
@@ -9,6 +9,35 @@
User-visible changes in the hledger command line tool and library.
+# 1.22.2 2021-08-07
+
+Breaking changes
+
+- aregister no longer hides future transactions by default.
+ This is a consequence of the fix for
+ [#1638](https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/issues/1638).
+ It makes aregister consistent, so we think it's a reasonable change.
+ So if you have future-dated transactions in your journal which you
+ don't want reported, you now must exclude them with `-e tomorrow` or
+ `date:-tomorrow` in the command, as with other reports.
+ (Stephen Morgan)
+
+Improvements
+
+- Timedot format's doc has been rewritten.
+
+Fixes
+
+- Make balance assignments in forecasted transactions work again
+ (broken in 1.22.1).
+ Forecast transactions are now generated early and processed
+ in the same way as other transactions.
+ ([#1638](https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/issues/1638), Stephen Morgan)
+
+- aregister preserves the order of same-day transactions again
+ (broken in 1.22.1).
+ ([#1642](https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/issues/1642), Stephen Morgan)
+
# 1.22.1 2021-08-02
Improvements
@@ -24,6 +53,27 @@ Improvements
Fixes
+- `cur:` and `amt:` queries now match the original amounts before
+ valuation and cost conversion, as they did before hledger 1.22. We
+ believe this is the more useful behaviour in practice.
+ (#1625, Stephen Morgan)
+
+- Queries now work better with `register --related`, no longer showing
+ duplicate postings when more than one posting in a transaction is
+ matched.
+ (#1629, Stephen Morgan)
+
+- Valuation now works with `register --related`.
+ (#1630, Stephen Morgan)
+
+- Auto posting rules now also see inferred amounts,
+ not just explicit amounts.
+ (#1412, Stephen Morgan)
+
+- The aregister command now properly ignores a `depth:` argument.
+ It might now also behave more correctly with valuation or `--txn-dates`.
+ (#1634, Stephen Morgan)
+
- Our info manuals now have more robust directory metadata (no
subdirectory path), making them more likely to be linked in your
top-level Info directory by system packages. (#1594) (Simon Michael,
diff --git a/Hledger/Cli/CliOptions.hs b/Hledger/Cli/CliOptions.hs
index edc08f3..a856424 100644
--- a/Hledger/Cli/CliOptions.hs
+++ b/Hledger/Cli/CliOptions.hs
@@ -454,7 +454,7 @@ replaceNumericFlags = map replace
-- Also records the terminal width, if supported.
rawOptsToCliOpts :: RawOpts -> IO CliOpts
rawOptsToCliOpts rawopts = do
- let iopts = rawOptsToInputOpts rawopts
+ iopts <- rawOptsToInputOpts rawopts
rspec <- rawOptsToReportSpec rawopts
mcolumns <- readMay <$> getEnvSafe "COLUMNS"
mtermwidth <-
diff --git a/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.hs b/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.hs
index 141c7ba..e066e3f 100644
--- a/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.hs
+++ b/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.hs
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ aregistermode = hledgerCommandMode
-- | Print an account register report for a specified account.
aregister :: CliOpts -> Journal -> IO ()
-aregister opts@CliOpts{rawopts_=rawopts,reportspec_=rspec} j = do
+aregister opts@CliOpts{rawopts_=rawopts,inputopts_=iopts,reportspec_=rspec} j = do
d <- getCurrentDay
-- the first argument specifies the account, any remaining arguments are a filter query
(apat,querystring) <- case listofstringopt "args" rawopts of
@@ -92,7 +92,7 @@ aregister opts@CliOpts{rawopts_=rawopts,reportspec_=rspec} j = do
rspec' = rspec{ rsQuery=simplifyQuery $ And [queryFromFlags ropts', argsquery]
, rsOpts=ropts'
}
- reportq = And [rsQuery rspec', excludeforecastq (isJust $ forecast_ ropts')]
+ reportq = And [rsQuery rspec', excludeforecastq (isJust $ forecast_ iopts)]
where
-- As in RegisterScreen, why ? XXX
-- Except in forecast mode, exclude future/forecast transactions.
diff --git a/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.txt b/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.txt
index ffdbbda..9a492c3 100644
--- a/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.txt
+++ b/Hledger/Cli/Commands/Aregister.txt
@@ -1,36 +1,39 @@
aregister, areg
-Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account, with
-each line item representing one transaction.
+Show the transactions and running historical balance of a single
+account, with each transaction displayed as one line.
_FLAGS
-aregister shows the transactions affecting a particular account and its
-subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole transaction - as
-in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other accounting apps.
+aregister shows the overall transactions affecting a particular account
+(and any subaccounts). Each report line represents one transaction in
+this account. Transactions before the report start date are always
+included in the running balance (--historical mode is always on).
-Note this is unlike the register command, which shows individual
-postings and does not always show a single account or a historical
-balance.
+This is a more "real world", bank-like view than the register command
+(which shows individual postings, possibly from multiple accounts, not
+necessarily in historical mode). As a quick rule of thumb: - use
+aregister for reviewing and reconciling real-world asset/liability
+accounts - use register for reviewing detailed revenues/expenses.
-A reminder, "historical" balances include any balance from transactions
-before the report start date, so (if opening balances are recorded
-correctly) aregister will show the real-world balances of an account, as
-you would see in a bank statement.
-
-As a quick rule of thumb, use aregister for reconciling real-world
-asset/liability accounts and register for reviewing detailed
-revenues/expenses.
-
-aregister shows the register for just one account (and its subaccounts).
-This account must be specified as the first argument. You can write
+aregister requires one argument: the account to report on. You can write
either the full account name, or a case-insensitive regular expression
which will select the alphabetically first matched account. (Eg if you
have assets:aaa:checking and assets:bbb:checking accounts,
hledger areg checking would select assets:aaa:checking.)
+Transactions involving subaccounts of this account will also be shown.
+aregister ignores depth limits, so its final total will always match a
+balance report with similar arguments.
+
Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transactions
-shown.
+shown. Note some queries will disturb the running balance, causing it to
+be different from the account's real-world running balance.
+
+An example: this shows the transactions and historical running balance
+during july, in the first account whose name contains "checking":
+
+$ hledger areg checking date:jul
Each aregister line item shows:
@@ -44,11 +47,8 @@ Each aregister line item shows:
Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default; add
the -E/--empty flag to show them.
-aregister ignores a depth limit, so its final total will always match a
-balance report with similar arguments.
-
This command also supports the output destination and output format
-options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and json.
+options. The output formats supported are txt, csv, and json.
aregister and custom posting dates
@@ -61,15 +61,3 @@ the one shown by register -H with the same arguments.
To filter strictly by transaction date instead, add the --txn-dates
flag. If you use this flag and some of your postings have custom dates,
it's probably best to assume the running balance is wrong.
-
-Examples:
-
-Show all transactions and historical running balance in the first
-account whose name contains "checking":
-
-$ hledger areg checking
-
-Show transactions and historical running balance in all asset accounts
-during july:
-
-$ hledger areg assets date:jul
diff --git a/Hledger/Cli/Utils.hs b/Hledger/Cli/Utils.hs
index aa608e0..9e0c56e 100644
--- a/Hledger/Cli/Utils.hs
+++ b/Hledger/Cli/Utils.hs
@@ -15,7 +15,6 @@ module Hledger.Cli.Utils
writeOutput,
writeOutputLazyText,
journalTransform,
- journalAddForecast,
journalReload,
journalReloadIfChanged,
journalFileIsNewer,
@@ -38,7 +37,7 @@ import qualified Data.Text as T
import qualified Data.Text.IO as T
import qualified Data.Text.Lazy as TL
import qualified Data.Text.Lazy.IO as TL
-import Data.Time (UTCTime, Day, addDays)
+import Data.Time (UTCTime, Day)
import Safe (readMay, headMay)
import System.Console.CmdArgs
import System.Directory (getModificationTime, getDirectoryContents, copyFile, doesFileExist)
@@ -86,13 +85,14 @@ withJournalDo opts cmd = do
-- - pivoting account names (--pivot)
-- - anonymising (--anonymise).
--
+-- This will return an error message if the query in any auto posting rule fails
+-- to parse, or the generated transactions are not balanced.
journalTransform :: CliOpts -> Journal -> Journal
journalTransform opts =
anonymiseByOpts opts
-- - converting amounts to market value (--value)
-- . journalApplyValue ropts
. pivotByOpts opts
- . journalAddForecast opts
-- | Apply the pivot transformation on a journal, if option is present.
pivotByOpts :: CliOpts -> Journal -> Journal
@@ -108,47 +108,6 @@ anonymiseByOpts opts =
then anon
else id
--- | Generate periodic transactions from all periodic transaction rules in the journal.
--- These transactions are added to the in-memory Journal (but not the on-disk file).
---
--- When --auto is active, auto posting rules will be applied to the
--- generated transactions. If the query in any auto posting rule fails
--- to parse, this function will raise an error.
---
--- The start & end date for generated periodic transactions are determined in
--- a somewhat complicated way; see the hledger manual -> Periodic transactions.
---
-journalAddForecast :: CliOpts -> Journal -> Journal
-journalAddForecast CliOpts{inputopts_=iopts, reportspec_=rspec} j =
- case forecast_ ropts of
- Nothing -> j
- Just _ -> either error id $ do -- PARTIAL:
- forecasttxns <- addAutoTxns =<< mapM (balanceTransaction (balancingopts_ iopts))
- [ txnTieKnot t | pt <- jperiodictxns j
- , t <- runPeriodicTransaction pt forecastspan
- , spanContainsDate forecastspan (tdate t)
- ]
- journalBalanceTransactions (balancingopts_ iopts) j{ jtxns = concat [jtxns j, forecasttxns] }
- >>= journalApplyCommodityStyles
- where
- today = rsToday rspec
- ropts = rsOpts rspec
-
- -- "They can start no earlier than: the day following the latest normal transaction in the journal (or today if there are none)."
- mjournalend = dbg2 "journalEndDate" $ journalEndDate False j -- ignore secondary dates
- forecastbeginDefault = dbg2 "forecastbeginDefault" $ fromMaybe today mjournalend
-
- -- "They end on or before the specified report end date, or 180 days from today if unspecified."
- mspecifiedend = dbg2 "specifieddates" $ reportPeriodLastDay rspec
- forecastendDefault = dbg2 "forecastendDefault" $ fromMaybe (addDays 180 today) mspecifiedend
-
- forecastspan = dbg2 "forecastspan" $
- spanDefaultsFrom
- (fromMaybe nulldatespan $ dbg2 "forecastspan flag" $ forecast_ ropts)
- (DateSpan (Just forecastbeginDefault) (Just forecastendDefault))
-
- addAutoTxns = if auto_ iopts then modifyTransactions today (jtxnmodifiers j) else return
-
-- | Write some output to stdout or to a file selected by --output-file.
-- If the file exists it will be overwritten.
writeOutput :: CliOpts -> String -> IO ()
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.1 b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.1
index 094ad4c..8d51cb9 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.1
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.1
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-.TH "HLEDGER-UI" "1" "August 2021" "hledger-ui-1.22.1 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER-UI" "1" "August 2021" "hledger-ui-1.22.2 " "hledger User Manuals"
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
.PP
hledger-ui is a terminal interface (TUI) for the hledger accounting
tool.
-This manual is for hledger-ui 1.22.1.
+This manual is for hledger-ui 1.22.2.
.SH SYNOPSIS
.PP
\f[C]hledger-ui [OPTIONS] [QUERYARGS]\f[R]
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.info b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.info
index addc107..2ae9670 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.info
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.info
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ hledger-ui(1)
*************
hledger-ui is a terminal interface (TUI) for the hledger accounting
-tool. This manual is for hledger-ui 1.22.1.
+tool. This manual is for hledger-ui 1.22.2.
'hledger-ui [OPTIONS] [QUERYARGS]'
'hledger ui -- [OPTIONS] [QUERYARGS]'
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.txt b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.txt
index cce76d0..23cba34 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.txt
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-ui.txt
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ HLEDGER-UI(1) hledger User Manuals HLEDGER-UI(1)
NAME
hledger-ui is a terminal interface (TUI) for the hledger accounting
- tool. This manual is for hledger-ui 1.22.1.
+ tool. This manual is for hledger-ui 1.22.2.
SYNOPSIS
hledger-ui [OPTIONS] [QUERYARGS]
@@ -504,4 +504,4 @@ SEE ALSO
-hledger-ui-1.22.1 August 2021 HLEDGER-UI(1)
+hledger-ui-1.22.2 August 2021 HLEDGER-UI(1)
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.1 b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.1
index be25228..d499074 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.1
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.1
@@ -1,12 +1,12 @@
-.TH "HLEDGER-WEB" "1" "August 2021" "hledger-web-1.22.1 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER-WEB" "1" "August 2021" "hledger-web-1.22.2 " "hledger User Manuals"
.SH NAME
.PP
hledger-web is a web interface (WUI) for the hledger accounting tool.
-This manual is for hledger-web 1.22.1.
+This manual is for hledger-web 1.22.2.
.SH SYNOPSIS
.PP
\f[C]hledger-web [OPTIONS]\f[R]
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.info b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.info
index 0708de1..12e5d2a 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.info
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.info
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ hledger-web(1)
**************
hledger-web is a web interface (WUI) for the hledger accounting tool.
-This manual is for hledger-web 1.22.1.
+This manual is for hledger-web 1.22.2.
'hledger-web [OPTIONS]'
'hledger web -- [OPTIONS]'
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.txt b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.txt
index c38bff4..f6e59ae 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.txt
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger-web.txt
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ HLEDGER-WEB(1) hledger User Manuals HLEDGER-WEB(1)
NAME
hledger-web is a web interface (WUI) for the hledger accounting tool.
- This manual is for hledger-web 1.22.1.
+ This manual is for hledger-web 1.22.2.
SYNOPSIS
hledger-web [OPTIONS]
@@ -556,4 +556,4 @@ SEE ALSO
-hledger-web-1.22.1 August 2021 HLEDGER-WEB(1)
+hledger-web-1.22.2 August 2021 HLEDGER-WEB(1)
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger.1 b/embeddedfiles/hledger.1
index 58f8153..3a03b67 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger.1
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger.1
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
.\"t
-.TH "HLEDGER" "1" "August 2021" "hledger-1.22.1 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER" "1" "August 2021" "hledger-1.22.2 " "hledger User Manuals"
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
This is the command-line interface (CLI) for the hledger accounting
tool.
Here we also describe hledger\[aq]s concepts and file formats.
-This manual is for hledger 1.22.1.
+This manual is for hledger 1.22.2.
.SH SYNOPSIS
.PP
\f[C]hledger\f[R]
@@ -2511,30 +2511,23 @@ aregister, areg
.P
.PD
.PP
-Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account, with
-each line item representing one transaction.
+Show the transactions and running historical balance of a single
+account, with each transaction displayed as one line.
.PP
-\f[C]aregister\f[R] shows the transactions affecting a particular
-account and its subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole
-transaction - as in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other
-accounting apps.
+\f[C]aregister\f[R] shows the overall transactions affecting a
+particular account (and any subaccounts).
+Each report line represents one transaction in this account.
+Transactions before the report start date are always included in the
+running balance (\f[C]--historical\f[R] mode is always on).
.PP
-Note this is unlike the \f[C]register\f[R] command, which shows
-individual postings and does not always show a single account or a
-historical balance.
+This is a more \[dq]real world\[dq], bank-like view than the
+\f[C]register\f[R] command (which shows individual postings, possibly
+from multiple accounts, not necessarily in historical mode).
+As a quick rule of thumb: - use \f[C]aregister\f[R] for reviewing and
+reconciling real-world asset/liability accounts - use \f[C]register\f[R]
+for reviewing detailed revenues/expenses.
.PP
-A reminder, \[dq]historical\[dq] balances include any balance from
-transactions before the report start date, so (if opening balances are
-recorded correctly) \f[C]aregister\f[R] will show the real-world
-balances of an account, as you would see in a bank statement.
-.PP
-As a quick rule of thumb, use \f[C]aregister\f[R] for reconciling
-real-world asset/liability accounts and \f[C]register\f[R] for reviewing
-detailed revenues/expenses.
-.PP
-\f[C]aregister\f[R] shows the register for just one account (and its
-subaccounts).
-This account must be specified as the first argument.
+\f[C]aregister\f[R] requires one argument: the account to report on.
You can write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive
regular expression which will select the alphabetically first matched
account.
@@ -2542,8 +2535,24 @@ account.
\f[C]assets:bbb:checking\f[R] accounts, \f[C]hledger areg checking\f[R]
would select \f[C]assets:aaa:checking\f[R].)
.PP
+Transactions involving subaccounts of this account will also be shown.
+\f[C]aregister\f[R] ignores depth limits, so its final total will always
+match a balance report with similar arguments.
+.PP
Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transactions
shown.
+Note some queries will disturb the running balance, causing it to be
+different from the account\[aq]s real-world running balance.
+.PP
+An example: this shows the transactions and historical running balance
+during july, in the first account whose name contains
+\[dq]checking\[dq]:
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[C]
+$ hledger areg checking date:jul
+\f[R]
+.fi
.PP
Each \f[C]aregister\f[R] line item shows:
.IP \[bu] 2
@@ -2560,12 +2569,10 @@ the account\[aq]s historical running balance after this transaction.
Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default; add
the \f[C]-E/--empty\f[R] flag to show them.
.PP
-\f[C]aregister\f[R] ignores a depth limit, so its final total will
-always match a balance report with similar arguments.
-.PP
This command also supports the output destination and output format
-options The output formats supported are \f[C]txt\f[R], \f[C]csv\f[R],
-and \f[C]json\f[R].
+options.
+The output formats supported are \f[C]txt\f[R], \f[C]csv\f[R], and
+\f[C]json\f[R].
.SS aregister and custom posting dates
.PP
Transactions whose date is outside the report period can still be shown,
@@ -2579,26 +2586,6 @@ To filter strictly by transaction date instead, add the
\f[C]--txn-dates\f[R] flag.
If you use this flag and some of your postings have custom dates,
it\[aq]s probably best to assume the running balance is wrong.
-.PP
-Examples:
-.PP
-Show all transactions and historical running balance in the first
-account whose name contains \[dq]checking\[dq]:
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[C]
-$ hledger areg checking
-\f[R]
-.fi
-.PP
-Show transactions and historical running balance in all asset accounts
-during july:
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[C]
-$ hledger areg assets date:jul
-\f[R]
-.fi
.SS balance
.PP
balance, bal
@@ -8851,70 +8838,111 @@ These rely on a \[dq]timeclock\[dq] executable which I think is just the
ledger 2 executable renamed.
.SH TIMEDOT FORMAT
.PP
-hledger\[aq]s human-friendly time logging format.
-.PP
-Timedot is a plain text format for logging dated, categorised quantities
-(of time, usually), supported by hledger.
-It is convenient for approximate and retroactive time logging, eg when
-the real-time clock-in/out required with a timeclock file is too precise
-or too interruptive.
-It can be formatted like a bar chart, making clear at a glance where
-time was spent.
-.PP
-Though called \[dq]timedot\[dq], this format is read by hledger as
-commodityless quantities, so it could be used to represent dated
-quantities other than time.
-In the docs below we\[aq]ll assume it\[aq]s time.
-.PP
-A timedot file contains a series of day entries.
-A day entry begins with a non-indented hledger-style simple date (Y-M-D,
-Y/M/D, Y.M.D..) Any additional text on the same line is used as a
-transaction description for this day.
-.PP
-This is followed by optionally-indented timelog items for that day, one
-per line.
-Each timelog item is a note, usually a hledger:style:account:name
-representing a time category, followed by two or more spaces, and a
-quantity.
-Each timelog item generates a hledger transaction.
-.PP
-Quantities can be written as:
-.IP \[bu] 2
-dots: a sequence of dots (.) representing quarter hours.
-Spaces may optionally be used for grouping.
-Eg: ....
-\&..
-.IP \[bu] 2
-an integral or decimal number, representing hours.
-Eg: 1.5
-.IP \[bu] 2
-an integral or decimal number immediately followed by a unit symbol
-\f[C]s\f[R], \f[C]m\f[R], \f[C]h\f[R], \f[C]d\f[R], \f[C]w\f[R],
-\f[C]mo\f[R], or \f[C]y\f[R], representing seconds, minutes, hours, days
-weeks, months or years respectively.
-Eg: 90m.
-The following equivalencies are assumed, currently: 1m = 60s, 1h = 60m,
-1d = 24h, 1w = 7d, 1mo = 30d, 1y=365d.
-.PP
-There is some flexibility allowing notes and todo lists to be kept right
-in the time log, if needed:
+\f[C]timedot\f[R] format is hledger\[aq]s human-friendly time logging
+format.
+Compared to \f[C]timeclock\f[R] format, it is
.IP \[bu] 2
-Blank lines and lines beginning with \f[C]#\f[R] or \f[C];\f[R] are
+convenient for quick, approximate, and retroactive time logging
+.IP \[bu] 2
+readable: you can see at a glance where time was spent.
+.PP
+A timedot file contains a series of day entries, which might look like
+this:
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[C]
+2021-08-04
+hom:errands .... ....
+fos:hledger:timedot .. ; docs
+per:admin:finance
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+hledger reads this as three time transactions on this day, with each dot
+representing a quarter-hour spent:
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[C]
+$ hledger -f a.timedot print # .timedot file extension activates the timedot reader
+2021-08-04 *
+ (hom:errands) 2.00
+
+2021-08-04 *
+ (fos:hledger:timedot) 0.50
+
+2021-08-04 *
+ (per:admin:finance) 0
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+A day entry begins with a date line:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a non-indented \f[B]simple date\f[R] (Y-M-D, Y/M/D, or Y.M.D).
+.PP
+Optionally this can be followed on the same line by
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a common \f[B]transaction description\f[R] for this day
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a common \f[B]transaction comment\f[R] for this day, after a semicolon
+(\f[C];\f[R]).
+.PP
+After the date line are zero or more optionally-indented time
+transaction lines, consisting of:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+an \f[B]account name\f[R] - any word or phrase, usually a hledger-style
+account name.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+\f[B]two or more spaces\f[R] - a field separator, required if there is
+an amount (as in journal format).
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a \f[B]timedot amount\f[R] - dots representing quarter hours, or a
+number representing hours.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+an optional \f[B]comment\f[R] beginning with semicolon.
+This is ignored.
+.PP
+In more detail, timedot amounts can be:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+\f[B]dots\f[R]: zero or more period characters, each representing one
+quarter-hour.
+Spaces are ignored and can be used for grouping.
+Eg: \f[C].... ..\f[R]
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a \f[B]number\f[R], representing hours.
+Eg: \f[C]1.5\f[R]
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a \f[B]number immediately followed by a unit symbol\f[R] \f[C]s\f[R],
+\f[C]m\f[R], \f[C]h\f[R], \f[C]d\f[R], \f[C]w\f[R], \f[C]mo\f[R], or
+\f[C]y\f[R], representing seconds, minutes, hours, days weeks, months or
+years.
+Eg \f[C]1.5h\f[R] or \f[C]90m\f[R].
+The following equivalencies are assumed:
+.PD 0
+.P
+.PD
+\f[C]60s\f[R] = \f[C]1m\f[R], \f[C]60m\f[R] = \f[C]1h\f[R],
+\f[C]24h\f[R] = \f[C]1d\f[R], \f[C]7d\f[R] = \f[C]1w\f[R], \f[C]30d\f[R]
+= \f[C]1mo\f[R], \f[C]365d\f[R] = \f[C]1y\f[R].
+(This unit will not be visible in the generated transaction amount,
+which is always in hours.)
+.PP
+There is some added flexibility to help with keeping time log data in
+the same file as your notes, todo lists, etc.:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Lines beginning with \f[C]#\f[R] or \f[C];\f[R], and blank lines, are
ignored.
.IP \[bu] 2
-Lines not ending with a double-space and quantity are parsed as items
-taking no time, which will not appear in balance reports by default.
-(Add -E to see them.)
+Lines not ending with a double-space and amount are parsed as
+transactions with zero amount.
+(Most hledger reports hide these by default; add -E to see them.)
.IP \[bu] 2
-Org mode headlines (lines beginning with one or more \f[C]*\f[R]
-followed by a space) can be used as date lines or timelog items (the
-stars are ignored).
-Also all org headlines before the first date line are ignored.
-This means org users can manage their timelog as an org outline (eg
-using org-mode/orgstruct-mode in Emacs), for organisation, faster
-navigation, controlling visibility etc.
+One or more stars (\f[C]*\f[R]) followed by a space, at the start of a
+line, is ignored.
+So date lines or time transaction lines can also be Org-mode headlines.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+All Org-mode headlines before the first date line are ignored.
.PP
-Examples:
+More examples:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
@@ -8972,7 +9000,7 @@ Reporting:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-$ hledger -f t.timedot print date:2016/2/2
+$ hledger -f a.timedot print date:2016/2/2
2016-02-02 *
(inc:client1) 2.00
@@ -8983,7 +9011,7 @@ $ hledger -f t.timedot print date:2016/2/2
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-$ hledger -f t.timedot bal --daily --tree
+$ hledger -f a.timedot bal --daily --tree
Balance changes in 2016-02-01-2016-02-03:
|| 2016-02-01d 2016-02-02d 2016-02-03d
@@ -9000,8 +9028,7 @@ Balance changes in 2016-02-01-2016-02-03:
\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-I prefer to use period for separating account components.
-We can make this work with an account alias:
+Using period instead of colon as account name separator:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
@@ -9013,7 +9040,7 @@ fos.ledger ..
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-$ hledger -f t.timedot --alias /\[rs]\[rs]./=: bal date:2016/2/4 --tree
+$ hledger -f a.timedot --alias /\[rs]\[rs]./=: bal --tree
4.50 fos
4.00 hledger:timedot
0.50 ledger
@@ -9022,7 +9049,7 @@ $ hledger -f t.timedot --alias /\[rs]\[rs]./=: bal date:2016/2/4 --tree
\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-Here is a sample.timedot.
+A sample.timedot file.
.SH COMMON TASKS
.PP
Here are some quick examples of how to do some basic tasks with hledger.
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger.info b/embeddedfiles/hledger.info
index a0b5430..a88d1d5 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger.info
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger.info
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ hledger(1)
This is the command-line interface (CLI) for the hledger accounting
tool. Here we also describe hledger's concepts and file formats. This
-manual is for hledger 1.22.1.
+manual is for hledger 1.22.2.
'hledger'
@@ -2000,37 +2000,42 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: aregister, Next: balance, Prev: add, Up: COMMANDS
aregister, areg
- Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account,
-with each line item representing one transaction.
+ Show the transactions and running historical balance of a single
+account, with each transaction displayed as one line.
- 'aregister' shows the transactions affecting a particular account and
-its subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole transaction -
-as in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other accounting
-apps.
+ 'aregister' shows the overall transactions affecting a particular
+account (and any subaccounts). Each report line represents one
+transaction in this account. Transactions before the report start date
+are always included in the running balance ('--historical' mode is
+always on).
- Note this is unlike the 'register' command, which shows individual
-postings and does not always show a single account or a historical
-balance.
-
- A reminder, "historical" balances include any balance from
-transactions before the report start date, so (if opening balances are
-recorded correctly) 'aregister' will show the real-world balances of an
-account, as you would see in a bank statement.
-
- As a quick rule of thumb, use 'aregister' for reconciling real-world
-asset/liability accounts and 'register' for reviewing detailed
+ This is a more "real world", bank-like view than the 'register'
+command (which shows individual postings, possibly from multiple
+accounts, not necessarily in historical mode). As a quick rule of
+thumb: - use 'aregister' for reviewing and reconciling real-world
+asset/liability accounts - use 'register' for reviewing detailed
revenues/expenses.
- 'aregister' shows the register for just one account (and its
-subaccounts). This account must be specified as the first argument.
-You can write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive
-regular expression which will select the alphabetically first matched
-account. (Eg if you have 'assets:aaa:checking' and
-'assets:bbb:checking' accounts, 'hledger areg checking' would select
-'assets:aaa:checking'.)
+ 'aregister' requires one argument: the account to report on. You can
+write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive regular
+expression which will select the alphabetically first matched account.
+(Eg if you have 'assets:aaa:checking' and 'assets:bbb:checking'
+accounts, 'hledger areg checking' would select 'assets:aaa:checking'.)
+
+ Transactions involving subaccounts of this account will also be
+shown. 'aregister' ignores depth limits, so its final total will always
+match a balance report with similar arguments.
Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the
-transactions shown.
+transactions shown. Note some queries will disturb the running balance,
+causing it to be different from the account's real-world running
+balance.
+
+ An example: this shows the transactions and historical running
+balance during july, in the first account whose name contains
+"checking":
+
+$ hledger areg checking date:jul
Each 'aregister' line item shows:
@@ -2044,11 +2049,8 @@ transactions shown.
Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default;
add the '-E/--empty' flag to show them.
- 'aregister' ignores a depth limit, so its final total will always
-match a balance report with similar arguments.
-
This command also supports the output destination and output format
-options The output formats supported are 'txt', 'csv', and 'json'.
+options. The output formats supported are 'txt', 'csv', and 'json'.
* Menu:
@@ -2070,18 +2072,6 @@ matching the one shown by 'register -H' with the same arguments.
flag. If you use this flag and some of your postings have custom dates,
it's probably best to assume the running balance is wrong.
- Examples:
-
- Show all transactions and historical running balance in the first
-account whose name contains "checking":
-
-$ hledger areg checking
-
- Show transactions and historical running balance in all asset
-accounts during july:
-
-$ hledger areg assets date:jul
-

File: hledger.info, Node: balance, Next: balancesheet, Prev: aregister, Up: COMMANDS
@@ -7807,60 +7797,86 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: TIMEDOT FORMAT, Next: COMMON TASKS, Prev: TIMECLOCK
15 TIMEDOT FORMAT
*****************
-hledger's human-friendly time logging format.
+'timedot' format is hledger's human-friendly time logging format.
+Compared to 'timeclock' format, it is
- Timedot is a plain text format for logging dated, categorised
-quantities (of time, usually), supported by hledger. It is convenient
-for approximate and retroactive time logging, eg when the real-time
-clock-in/out required with a timeclock file is too precise or too
-interruptive. It can be formatted like a bar chart, making clear at a
-glance where time was spent.
+ * convenient for quick, approximate, and retroactive time logging
+ * readable: you can see at a glance where time was spent.
- Though called "timedot", this format is read by hledger as
-commodityless quantities, so it could be used to represent dated
-quantities other than time. In the docs below we'll assume it's time.
+ A timedot file contains a series of day entries, which might look
+like this:
- A timedot file contains a series of day entries. A day entry begins
-with a non-indented hledger-style simple date (Y-M-D, Y/M/D, Y.M.D..)
-Any additional text on the same line is used as a transaction
-description for this day.
+2021-08-04
+hom:errands .... ....
+fos:hledger:timedot .. ; docs
+per:admin:finance
- This is followed by optionally-indented timelog items for that day,
-one per line. Each timelog item is a note, usually a
-hledger:style:account:name representing a time category, followed by two
-or more spaces, and a quantity. Each timelog item generates a hledger
-transaction.
+ hledger reads this as three time transactions on this day, with each
+dot representing a quarter-hour spent:
- Quantities can be written as:
+$ hledger -f a.timedot print # .timedot file extension activates the timedot reader
+2021-08-04 *
+ (hom:errands) 2.00
- * dots: a sequence of dots (.) representing quarter hours. Spaces
- may optionally be used for grouping. Eg: .... ..
+2021-08-04 *
+ (fos:hledger:timedot) 0.50
- * an integral or decimal number, representing hours. Eg: 1.5
+2021-08-04 *
+ (per:admin:finance) 0
- * an integral or decimal number immediately followed by a unit symbol
- 's', 'm', 'h', 'd', 'w', 'mo', or 'y', representing seconds,
- minutes, hours, days weeks, months or years respectively. Eg: 90m.
- The following equivalencies are assumed, currently: 1m = 60s, 1h =
- 60m, 1d = 24h, 1w = 7d, 1mo = 30d, 1y=365d.
+ A day entry begins with a date line:
- There is some flexibility allowing notes and todo lists to be kept
-right in the time log, if needed:
+ * a non-indented *simple date* (Y-M-D, Y/M/D, or Y.M.D).
- * Blank lines and lines beginning with '#' or ';' are ignored.
+ Optionally this can be followed on the same line by
- * Lines not ending with a double-space and quantity are parsed as
- items taking no time, which will not appear in balance reports by
- default. (Add -E to see them.)
+ * a common *transaction description* for this day
+ * a common *transaction comment* for this day, after a semicolon
+ (';').
- * Org mode headlines (lines beginning with one or more '*' followed
- by a space) can be used as date lines or timelog items (the stars
- are ignored). Also all org headlines before the first date line
- are ignored. This means org users can manage their timelog as an
- org outline (eg using org-mode/orgstruct-mode in Emacs), for
- organisation, faster navigation, controlling visibility etc.
+ After the date line are zero or more optionally-indented time
+transaction lines, consisting of:
- Examples:
+ * an *account name* - any word or phrase, usually a hledger-style
+ account name.
+ * *two or more spaces* - a field separator, required if there is an
+ amount (as in journal format).
+ * a *timedot amount* - dots representing quarter hours, or a number
+ representing hours.
+ * an optional *comment* beginning with semicolon. This is ignored.
+
+ In more detail, timedot amounts can be:
+
+ * *dots*: zero or more period characters, each representing one
+ quarter-hour. Spaces are ignored and can be used for grouping.
+ Eg: '.... ..'
+
+ * a *number*, representing hours. Eg: '1.5'
+
+ * a *number immediately followed by a unit symbol* 's', 'm', 'h',
+ 'd', 'w', 'mo', or 'y', representing seconds, minutes, hours, days
+ weeks, months or years. Eg '1.5h' or '90m'. The following
+ equivalencies are assumed:
+ '60s' = '1m', '60m' = '1h', '24h' = '1d', '7d' = '1w', '30d' =
+ '1mo', '365d' = '1y'. (This unit will not be visible in the
+ generated transaction amount, which is always in hours.)
+
+ There is some added flexibility to help with keeping time log data in
+the same file as your notes, todo lists, etc.:
+
+ * Lines beginning with '#' or ';', and blank lines, are ignored.
+
+ * Lines not ending with a double-space and amount are parsed as
+ transactions with zero amount. (Most hledger reports hide these by
+ default; add -E to see them.)
+
+ * One or more stars ('*') followed by a space, at the start of a
+ line, is ignored. So date lines or time transaction lines can also
+ be Org-mode headlines.
+
+ * All Org-mode headlines before the first date line are ignored.
+
+ More examples:
# on this day, 6h was spent on client work, 1.5h on haskell FOSS work, etc.
2016/2/1
@@ -7900,14 +7916,14 @@ adm:planning: trip
Reporting:
-$ hledger -f t.timedot print date:2016/2/2
+$ hledger -f a.timedot print date:2016/2/2
2016-02-02 *
(inc:client1) 2.00
2016-02-02 *
(biz:research) 0.25
-$ hledger -f t.timedot bal --daily --tree
+$ hledger -f a.timedot bal --daily --tree
Balance changes in 2016-02-01-2016-02-03:
|| 2016-02-01d 2016-02-02d 2016-02-03d
@@ -7922,21 +7938,20 @@ Balance changes in 2016-02-01-2016-02-03:
------------++----------------------------------------
|| 7.75 2.25 8.00
- I prefer to use period for separating account components. We can
-make this work with an account alias:
+ Using period instead of colon as account name separator:
2016/2/4
fos.hledger.timedot 4
fos.ledger ..
-$ hledger -f t.timedot --alias /\\./=: bal date:2016/2/4 --tree
+$ hledger -f a.timedot --alias /\\./=: bal --tree
4.50 fos
4.00 hledger:timedot
0.50 ledger
--------------------
4.50
- Here is a sample.timedot.
+ A sample.timedot file.

File: hledger.info, Node: COMMON TASKS, Next: LIMITATIONS, Prev: TIMEDOT FORMAT, Up: Top
@@ -8567,386 +8582,386 @@ Node: add65702
Ref: #add65805
Node: aregister68598
Ref: #aregister68712
-Node: aregister and custom posting dates70910
-Ref: #aregister-and-custom-posting-dates71076
-Node: balance71897
-Ref: #balance72016
-Node: balance features72931
-Ref: #balance-features73071
-Node: Simple balance report74728
-Ref: #simple-balance-report74910
-Node: Filtered balance report76363
-Ref: #filtered-balance-report76550
-Node: List or tree mode76850
-Ref: #list-or-tree-mode77018
-Node: Depth limiting78336
-Ref: #depth-limiting78502
-Node: Multi-period balance report79263
-Ref: #multi-period-balance-report79455
-Node: Sorting by amount81707
-Ref: #sorting-by-amount81876
-Node: Percentages82342
-Ref: #percentages82498
-Node: Balance change end balance83432
-Ref: #balance-change-end-balance83623
-Node: Balance report types85051
-Ref: #balance-report-types85241
-Node: Useful balance reports89314
-Ref: #useful-balance-reports89495
-Node: Budget report90580
-Ref: #budget-report90764
-Node: Budget report start date96003
-Ref: #budget-report-start-date96172
-Node: Nested budgets97504
-Ref: #nested-budgets97653
-Node: Customising single-period balance reports101093
-Ref: #customising-single-period-balance-reports101302
-Node: balancesheet103450
-Ref: #balancesheet103588
-Node: balancesheetequity104887
-Ref: #balancesheetequity105038
-Node: cashflow106418
-Ref: #cashflow106542
-Node: check107688
-Ref: #check107793
-Node: Basic checks108427
-Ref: #basic-checks108545
-Node: Strict checks109096
-Ref: #strict-checks109237
-Node: Other checks109673
-Ref: #other-checks109813
-Node: Custom checks110170
-Ref: #custom-checks110290
-Node: close110707
-Ref: #close110811
-Node: close usage112333
-Ref: #close-usage112428
-Node: codes115241
-Ref: #codes115351
-Node: commodities116063
-Ref: #commodities116192
-Node: descriptions116274
-Ref: #descriptions116404
-Node: diff116708
-Ref: #diff116816
-Node: files117863
-Ref: #files117965
-Node: help118112
-Ref: #help118214
-Node: import118941
-Ref: #import119057
-Node: Deduplication119922
-Ref: #deduplication120047
-Node: Import testing121941
-Ref: #import-testing122106
-Node: Importing balance assignments122594
-Ref: #importing-balance-assignments122800
-Node: Commodity display styles123449
-Ref: #commodity-display-styles123622
-Node: incomestatement123751
-Ref: #incomestatement123886
-Node: notes125191
-Ref: #notes125306
-Node: payees125674
-Ref: #payees125782
-Node: prices126308
-Ref: #prices126416
-Node: print126757
-Ref: #print126869
-Node: print-unique132184
-Ref: #print-unique132312
-Node: register132597
-Ref: #register132726
-Node: Custom register output137172
-Ref: #custom-register-output137303
-Node: register-match138640
-Ref: #register-match138776
-Node: rewrite139127
-Ref: #rewrite139244
-Node: Re-write rules in a file141150
-Ref: #re-write-rules-in-a-file141313
-Node: Diff output format142462
-Ref: #diff-output-format142645
-Node: rewrite vs print --auto143737
-Ref: #rewrite-vs.-print---auto143897
-Node: roi144453
-Ref: #roi144553
-Node: Spaces and special characters in --inv and --pnl146239
-Ref: #spaces-and-special-characters-in---inv-and---pnl146479
-Node: Semantics of --inv and --pnl146967
-Ref: #semantics-of---inv-and---pnl147206
-Node: IRR and TWR explained149056
-Ref: #irr-and-twr-explained149216
-Node: stats152284
-Ref: #stats152385
-Node: tags153173
-Ref: #tags153273
-Node: test153792
-Ref: #test153908
-Node: About add-on commands154655
-Ref: #about-add-on-commands154792
-Node: JOURNAL FORMAT155923
-Ref: #journal-format156051
-Node: Transactions158247
-Ref: #transactions158362
-Node: Dates159376
-Ref: #dates159492
-Node: Simple dates159557
-Ref: #simple-dates159677
-Node: Secondary dates160186
-Ref: #secondary-dates160334
-Node: Posting dates161670
-Ref: #posting-dates161793
-Node: Status163165
-Ref: #status163275
-Node: Code164983
-Ref: #code165095
-Node: Description165327
-Ref: #description165455
-Node: Payee and note165775
-Ref: #payee-and-note165883
-Node: Comments166218
-Ref: #comments166340
-Node: Tags167534
-Ref: #tags-1167645
-Node: Postings169038
-Ref: #postings169162
-Node: Virtual postings170188
-Ref: #virtual-postings170299
-Node: Account names171604
-Ref: #account-names171741
-Node: Amounts172229
-Ref: #amounts172366
-Node: Decimal marks digit group marks173322
-Ref: #decimal-marks-digit-group-marks173499
-Node: Commodity174371
-Ref: #commodity174531
-Node: Commodity directives175483
-Ref: #commodity-directives175657
-Node: Commodity display style176144
-Ref: #commodity-display-style176323
-Node: Rounding178431
-Ref: #rounding178551
-Node: Transaction prices178963
-Ref: #transaction-prices179129
-Node: Lot prices lot dates181560
-Ref: #lot-prices-lot-dates181743
-Node: Balance assertions182231
-Ref: #balance-assertions182409
-Node: Assertions and ordering183442
-Ref: #assertions-and-ordering183624
-Node: Assertions and included files184324
-Ref: #assertions-and-included-files184561
-Node: Assertions and multiple -f options184894
-Ref: #assertions-and-multiple--f-options185144
-Node: Assertions and commodities185276
-Ref: #assertions-and-commodities185502
-Node: Assertions and prices186659
-Ref: #assertions-and-prices186867
-Node: Assertions and subaccounts187307
-Ref: #assertions-and-subaccounts187530
-Node: Assertions and virtual postings187854
-Ref: #assertions-and-virtual-postings188090
-Node: Assertions and precision188232
-Ref: #assertions-and-precision188419
-Node: Balance assignments188686
-Ref: #balance-assignments188856
-Node: Balance assignments and prices190020
-Ref: #balance-assignments-and-prices190186
-Node: Directives190410
-Ref: #directives190573
-Node: Directives and multiple files195927
-Ref: #directives-and-multiple-files196123
-Node: Comment blocks196787
-Ref: #comment-blocks196964
-Node: Including other files197140
-Ref: #including-other-files197314
-Node: Default year198238
-Ref: #default-year198396
-Node: Declaring payees198803
-Ref: #declaring-payees198969
-Node: Declaring commodities199215
-Ref: #declaring-commodities199396
-Node: Commodity error checking201776
-Ref: #commodity-error-checking201926
-Node: Default commodity202183
-Ref: #default-commodity202363
-Node: Declaring market prices203239
-Ref: #declaring-market-prices203428
-Node: Declaring accounts204241
-Ref: #declaring-accounts204421
-Node: Account error checking205623
-Ref: #account-error-checking205789
-Node: Account comments206968
-Ref: #account-comments207152
-Node: Account subdirectives207576
-Ref: #account-subdirectives207761
-Node: Account types208074
-Ref: #account-types208248
-Node: Declaring account types208984
-Ref: #declaring-account-types209163
-Node: Auto-detected account types209813
-Ref: #auto-detected-account-types210054
-Node: Interference from auto-detected account types211014
-Ref: #interference-from-auto-detected-account-types211291
-Node: Old account type syntax211774
-Ref: #old-account-type-syntax211971
-Node: Account display order212271
-Ref: #account-display-order212431
-Node: Rewriting accounts213582
-Ref: #rewriting-accounts213761
-Node: Basic aliases214518
-Ref: #basic-aliases214654
-Node: Regex aliases215398
-Ref: #regex-aliases215560
-Node: Combining aliases216279
-Ref: #combining-aliases216462
-Node: Aliases and multiple files217738
-Ref: #aliases-and-multiple-files217937
-Node: end aliases218516
-Ref: #end-aliases218663
-Node: Default parent account218764
-Ref: #default-parent-account218954
-Node: Periodic transactions219838
-Ref: #periodic-transactions220021
-Node: Periodic rule syntax221938
-Ref: #periodic-rule-syntax222138
-Node: Two spaces between period expression and description!222842
-Ref: #two-spaces-between-period-expression-and-description223155
-Node: Forecasting with periodic transactions223839
-Ref: #forecasting-with-periodic-transactions224138
-Node: Budgeting with periodic transactions226193
-Ref: #budgeting-with-periodic-transactions226426
-Node: Auto postings226835
-Ref: #auto-postings226971
-Node: Auto postings and multiple files229150
-Ref: #auto-postings-and-multiple-files229348
-Node: Auto postings and dates229557
-Ref: #auto-postings-and-dates229825
-Node: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions230000
-Ref: #auto-postings-and-transaction-balancing-inferred-amounts-balance-assertions230345
-Node: Auto posting tags230687
-Ref: #auto-posting-tags230896
-Node: CSV FORMAT231532
-Ref: #csv-format231660
-Node: Examples234289
-Ref: #examples234392
-Node: Basic234600
-Ref: #basic234702
-Node: Bank of Ireland235244
-Ref: #bank-of-ireland235381
-Node: Amazon236843
-Ref: #amazon236963
-Node: Paypal238682
-Ref: #paypal238778
-Node: CSV rules246422
-Ref: #csv-rules246540
-Node: skip246873
-Ref: #skip246973
-Node: fields list247348
-Ref: #fields-list247487
-Node: field assignment248990
-Ref: #field-assignment249142
-Node: Field names250070
-Ref: #field-names250210
-Node: date field250590
-Ref: #date-field250710
-Node: date2 field250758
-Ref: #date2-field250901
-Node: status field250957
-Ref: #status-field251102
-Node: code field251151
-Ref: #code-field251298
-Node: description field251343
-Ref: #description-field251505
-Node: comment field251564
-Ref: #comment-field251721
-Node: account field251936
-Ref: #account-field252088
-Node: amount field252663
-Ref: #amount-field252814
-Node: currency field254059
-Ref: #currency-field254214
-Node: balance field254471
-Ref: #balance-field254605
-Node: separator254977
-Ref: #separator255109
-Node: if block255649
-Ref: #if-block255776
-Node: Matching the whole record256177
-Ref: #matching-the-whole-record256354
-Node: Matching individual fields257157
-Ref: #matching-individual-fields257363
-Node: Combining matchers257587
-Ref: #combining-matchers257785
-Node: Rules applied on successful match258098
-Ref: #rules-applied-on-successful-match258291
-Node: if table258945
-Ref: #if-table259066
-Node: end260804
-Ref: #end260918
-Node: date-format261142
-Ref: #date-format261276
-Node: decimal-mark262272
-Ref: #decimal-mark262419
-Node: newest-first262758
-Ref: #newest-first262901
-Node: include263584
-Ref: #include263717
-Node: balance-type264161
-Ref: #balance-type264283
-Node: Tips264983
-Ref: #tips265074
-Node: Rapid feedback265373
-Ref: #rapid-feedback265492
-Node: Valid CSV265952
-Ref: #valid-csv266084
-Node: File Extension266276
-Ref: #file-extension266430
-Node: Reading multiple CSV files266859
-Ref: #reading-multiple-csv-files267046
-Node: Valid transactions267287
-Ref: #valid-transactions267467
-Node: Deduplicating importing268095
-Ref: #deduplicating-importing268276
-Node: Setting amounts269309
-Ref: #setting-amounts269466
-Node: Amount signs271907
-Ref: #amount-signs272061
-Node: Setting currency/commodity272748
-Ref: #setting-currencycommodity272936
-Node: Amount decimal places274110
-Ref: #amount-decimal-places274302
-Node: Referencing other fields274614
-Ref: #referencing-other-fields274813
-Node: How CSV rules are evaluated275710
-Ref: #how-csv-rules-are-evaluated275885
-Node: TIMECLOCK FORMAT277336
-Ref: #timeclock-format277476
-Node: TIMEDOT FORMAT279537
-Ref: #timedot-format279675
-Node: COMMON TASKS283951
-Ref: #common-tasks284080
-Node: Getting help284487
-Ref: #getting-help284621
-Node: Constructing command lines285174
-Ref: #constructing-command-lines285368
-Node: Starting a journal file286065
-Ref: #starting-a-journal-file286265
-Node: Setting opening balances287453
-Ref: #setting-opening-balances287651
-Node: Recording transactions290792
-Ref: #recording-transactions290974
-Node: Reconciling291530
-Ref: #reconciling291675
-Node: Reporting293932
-Ref: #reporting294074
-Node: Migrating to a new file298073
-Ref: #migrating-to-a-new-file298223
-Node: LIMITATIONS298522
-Ref: #limitations298650
-Node: TROUBLESHOOTING299393
-Ref: #troubleshooting299508
+Node: aregister and custom posting dates71077
+Ref: #aregister-and-custom-posting-dates71243
+Node: balance71795
+Ref: #balance71914
+Node: balance features72829
+Ref: #balance-features72969
+Node: Simple balance report74626
+Ref: #simple-balance-report74808
+Node: Filtered balance report76261
+Ref: #filtered-balance-report76448
+Node: List or tree mode76748
+Ref: #list-or-tree-mode76916
+Node: Depth limiting78234
+Ref: #depth-limiting78400
+Node: Multi-period balance report79161
+Ref: #multi-period-balance-report79353
+Node: Sorting by amount81605
+Ref: #sorting-by-amount81774
+Node: Percentages82240
+Ref: #percentages82396
+Node: Balance change end balance83330
+Ref: #balance-change-end-balance83521
+Node: Balance report types84949
+Ref: #balance-report-types85139
+Node: Useful balance reports89212
+Ref: #useful-balance-reports89393
+Node: Budget report90478
+Ref: #budget-report90662
+Node: Budget report start date95901
+Ref: #budget-report-start-date96070
+Node: Nested budgets97402
+Ref: #nested-budgets97551
+Node: Customising single-period balance reports100991
+Ref: #customising-single-period-balance-reports101200
+Node: balancesheet103348
+Ref: #balancesheet103486
+Node: balancesheetequity104785
+Ref: #balancesheetequity104936
+Node: cashflow106316
+Ref: #cashflow106440
+Node: check107586
+Ref: #check107691
+Node: Basic checks108325
+Ref: #basic-checks108443
+Node: Strict checks108994
+Ref: #strict-checks109135
+Node: Other checks109571
+Ref: #other-checks109711
+Node: Custom checks110068
+Ref: #custom-checks110188
+Node: close110605
+Ref: #close110709
+Node: close usage112231
+Ref: #close-usage112326
+Node: codes115139
+Ref: #codes115249
+Node: commodities115961
+Ref: #commodities116090
+Node: descriptions116172
+Ref: #descriptions116302
+Node: diff116606
+Ref: #diff116714
+Node: files117761
+Ref: #files117863
+Node: help118010
+Ref: #help118112
+Node: import118839
+Ref: #import118955
+Node: Deduplication119820
+Ref: #deduplication119945
+Node: Import testing121839
+Ref: #import-testing122004
+Node: Importing balance assignments122492
+Ref: #importing-balance-assignments122698
+Node: Commodity display styles123347
+Ref: #commodity-display-styles123520
+Node: incomestatement123649
+Ref: #incomestatement123784
+Node: notes125089
+Ref: #notes125204
+Node: payees125572
+Ref: #payees125680
+Node: prices126206
+Ref: #prices126314
+Node: print126655
+Ref: #print126767
+Node: print-unique132082
+Ref: #print-unique132210
+Node: register132495
+Ref: #register132624
+Node: Custom register output137070
+Ref: #custom-register-output137201
+Node: register-match138538
+Ref: #register-match138674
+Node: rewrite139025
+Ref: #rewrite139142
+Node: Re-write rules in a file141048
+Ref: #re-write-rules-in-a-file141211
+Node: Diff output format142360
+Ref: #diff-output-format142543
+Node: rewrite vs print --auto143635
+Ref: #rewrite-vs.-print---auto143795
+Node: roi144351
+Ref: #roi144451
+Node: Spaces and special characters in --inv and --pnl146137
+Ref: #spaces-and-special-characters-in---inv-and---pnl146377
+Node: Semantics of --inv and --pnl146865
+Ref: #semantics-of---inv-and---pnl147104
+Node: IRR and TWR explained148954
+Ref: #irr-and-twr-explained149114
+Node: stats152182
+Ref: #stats152283
+Node: tags153071
+Ref: #tags153171
+Node: test153690
+Ref: #test153806
+Node: About add-on commands154553
+Ref: #about-add-on-commands154690
+Node: JOURNAL FORMAT155821
+Ref: #journal-format155949
+Node: Transactions158145
+Ref: #transactions158260
+Node: Dates159274
+Ref: #dates159390
+Node: Simple dates159455
+Ref: #simple-dates159575
+Node: Secondary dates160084
+Ref: #secondary-dates160232
+Node: Posting dates161568
+Ref: #posting-dates161691
+Node: Status163063
+Ref: #status163173
+Node: Code164881
+Ref: #code164993
+Node: Description165225
+Ref: #description165353
+Node: Payee and note165673
+Ref: #payee-and-note165781
+Node: Comments166116
+Ref: #comments166238
+Node: Tags167432
+Ref: #tags-1167543
+Node: Postings168936
+Ref: #postings169060
+Node: Virtual postings170086
+Ref: #virtual-postings170197
+Node: Account names171502
+Ref: #account-names171639
+Node: Amounts172127
+Ref: #amounts172264
+Node: Decimal marks digit group marks173220
+Ref: #decimal-marks-digit-group-marks173397
+Node: Commodity174269
+Ref: #commodity174429
+Node: Commodity directives175381
+Ref: #commodity-directives175555
+Node: Commodity display style176042
+Ref: #commodity-display-style176221
+Node: Rounding178329
+Ref: #rounding178449
+Node: Transaction prices178861
+Ref: #transaction-prices179027
+Node: Lot prices lot dates181458
+Ref: #lot-prices-lot-dates181641
+Node: Balance assertions182129
+Ref: #balance-assertions182307
+Node: Assertions and ordering183340
+Ref: #assertions-and-ordering183522
+Node: Assertions and included files184222
+Ref: #assertions-and-included-files184459
+Node: Assertions and multiple -f options184792
+Ref: #assertions-and-multiple--f-options185042
+Node: Assertions and commodities185174
+Ref: #assertions-and-commodities185400
+Node: Assertions and prices186557
+Ref: #assertions-and-prices186765
+Node: Assertions and subaccounts187205
+Ref: #assertions-and-subaccounts187428
+Node: Assertions and virtual postings187752
+Ref: #assertions-and-virtual-postings187988
+Node: Assertions and precision188130
+Ref: #assertions-and-precision188317
+Node: Balance assignments188584
+Ref: #balance-assignments188754
+Node: Balance assignments and prices189918
+Ref: #balance-assignments-and-prices190084
+Node: Directives190308
+Ref: #directives190471
+Node: Directives and multiple files195825
+Ref: #directives-and-multiple-files196021
+Node: Comment blocks196685
+Ref: #comment-blocks196862
+Node: Including other files197038
+Ref: #including-other-files197212
+Node: Default year198136
+Ref: #default-year198294
+Node: Declaring payees198701
+Ref: #declaring-payees198867
+Node: Declaring commodities199113
+Ref: #declaring-commodities199294
+Node: Commodity error checking201674
+Ref: #commodity-error-checking201824
+Node: Default commodity202081
+Ref: #default-commodity202261
+Node: Declaring market prices203137
+Ref: #declaring-market-prices203326
+Node: Declaring accounts204139
+Ref: #declaring-accounts204319
+Node: Account error checking205521
+Ref: #account-error-checking205687
+Node: Account comments206866
+Ref: #account-comments207050
+Node: Account subdirectives207474
+Ref: #account-subdirectives207659
+Node: Account types207972
+Ref: #account-types208146
+Node: Declaring account types208882
+Ref: #declaring-account-types209061
+Node: Auto-detected account types209711
+Ref: #auto-detected-account-types209952
+Node: Interference from auto-detected account types210912
+Ref: #interference-from-auto-detected-account-types211189
+Node: Old account type syntax211672
+Ref: #old-account-type-syntax211869
+Node: Account display order212169
+Ref: #account-display-order212329
+Node: Rewriting accounts213480
+Ref: #rewriting-accounts213659
+Node: Basic aliases214416
+Ref: #basic-aliases214552
+Node: Regex aliases215296
+Ref: #regex-aliases215458
+Node: Combining aliases216177
+Ref: #combining-aliases216360
+Node: Aliases and multiple files217636
+Ref: #aliases-and-multiple-files217835
+Node: end aliases218414
+Ref: #end-aliases218561
+Node: Default parent account218662
+Ref: #default-parent-account218852
+Node: Periodic transactions219736
+Ref: #periodic-transactions219919
+Node: Periodic rule syntax221836
+Ref: #periodic-rule-syntax222036
+Node: Two spaces between period expression and description!222740
+Ref: #two-spaces-between-period-expression-and-description223053
+Node: Forecasting with periodic transactions223737
+Ref: #forecasting-with-periodic-transactions224036
+Node: Budgeting with periodic transactions226091
+Ref: #budgeting-with-periodic-transactions226324
+Node: Auto postings226733
+Ref: #auto-postings226869
+Node: Auto postings and multiple files229048
+Ref: #auto-postings-and-multiple-files229246
+Node: Auto postings and dates229455
+Ref: #auto-postings-and-dates229723
+Node: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions229898
+Ref: #auto-postings-and-transaction-balancing-inferred-amounts-balance-assertions230243
+Node: Auto posting tags230585
+Ref: #auto-posting-tags230794
+Node: CSV FORMAT231430
+Ref: #csv-format231558
+Node: Examples234187
+Ref: #examples234290
+Node: Basic234498
+Ref: #basic234600
+Node: Bank of Ireland235142
+Ref: #bank-of-ireland235279
+Node: Amazon236741
+Ref: #amazon236861
+Node: Paypal238580
+Ref: #paypal238676
+Node: CSV rules246320
+Ref: #csv-rules246438
+Node: skip246771
+Ref: #skip246871
+Node: fields list247246
+Ref: #fields-list247385
+Node: field assignment248888
+Ref: #field-assignment249040
+Node: Field names249968
+Ref: #field-names250108
+Node: date field250488
+Ref: #date-field250608
+Node: date2 field250656
+Ref: #date2-field250799
+Node: status field250855
+Ref: #status-field251000
+Node: code field251049
+Ref: #code-field251196
+Node: description field251241
+Ref: #description-field251403
+Node: comment field251462
+Ref: #comment-field251619
+Node: account field251834
+Ref: #account-field251986
+Node: amount field252561
+Ref: #amount-field252712
+Node: currency field253957
+Ref: #currency-field254112
+Node: balance field254369
+Ref: #balance-field254503
+Node: separator254875
+Ref: #separator255007
+Node: if block255547
+Ref: #if-block255674
+Node: Matching the whole record256075
+Ref: #matching-the-whole-record256252
+Node: Matching individual fields257055
+Ref: #matching-individual-fields257261
+Node: Combining matchers257485
+Ref: #combining-matchers257683
+Node: Rules applied on successful match257996
+Ref: #rules-applied-on-successful-match258189
+Node: if table258843
+Ref: #if-table258964
+Node: end260702
+Ref: #end260816
+Node: date-format261040
+Ref: #date-format261174
+Node: decimal-mark262170
+Ref: #decimal-mark262317
+Node: newest-first262656
+Ref: #newest-first262799
+Node: include263482
+Ref: #include263615
+Node: balance-type264059
+Ref: #balance-type264181
+Node: Tips264881
+Ref: #tips264972
+Node: Rapid feedback265271
+Ref: #rapid-feedback265390
+Node: Valid CSV265850
+Ref: #valid-csv265982
+Node: File Extension266174
+Ref: #file-extension266328
+Node: Reading multiple CSV files266757
+Ref: #reading-multiple-csv-files266944
+Node: Valid transactions267185
+Ref: #valid-transactions267365
+Node: Deduplicating importing267993
+Ref: #deduplicating-importing268174
+Node: Setting amounts269207
+Ref: #setting-amounts269364
+Node: Amount signs271805
+Ref: #amount-signs271959
+Node: Setting currency/commodity272646
+Ref: #setting-currencycommodity272834
+Node: Amount decimal places274008
+Ref: #amount-decimal-places274200
+Node: Referencing other fields274512
+Ref: #referencing-other-fields274711
+Node: How CSV rules are evaluated275608
+Ref: #how-csv-rules-are-evaluated275783
+Node: TIMECLOCK FORMAT277234
+Ref: #timeclock-format277374
+Node: TIMEDOT FORMAT279435
+Ref: #timedot-format279573
+Node: COMMON TASKS284135
+Ref: #common-tasks284264
+Node: Getting help284671
+Ref: #getting-help284805
+Node: Constructing command lines285358
+Ref: #constructing-command-lines285552
+Node: Starting a journal file286249
+Ref: #starting-a-journal-file286449
+Node: Setting opening balances287637
+Ref: #setting-opening-balances287835
+Node: Recording transactions290976
+Ref: #recording-transactions291158
+Node: Reconciling291714
+Ref: #reconciling291859
+Node: Reporting294116
+Ref: #reporting294258
+Node: Migrating to a new file298257
+Ref: #migrating-to-a-new-file298407
+Node: LIMITATIONS298706
+Ref: #limitations298834
+Node: TROUBLESHOOTING299577
+Ref: #troubleshooting299692

End Tag Table
diff --git a/embeddedfiles/hledger.txt b/embeddedfiles/hledger.txt
index 0253f7d..0f47205 100644
--- a/embeddedfiles/hledger.txt
+++ b/embeddedfiles/hledger.txt
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@ HLEDGER(1) hledger User Manuals HLEDGER(1)
NAME
This is the command-line interface (CLI) for the hledger accounting
tool. Here we also describe hledger's concepts and file formats. This
- manual is for hledger 1.22.1.
+ manual is for hledger 1.22.2.
SYNOPSIS
hledger
@@ -1677,34 +1677,38 @@ COMMANDS
aregister
aregister, areg
- Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account,
- with each line item representing one transaction.
+ Show the transactions and running historical balance of a single
+ account, with each transaction displayed as one line.
- aregister shows the transactions affecting a particular account and its
- subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole transaction - as
- in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other accounting apps.
+ aregister shows the overall transactions affecting a particular account
+ (and any subaccounts). Each report line represents one transaction in
+ this account. Transactions before the report start date are always
+ included in the running balance (--historical mode is always on).
- Note this is unlike the register command, which shows individual post-
- ings and does not always show a single account or a historical balance.
+ This is a more "real world", bank-like view than the register command
+ (which shows individual postings, possibly from multiple accounts, not
+ necessarily in historical mode). As a quick rule of thumb: - use areg-
+ ister for reviewing and reconciling real-world asset/liability accounts
+ - use register for reviewing detailed revenues/expenses.
- A reminder, "historical" balances include any balance from transactions
- before the report start date, so (if opening balances are recorded cor-
- rectly) aregister will show the real-world balances of an account, as
- you would see in a bank statement.
-
- As a quick rule of thumb, use aregister for reconciling real-world
- asset/liability accounts and register for reviewing detailed rev-
- enues/expenses.
-
- aregister shows the register for just one account (and its subac-
- counts). This account must be specified as the first argument. You
- can write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive regular
+ aregister requires one argument: the account to report on. You can
+ write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive regular
expression which will select the alphabetically first matched account.
(Eg if you have assets:aaa:checking and assets:bbb:checking accounts,
hledger areg checking would select assets:aaa:checking.)
+ Transactions involving subaccounts of this account will also be shown.
+ aregister ignores depth limits, so its final total will always match a
+ balance report with similar arguments.
+
Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transac-
- tions shown.
+ tions shown. Note some queries will disturb the running balance, caus-
+ ing it to be different from the account's real-world running balance.
+
+ An example: this shows the transactions and historical running balance
+ during july, in the first account whose name contains "checking":
+
+ $ hledger areg checking date:jul
Each aregister line item shows:
@@ -1721,52 +1725,37 @@ COMMANDS
Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default; add
the -E/--empty flag to show them.
- aregister ignores a depth limit, so its final total will always match a
- balance report with similar arguments.
-
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and json.
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options. The output formats supported are txt, csv, and json.
aregister and custom posting dates
- Transactions whose date is outside the report period can still be
- shown, if they have a posting to this account dated inside the report
- period. (And in this case it's the posting date that is shown.) This
+ Transactions whose date is outside the report period can still be
+ shown, if they have a posting to this account dated inside the report
+ period. (And in this case it's the posting date that is shown.) This
ensures that aregister can show an accurate historical running balance,
matching the one shown by register -H with the same arguments.
- To filter strictly by transaction date instead, add the --txn-dates
- flag. If you use this flag and some of your postings have custom
+ To filter strictly by transaction date instead, add the --txn-dates
+ flag. If you use this flag and some of your postings have custom
dates, it's probably best to assume the running balance is wrong.
- Examples:
-
- Show all transactions and historical running balance in the first
- account whose name contains "checking":
-
- $ hledger areg checking
-
- Show transactions and historical running balance in all asset accounts
- during july:
-
- $ hledger areg assets date:jul
-
balance
balance, bal
Show accounts and their balances.
- balance is one of hledger's oldest and most versatile commands, for
- listing account balances, balance changes, values, value changes and
+ balance is one of hledger's oldest and most versatile commands, for
+ listing account balances, balance changes, values, value changes and
more, during one time period or many. Generally it shows a table, with
rows representing accounts, and columns representing periods.
- Note there are some higher-level variants of the balance command with
- convenient defaults, which can be simpler to use: balancesheet, bal-
+ Note there are some higher-level variants of the balance command with
+ convenient defaults, which can be simpler to use: balancesheet, bal-
ancesheetequity, cashflow and incomestatement. When you need more con-
trol, then use balance.
balance features
- Here's a quick overview of the balance command's features, followed by
- more detailed descriptions and examples. Many of these work with the
+ Here's a quick overview of the balance command's features, followed by
+ more detailed descriptions and examples. Many of these work with the
higher-level commands as well.
balance can show..
@@ -1815,7 +1804,7 @@ COMMANDS
..with..
- o totals (-T), averages (-A), percentages (-%), inverted sign
+ o totals (-T), averages (-A), percentages (-%), inverted sign
(--invert)
o rows and columns swapped (--transpose)
@@ -1825,18 +1814,18 @@ COMMANDS
o custom-formatted line items (single-period reports only) (--format)
This command supports the output destination and output format options,
- with output formats txt, csv, json, and (multi-period reports only:)
- html. In txt output in a colour-supporting terminal, negative amounts
+ with output formats txt, csv, json, and (multi-period reports only:)
+ html. In txt output in a colour-supporting terminal, negative amounts
are shown in red.
Simple balance report
- With no arguments, balance shows a list of all accounts and their
- change of balance - ie, the sum of posting amounts, both inflows and
- outflows - during the entire period of the journal. For real-world
- accounts, this should also match their end balance at the end of the
+ With no arguments, balance shows a list of all accounts and their
+ change of balance - ie, the sum of posting amounts, both inflows and
+ outflows - during the entire period of the journal. For real-world
+ accounts, this should also match their end balance at the end of the
journal period (more on this below).
- Accounts are sorted by declaration order if any, and then alphabeti-
+ Accounts are sorted by declaration order if any, and then alphabeti-
cally by account name. For instance, using examples/sample.journal:
$ hledger bal
@@ -1851,7 +1840,7 @@ COMMANDS
0
Accounts with a zero balance (and no non-zero subaccounts, in tree mode
- - see below) are hidden by default. Use -E/--empty to show them
+ - see below) are hidden by default. Use -E/--empty to show them
(revealing assets:bank:checking here):
$ hledger -f examples/sample.journal bal -E
@@ -1866,11 +1855,11 @@ COMMANDS
--------------------
0
- The total of the amounts displayed is shown as the last line, unless
+ The total of the amounts displayed is shown as the last line, unless
-N/--no-total is used.
Filtered balance report
- You can show fewer accounts, a different time period, totals from
+ You can show fewer accounts, a different time period, totals from
cleared transactions only, etc. by using query arguments or options to
limit the postings being matched. Eg:
@@ -1880,10 +1869,10 @@ COMMANDS
$-2
List or tree mode
- By default, or with -l/--flat, accounts are shown as a flat list with
+ By default, or with -l/--flat, accounts are shown as a flat list with
their full names visible, as in the examples above.
- With -t/--tree, the account hierarchy is shown, with subaccounts'
+ With -t/--tree, the account hierarchy is shown, with subaccounts'
"leaf" names indented below their parent:
$ hledger balance
@@ -1903,24 +1892,24 @@ COMMANDS
Notes:
o "Boring" accounts are combined with their subaccount for more compact
- output, unless --no-elide is used. Boring accounts have no balance
- of their own and just one subaccount (eg assets:bank and liabilities
+ output, unless --no-elide is used. Boring accounts have no balance
+ of their own and just one subaccount (eg assets:bank and liabilities
above).
- o All balances shown are "inclusive", ie including the balances from
- all subaccounts. Note this means some repetition in the output,
+ o All balances shown are "inclusive", ie including the balances from
+ all subaccounts. Note this means some repetition in the output,
which requires explanation when sharing reports with non-plaintextac-
- counting-users. A tree mode report's final total is the sum of the
+ counting-users. A tree mode report's final total is the sum of the
top-level balances shown, not of all the balances shown.
- o Each group of sibling accounts (ie, under a common parent) is sorted
+ o Each group of sibling accounts (ie, under a common parent) is sorted
separately.
Depth limiting
- With a depth:N query, or --depth N option, or just -N, balance reports
- will show accounts only to the specified depth, hiding the deeper sub-
- accounts. Account balances at the depth limit always include the bal-
- ances from any hidden subaccounts (even in list mode). This can be
+ With a depth:N query, or --depth N option, or just -N, balance reports
+ will show accounts only to the specified depth, hiding the deeper sub-
+ accounts. Account balances at the depth limit always include the bal-
+ ances from any hidden subaccounts (even in list mode). This can be
useful for getting an overview. Eg, limiting to depth 1:
$ hledger balance -N -1
@@ -1929,7 +1918,7 @@ COMMANDS
$-2 income
$1 liabilities
- You can also hide top-level account name parts, using --drop N. This
+ You can also hide top-level account name parts, using --drop N. This
can be useful for hiding repetitive top-level account names:
$ hledger bal expenses --drop 1
@@ -1940,9 +1929,9 @@ COMMANDS
Multi-period balance report
- With a report interval (set by the -D/--daily, -W/--weekly,
- -M/--monthly, -Q/--quarterly, -Y/--yearly, or -p/--period flag), bal-
- ance shows a tabular report, with columns representing successive time
+ With a report interval (set by the -D/--daily, -W/--weekly,
+ -M/--monthly, -Q/--quarterly, -Y/--yearly, or -p/--period flag), bal-
+ ance shows a tabular report, with columns representing successive time
periods (and a title):
$ hledger balance --quarterly income expenses -E
@@ -1963,21 +1952,21 @@ COMMANDS
encompass the displayed subperiods (so that the first and last subpe-
riods have the same duration as the others).
- o Leading and trailing periods (columns) containing all zeroes are not
+ o Leading and trailing periods (columns) containing all zeroes are not
shown, unless -E/--empty is used.
- o Accounts (rows) containing all zeroes are not shown, unless
+ o Accounts (rows) containing all zeroes are not shown, unless
-E/--empty is used.
- o Amounts with many commodities are shown in abbreviated form, unless
+ o Amounts with many commodities are shown in abbreviated form, unless
--no-elide is used. (experimental)
- o Average and/or total columns can be added with the -A/--average and
+ o Average and/or total columns can be added with the -A/--average and
-T/--row-total flags.
o The --transpose flag can be used to exchange rows and columns.
- o The --pivot FIELD option causes a different transaction field to be
+ o The --pivot FIELD option causes a different transaction field to be
used as "account name". See PIVOTING.
Multi-period reports with many periods can be too wide for easy viewing
@@ -1991,29 +1980,29 @@ COMMANDS
o Reduce the terminal's font size
- o View with a pager like less, eg: hledger bal -D --color=yes | less
+ o View with a pager like less, eg: hledger bal -D --color=yes | less
-RS
- o Output as CSV and use a CSV viewer like visidata (hledger bal -D -O
- csv | vd -f csv), Emacs' csv-mode (M-x csv-mode, C-c C-a), or a
+ o Output as CSV and use a CSV viewer like visidata (hledger bal -D -O
+ csv | vd -f csv), Emacs' csv-mode (M-x csv-mode, C-c C-a), or a
spreadsheet (hledger bal -D -o a.csv && open a.csv)
- o Output as HTML and view with a browser: hledger bal -D -o a.html &&
+ o Output as HTML and view with a browser: hledger bal -D -o a.html &&
open a.html
Sorting by amount
- With -S/--sort-amount, accounts with the largest (most positive) bal-
- ances are shown first. Eg: hledger bal expenses -MAS shows your big-
+ With -S/--sort-amount, accounts with the largest (most positive) bal-
+ ances are shown first. Eg: hledger bal expenses -MAS shows your big-
gest averaged monthly expenses first.
- Revenues and liability balances are typically negative, however, so -S
- shows these in reverse order. To work around this, you can add
- --invert to flip the signs. (Or, use one of the higher-level reports,
- which flip the sign automatically. Eg: hledger incomestatement -MAS).
+ Revenues and liability balances are typically negative, however, so -S
+ shows these in reverse order. To work around this, you can add
+ --invert to flip the signs. (Or, use one of the higher-level reports,
+ which flip the sign automatically. Eg: hledger incomestatement -MAS).
Percentages
- With -%/--percent, balance reports show each account's value expressed
+ With -%/--percent, balance reports show each account's value expressed
as a percentage of the (column) total:
$ hledger bal expenses -Q -%
@@ -2027,62 +2016,62 @@ COMMANDS
|| 0 100.0 % 0 0
Note it is not useful to calculate percentages if the amounts in a col-
- umn have mixed signs. In this case, make a separate report for each
+ umn have mixed signs. In this case, make a separate report for each
sign, eg:
$ hledger bal -% amt:`>0`
$ hledger bal -% amt:`<0`
- Similarly, if the amounts in a column have mixed commodities, convert
- them to one commodity with -B, -V, -X or --value, or make a separate
+ Similarly, if the amounts in a column have mixed commodities, convert
+ them to one commodity with -B, -V, -X or --value, or make a separate
report for each commodity:
$ hledger bal -% cur:\\$
$ hledger bal -% cur:EUR
Balance change, end balance
- It's important to be clear on the meaning of the numbers shown in bal-
+ It's important to be clear on the meaning of the numbers shown in bal-
ance reports. Here is some terminology we use:
- A balance change is the net amount added to, or removed from, an
+ A balance change is the net amount added to, or removed from, an
account during some period.
- An end balance is the amount accumulated in an account as of some date
- (and some time, but hledger doesn't store that; assume end of day in
+ An end balance is the amount accumulated in an account as of some date
+ (and some time, but hledger doesn't store that; assume end of day in
your timezone). It is the sum of previous balance changes.
- We call it a historical end balance if it includes all balance changes
+ We call it a historical end balance if it includes all balance changes
since the account was created. For a real world account, this means it
- will match the "historical record", eg the balances reported in your
+ will match the "historical record", eg the balances reported in your
bank statements or bank web UI. (If they are correct!)
- In general, balance changes are what you want to see when reviewing
+ In general, balance changes are what you want to see when reviewing
revenues and expenses, and historical end balances are what you want to
see when reviewing or reconciling asset, liability and equity accounts.
- balance shows balance changes by default. To see accurate historical
+ balance shows balance changes by default. To see accurate historical
end balances:
- 1. Initialise account starting balances with an "opening balances"
- transaction (a transfer from equity to the account), unless the
+ 1. Initialise account starting balances with an "opening balances"
+ transaction (a transfer from equity to the account), unless the
journal covers the account's full lifetime.
2. Include all of of the account's prior postings in the report, by not
- specifying a report start date, or by using the -H/--historical
+ specifying a report start date, or by using the -H/--historical
flag. (-H causes report start date to be ignored when summing post-
ings.)
Balance report types
For more flexible reporting, there are three important option groups:
- hledger balance [CALCULATIONTYPE] [ACCUMULATIONTYPE] [VALUATIONTYPE]
+ hledger balance [CALCULATIONTYPE] [ACCUMULATIONTYPE] [VALUATIONTYPE]
...
- The first two are the most important: calculation type selects the
- basic calculation to perform for each table cell, while accumulation
+ The first two are the most important: calculation type selects the
+ basic calculation to perform for each table cell, while accumulation
type says which postings should be included in each cell's calculation.
- Typically one or both of these are selected by default, so you don't
- need to write them explicitly. A valuation type can be added if you
+ Typically one or both of these are selected by default, so you don't
+ need to write them explicitly. A valuation type can be added if you
want to convert the basic report to value or cost.
Calculation type:
@@ -2096,20 +2085,20 @@ COMMANDS
ues
Accumulation type:
- Which postings should be included in each cell's calculation. It is
+ Which postings should be included in each cell's calculation. It is
one of:
- o --change : postings from column start to column end, ie within the
- cell's period. Typically used to see revenues/expenses. (default
+ o --change : postings from column start to column end, ie within the
+ cell's period. Typically used to see revenues/expenses. (default
for balance, incomestatement)
- o --cumulative : postings from report start to column end, eg to show
+ o --cumulative : postings from report start to column end, eg to show
changes accumulated since the report's start date. Rarely used.
- o --historical/-H : postings from journal start to column end, ie all
+ o --historical/-H : postings from journal start to column end, ie all
postings from account creation to the end of the cell's period. Typ-
ically used to see historical end balances of assets/liabili-
- ties/equity. (default for balancesheet, balancesheetequity, cash-
+ ties/equity. (default for balancesheet, balancesheetequity, cash-
flow)
Valuation type:
@@ -2122,7 +2111,7 @@ COMMANDS
o --value=then[,COMM] : show value at transaction dates
- o --value=end[,COMM] : show value at period end date(s) (default with
+ o --value=end[,COMM] : show value at period end date(s) (default with
--valuechange)
o --value=now[,COMM] : show value at today's date
@@ -2131,13 +2120,13 @@ COMMANDS
or one of their aliases: --cost/-B, --market/-V or --exchange/-X.
- Most combinations of these options should produce reasonable reports,
- but if you find any that seem wrong or misleading, let us know. The
+ Most combinations of these options should produce reasonable reports,
+ but if you find any that seem wrong or misleading, let us know. The
following restrictions are applied:
o --valuechange implies --value=end
- o --valuechange makes --change the default when used with the bal-
+ o --valuechange makes --change the default when used with the bal-
ancesheet/balancesheetequity commands
o --cumulative or --historical disables --row-total/-T
@@ -2152,17 +2141,20 @@ COMMANDS
lation:
v
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+
+
--change change in period sum of posting- period-end DATE-value of
- date market val- value of change change in
+ date market val- value of change change in
ues in period in period period
--cumu- change from sum of posting- period-end DATE-value of
- lative report start to date market val- value of change change from
+ lative report start to date market val- value of change change from
period end ues from report from report report start
start to period start to period to period end
end end
--his- change from sum of posting- period-end DATE-value of
- torical journal start to date market val- value of change change from
- /-H period end (his- ues from journal from journal journal start
+ torical journal start to date market val- value of change change from
+ /-H period end (his- ues from journal from journal journal start
torical end bal- start to period start to period to period end
ance) end end
@@ -2170,25 +2162,25 @@ COMMANDS
Some frequently used balance options/reports are:
o bal -M revenues expenses
- Show revenues/expenses in each month. Also available as the incomes-
+ Show revenues/expenses in each month. Also available as the incomes-
tatement command.
o bal -M -H assets liabilities
- Show historical asset/liability balances at each month end. Also
+ Show historical asset/liability balances at each month end. Also
available as the balancesheet command.
o bal -M -H assets liabilities equity
- Show historical asset/liability/equity balances at each month end.
+ Show historical asset/liability/equity balances at each month end.
Also available as the balancesheetequity command.
o bal -M assets not:receivable
- Show changes to liquid assets in each month. Also available as the
+ Show changes to liquid assets in each month. Also available as the
cashflow command.
Also:
o bal -M expenses -2 -SA
- Show monthly expenses summarised to depth 2 and sorted by average
+ Show monthly expenses summarised to depth 2 and sorted by average
amount.
o bal -M --budget expenses
@@ -2202,12 +2194,12 @@ COMMANDS
Show top gainers [or losers] last week
Budget report
- The --budget report type activates extra columns showing any budget
- goals for each account and period. The budget goals are defined by
- periodic transactions. This is very useful for comparing planned and
+ The --budget report type activates extra columns showing any budget
+ goals for each account and period. The budget goals are defined by
+ periodic transactions. This is very useful for comparing planned and
actual income, expenses, time usage, etc.
- For example, you can take average monthly expenses in the common
+ For example, you can take average monthly expenses in the common
expense categories to construct a minimal monthly budget:
;; Budget
@@ -2254,26 +2246,26 @@ COMMANDS
This is different from a normal balance report in several ways:
- o Only accounts with budget goals during the report period are shown,
+ o Only accounts with budget goals during the report period are shown,
by default.
- o In each column, in square brackets after the actual amount, budget
- goal amounts are shown, and the actual/goal percentage. (Note: bud-
+ o In each column, in square brackets after the actual amount, budget
+ goal amounts are shown, and the actual/goal percentage. (Note: bud-
get goals should be in the same commodity as the actual amount.)
- o All parent accounts are always shown, even in list mode. Eg assets,
+ o All parent accounts are always shown, even in list mode. Eg assets,
assets:bank, and expenses above.
- o Amounts always include all subaccounts, budgeted or unbudgeted, even
+ o Amounts always include all subaccounts, budgeted or unbudgeted, even
in list mode.
This means that the numbers displayed will not always add up! Eg above,
- the expenses actual amount includes the gifts and supplies transac-
- tions, but the expenses:gifts and expenses:supplies accounts are not
+ the expenses actual amount includes the gifts and supplies transac-
+ tions, but the expenses:gifts and expenses:supplies accounts are not
shown, as they have no budget amounts declared.
- This can be confusing. When you need to make things clearer, use the
- -E/--empty flag, which will reveal all accounts including unbudgeted
+ This can be confusing. When you need to make things clearer, use the
+ -E/--empty flag, which will reveal all accounts including unbudgeted
ones, giving the full picture. Eg:
$ hledger balance -M --budget --empty
@@ -2315,12 +2307,12 @@ COMMANDS
For more examples and notes, see Budgeting.
Budget report start date
- This might be a bug, but for now: when making budget reports, it's a
+ This might be a bug, but for now: when making budget reports, it's a
good idea to explicitly set the report's start date to the first day of
- a reporting period, because a periodic rule like ~ monthly generates
- its transactions on the 1st of each month, and if your journal has no
- regular transactions on the 1st, the default report start date could
- exclude that budget goal, which can be a little surprising. Eg here
+ a reporting period, because a periodic rule like ~ monthly generates
+ its transactions on the 1st of each month, and if your journal has no
+ regular transactions on the 1st, the default report start date could
+ exclude that budget goal, which can be a little surprising. Eg here
the default report period is just the day of 2020-01-15:
~ monthly in 2020
@@ -2339,9 +2331,9 @@ COMMANDS
--------------++------------
|| $400
- To avoid this, specify the budget report's period, or at least the
- start date, with -b/-e/-p/date:, to ensure it includes the budget goal
- transactions (periodic transactions) that you want. Eg, adding -b
+ To avoid this, specify the budget report's period, or at least the
+ start date, with -b/-e/-p/date:, to ensure it includes the budget goal
+ transactions (periodic transactions) that you want. Eg, adding -b
2020/1/1 to the above:
$ hledger bal expenses --budget -b 2020/1/1
@@ -2354,12 +2346,12 @@ COMMANDS
|| $400 [80% of $500]
Nested budgets
- You can add budgets to any account in your account hierarchy. If you
+ You can add budgets to any account in your account hierarchy. If you
have budgets on both parent account and some of its children, then bud-
- get(s) of the child account(s) would be added to the budget of their
+ get(s) of the child account(s) would be added to the budget of their
parent, much like account balances behave.
- In the most simple case this means that once you add a budget to any
+ In the most simple case this means that once you add a budget to any
account, all its parents would have budget as well.
To illustrate this, consider the following budget:
@@ -2369,13 +2361,13 @@ COMMANDS
expenses:personal:electronics $100.00
liabilities
- With this, monthly budget for electronics is defined to be $100 and
- budget for personal expenses is an additional $1000, which implicitly
+ With this, monthly budget for electronics is defined to be $100 and
+ budget for personal expenses is an additional $1000, which implicitly
means that budget for both expenses:personal and expenses is $1100.
- Transactions in expenses:personal:electronics will be counted both
- towards its $100 budget and $1100 of expenses:personal , and transac-
- tions in any other subaccount of expenses:personal would be counted
+ Transactions in expenses:personal:electronics will be counted both
+ towards its $100 budget and $1100 of expenses:personal , and transac-
+ tions in any other subaccount of expenses:personal would be counted
towards only towards the budget of expenses:personal.
For example, let's consider these transactions:
@@ -2401,9 +2393,9 @@ COMMANDS
expenses:personal $30.00
liabilities
- As you can see, we have transactions in expenses:personal:electron-
- ics:upgrades and expenses:personal:train tickets, and since both of
- these accounts are without explicitly defined budget, these transac-
+ As you can see, we have transactions in expenses:personal:electron-
+ ics:upgrades and expenses:personal:train tickets, and since both of
+ these accounts are without explicitly defined budget, these transac-
tions would be counted towards budgets of expenses:personal:electronics
and expenses:personal accordingly:
@@ -2419,7 +2411,7 @@ COMMANDS
-------------------------------++-------------------------------
|| 0 [ 0]
- And with --empty, we can get a better picture of budget allocation and
+ And with --empty, we can get a better picture of budget allocation and
consumption:
$ hledger balance --budget -M --empty
@@ -2438,7 +2430,7 @@ COMMANDS
Customising single-period balance reports
For single-period balance reports displayed in the terminal (only), you
- can use --format FMT to customise the format and content of each line.
+ can use --format FMT to customise the format and content of each line.
Eg:
$ hledger balance --format "%20(account) %12(total)"
@@ -2456,7 +2448,7 @@ COMMANDS
0
The FMT format string (plus a newline) specifies the formatting applied
- to each account/balance pair. It may contain any suitable text, with
+ to each account/balance pair. It may contain any suitable text, with
data fields interpolated like so:
%[MIN][.MAX](FIELDNAME)
@@ -2467,14 +2459,14 @@ COMMANDS
o FIELDNAME must be enclosed in parentheses, and can be one of:
- o depth_spacer - a number of spaces equal to the account's depth, or
+ o depth_spacer - a number of spaces equal to the account's depth, or
if MIN is specified, MIN * depth spaces.
o account - the account's name
o total - the account's balance/posted total, right justified
- Also, FMT can begin with an optional prefix to control how multi-com-
+ Also, FMT can begin with an optional prefix to control how multi-com-
modity amounts are rendered:
o %_ - render on multiple lines, bottom-aligned (the default)
@@ -2483,34 +2475,34 @@ COMMANDS
o %, - render on one line, comma-separated
- There are some quirks. Eg in one-line mode, %(depth_spacer) has no
- effect, instead %(account) has indentation built in. Experimentation
+ There are some quirks. Eg in one-line mode, %(depth_spacer) has no
+ effect, instead %(account) has indentation built in. Experimentation
may be needed to get pleasing results.
Some example formats:
o %(total) - the account's total
- o %-20.20(account) - the account's name, left justified, padded to 20
+ o %-20.20(account) - the account's name, left justified, padded to 20
characters and clipped at 20 characters
- o %,%-50(account) %25(total) - account name padded to 50 characters,
- total padded to 20 characters, with multiple commodities rendered on
+ o %,%-50(account) %25(total) - account name padded to 50 characters,
+ total padded to 20 characters, with multiple commodities rendered on
one line
- o %20(total) %2(depth_spacer)%-(account) - the default format for the
+ o %20(total) %2(depth_spacer)%-(account) - the default format for the
single-column balance report
balancesheet
balancesheet, bs
- This command displays a balance sheet, showing historical ending bal-
+ This command displays a balance sheet, showing historical ending bal-
ances of asset and liability accounts. (To see equity as well, use the
- balancesheetequity command.) Amounts are shown with normal positive
+ balancesheetequity command.) Amounts are shown with normal positive
sign, as in conventional financial statements.
The asset and liability accounts shown are those accounts declared with
- the Asset or Cash or Liability type, or otherwise all accounts under a
- top-level asset or liability account (case insensitive, plurals
+ the Asset or Cash or Liability type, or otherwise all accounts under a
+ top-level asset or liability account (case insensitive, plurals
allowed).
Example:
@@ -2535,23 +2527,23 @@ COMMANDS
0
This command is a higher-level variant of the balance command, and sup-
- ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
- It is similar to hledger balance -H assets liabilities, but with
- smarter account detection, and liabilities displayed with their sign
+ ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
+ It is similar to hledger balance -H assets liabilities, but with
+ smarter account detection, and liabilities displayed with their sign
flipped.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
mental) json.
balancesheetequity
balancesheetequity, bse
- This command displays a balance sheet, showing historical ending bal-
- ances of asset, liability and equity accounts. Amounts are shown with
+ This command displays a balance sheet, showing historical ending bal-
+ ances of asset, liability and equity accounts. Amounts are shown with
normal positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
- The asset, liability and equity accounts shown are those accounts
- declared with the Asset, Cash, Liability or Equity type, or otherwise
+ The asset, liability and equity accounts shown are those accounts
+ declared with the Asset, Cash, Liability or Equity type, or otherwise
all accounts under a top-level asset, liability or equity account (case
insensitive, plurals allowed).
@@ -2582,24 +2574,24 @@ COMMANDS
0
This command is a higher-level variant of the balance command, and sup-
- ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
+ ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
It is similar to hledger balance -H assets liabilities equity, but with
- smarter account detection, and liabilities/equity displayed with their
+ smarter account detection, and liabilities/equity displayed with their
sign flipped.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
mental) json.
cashflow
cashflow, cf
- This command displays a cashflow statement, showing the inflows and
- outflows affecting "cash" (ie, liquid) assets. Amounts are shown with
+ This command displays a cashflow statement, showing the inflows and
+ outflows affecting "cash" (ie, liquid) assets. Amounts are shown with
normal positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
- The "cash" accounts shown are those accounts declared with the Cash
- type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-level asset account (case
- insensitive, plural allowed) which do not have fixed, investment,
+ The "cash" accounts shown are those accounts declared with the Cash
+ type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-level asset account (case
+ insensitive, plural allowed) which do not have fixed, investment,
receivable or A/R in their name.
Example:
@@ -2619,22 +2611,22 @@ COMMANDS
$-1
This command is a higher-level variant of the balance command, and sup-
- ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
- It is similar to hledger balance assets not:fixed not:investment
+ ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
+ It is similar to hledger balance assets not:fixed not:investment
not:receivable, but with smarter account detection.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
mental) json.
check
check
Check for various kinds of errors in your data.
- hledger provides a number of built-in error checks to help prevent
- problems in your data. Some of these are run automatically; or, you
- can use this check command to run them on demand, with no output and a
- zero exit code if all is well. Specify their names (or a prefix) as
+ hledger provides a number of built-in error checks to help prevent
+ problems in your data. Some of these are run automatically; or, you
+ can use this check command to run them on demand, with no output and a
+ zero exit code if all is well. Specify their names (or a prefix) as
argument(s).
Some examples:
@@ -2652,27 +2644,27 @@ COMMANDS
o parseable - data files are well-formed and can be successfully parsed
o balancedwithautoconversion - all transactions are balanced, inferring
- missing amounts where necessary, and possibly converting commodities
+ missing amounts where necessary, and possibly converting commodities
using transaction prices or automatically-inferred transaction prices
- o assertions - all balance assertions in the journal are passing.
+ o assertions - all balance assertions in the journal are passing.
(This check can be disabled with -I/--ignore-assertions.)
Strict checks
These additional checks are run when the -s/--strict (strict mode) flag
- is used. Or, they can be run by giving their names as arguments to
+ is used. Or, they can be run by giving their names as arguments to
check:
o accounts - all account names used by transactions have been declared
o commodities - all commodity symbols used have been declared
- o balancednoautoconversion - transactions are balanced, possibly using
+ o balancednoautoconversion - transactions are balanced, possibly using
explicit transaction prices but not inferred ones
Other checks
- These checks can be run only by giving their names as arguments to
- check. They are more specialised and not desirable for everyone,
+ These checks can be run only by giving their names as arguments to
+ check. They are more specialised and not desirable for everyone,
therefore optional:
o ordereddates - transactions are ordered by date within each file
@@ -2682,13 +2674,13 @@ COMMANDS
o uniqueleafnames - all account leaf names are unique
Custom checks
- A few more checks are are available as separate add-on commands, in
+ A few more checks are are available as separate add-on commands, in
https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/tree/master/bin:
- o hledger-check-tagfiles - all tag values containing / (a forward
+ o hledger-check-tagfiles - all tag values containing / (a forward
slash) exist as file paths
- o hledger-check-fancyassertions - more complex balance assertions are
+ o hledger-check-fancyassertions - more complex balance assertions are
passing
You could make similar scripts to perform your own custom checks. See:
@@ -2696,64 +2688,64 @@ COMMANDS
close
close, equity
- Prints a "closing balances" transaction and an "opening balances"
+ Prints a "closing balances" transaction and an "opening balances"
transaction that bring account balances to and from zero, respectively.
These can be added to your journal file(s), eg to bring asset/liability
- balances forward into a new journal file, or to close out rev-
+ balances forward into a new journal file, or to close out rev-
enues/expenses to retained earnings at the end of a period.
- You can print just one of these transactions by using the --close or
- --open flag. You can customise their descriptions with the --close-
+ You can print just one of these transactions by using the --close or
+ --open flag. You can customise their descriptions with the --close-
desc and --open-desc options.
One amountless posting to "equity:opening/closing balances" is added to
- balance the transactions, by default. You can customise this account
- name with --close-acct and --open-acct; if you specify only one of
+ balance the transactions, by default. You can customise this account
+ name with --close-acct and --open-acct; if you specify only one of
these, it will be used for both.
With --x/--explicit, the equity posting's amount will be shown. And if
- it involves multiple commodities, a posting for each commodity will be
+ it involves multiple commodities, a posting for each commodity will be
shown, as with the print command.
- With --interleaved, the equity postings are shown next to the postings
+ With --interleaved, the equity postings are shown next to the postings
they balance, which makes troubleshooting easier.
By default, transaction prices in the journal are ignored when generat-
- ing the closing/opening transactions. With --show-costs, this cost
- information is preserved (balance -B reports will be unchanged after
+ ing the closing/opening transactions. With --show-costs, this cost
+ information is preserved (balance -B reports will be unchanged after
the transition). Separate postings are generated for each cost in each
- commodity. Note this can generate very large journal entries, if you
+ commodity. Note this can generate very large journal entries, if you
have many foreign currency or investment transactions.
close usage
If you split your journal files by time (eg yearly), you will typically
- run this command at the end of the year, and save the closing transac-
- tion as last entry of the old file, and the opening transaction as the
- first entry of the new file. This makes the files self contained, so
- that correct balances are reported no matter which of them are loaded.
- Ie, if you load just one file, the balances are initialised correctly;
- or if you load several files, the redundant closing/opening transac-
- tions cancel each other out. (They will show up in print or register
- reports; you can exclude them with a query like not:desc:'(open-
+ run this command at the end of the year, and save the closing transac-
+ tion as last entry of the old file, and the opening transaction as the
+ first entry of the new file. This makes the files self contained, so
+ that correct balances are reported no matter which of them are loaded.
+ Ie, if you load just one file, the balances are initialised correctly;
+ or if you load several files, the redundant closing/opening transac-
+ tions cancel each other out. (They will show up in print or register
+ reports; you can exclude them with a query like not:desc:'(open-
ing|closing) balances'.)
If you're running a business, you might also use this command to "close
- the books" at the end of an accounting period, transferring income
- statement account balances to retained earnings. (You may want to
+ the books" at the end of an accounting period, transferring income
+ statement account balances to retained earnings. (You may want to
change the equity account name to something like "equity:retained earn-
ings".)
- By default, the closing transaction is dated yesterday, the balances
- are calculated as of end of yesterday, and the opening transaction is
- dated today. To close on some other date, use: hledger close -e OPEN-
- INGDATE. Eg, to close/open on the 2018/2019 boundary, use -e 2019.
+ By default, the closing transaction is dated yesterday, the balances
+ are calculated as of end of yesterday, and the opening transaction is
+ dated today. To close on some other date, use: hledger close -e OPEN-
+ INGDATE. Eg, to close/open on the 2018/2019 boundary, use -e 2019.
You can also use -p or date:PERIOD (any starting date is ignored).
Both transactions will include balance assertions for the
- closed/reopened accounts. You probably shouldn't use status or real-
- ness filters (like -C or -R or status:) with this command, or the gen-
+ closed/reopened accounts. You probably shouldn't use status or real-
+ ness filters (like -C or -R or status:) with this command, or the gen-
erated balance assertions will depend on these flags. Likewise, if you
- run this command with --auto, the balance assertions will probably
+ run this command with --auto, the balance assertions will probably
always require --auto.
Examples:
@@ -2794,13 +2786,13 @@ COMMANDS
codes
List the codes seen in transactions, in the order parsed.
- This command prints the value of each transaction's code field, in the
- order transactions were parsed. The transaction code is an optional
- value written in parentheses between the date and description, often
+ This command prints the value of each transaction's code field, in the
+ order transactions were parsed. The transaction code is an optional
+ value written in parentheses between the date and description, often
used to store a cheque number, order number or similar.
Transactions aren't required to have a code, and missing or empty codes
- will not be shown by default. With the -E/--empty flag, they will be
+ will not be shown by default. With the -E/--empty flag, they will be
printed as blank lines.
You can add a query to select a subset of transactions.
@@ -2840,7 +2832,7 @@ COMMANDS
List the unique descriptions that appear in transactions.
This command lists the unique descriptions that appear in transactions,
- in alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of trans-
+ in alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of trans-
actions.
Example:
@@ -2852,18 +2844,18 @@ COMMANDS
diff
diff
- Compares a particular account's transactions in two input files. It
+ Compares a particular account's transactions in two input files. It
shows any transactions to this account which are in one file but not in
the other.
More precisely, for each posting affecting this account in either file,
- it looks for a corresponding posting in the other file which posts the
- same amount to the same account (ignoring date, description, etc.)
+ it looks for a corresponding posting in the other file which posts the
+ same amount to the same account (ignoring date, description, etc.)
Since postings not transactions are compared, this also works when mul-
tiple bank transactions have been combined into a single journal entry.
This is useful eg if you have downloaded an account's transactions from
- your bank (eg as CSV data). When hledger and your bank disagree about
+ your bank (eg as CSV data). When hledger and your bank disagree about
the account balance, you can compare the bank data with your journal to
find out the cause.
@@ -2881,18 +2873,18 @@ COMMANDS
files
files
- List all files included in the journal. With a REGEX argument, only
- file names matching the regular expression (case sensitive) are shown.
+ List all files included in the journal. With a REGEX argument, only
+ file names matching the regular expression (case sensitive) are shown.
help
help
- Show the hledger user manual in one of several formats, optionally
- positioned at a given TOPIC (if possible). TOPIC is any heading, or
- heading prefix, in the manual. Some examples: commands, print, 'auto
+ Show the hledger user manual in one of several formats, optionally
+ positioned at a given TOPIC (if possible). TOPIC is any heading, or
+ heading prefix, in the manual. Some examples: commands, print, 'auto
postings', periodic.
- This command shows the user manual built in to this hledger version.
- It can be useful if the correct version of the hledger manual, or the
+ This command shows the user manual built in to this hledger version.
+ It can be useful if the correct version of the hledger manual, or the
usual viewing tools, are not installed on your system.
By default it uses the best viewer it can find in $PATH, in this order:
@@ -2902,66 +2894,66 @@ COMMANDS
import
import
- Read new transactions added to each FILE since last run, and add them
- to the main journal file. Or with --dry-run, just print the transac-
- tions that would be added. Or with --catchup, just mark all of the
+ Read new transactions added to each FILE since last run, and add them
+ to the main journal file. Or with --dry-run, just print the transac-
+ tions that would be added. Or with --catchup, just mark all of the
FILEs' transactions as imported, without actually importing any.
- Unlike other hledger commands, with import the journal file is an out-
+ Unlike other hledger commands, with import the journal file is an out-
put file, and will be modified, though only by appending (existing data
- will not be changed). The input files are specified as arguments, so
- to import one or more CSV files to your main journal, you will run
+ will not be changed). The input files are specified as arguments, so
+ to import one or more CSV files to your main journal, you will run
hledger import bank.csv or perhaps hledger import *.csv.
Note you can import from any file format, though CSV files are the most
common import source, and these docs focus on that case.
Deduplication
- As a convenience import does deduplication while reading transactions.
+ As a convenience import does deduplication while reading transactions.
This does not mean "ignore transactions that look the same", but rather
"ignore transactions that have been seen before". This is intended for
- when you are periodically importing foreign data which may contain
- already-imported transactions. So eg, if every day you download bank
- CSV files containing redundant data, you can safely run hledger import
- bank.csv and only new transactions will be imported. (import is idem-
+ when you are periodically importing foreign data which may contain
+ already-imported transactions. So eg, if every day you download bank
+ CSV files containing redundant data, you can safely run hledger import
+ bank.csv and only new transactions will be imported. (import is idem-
potent.)
- Since the items being read (CSV records, eg) often do not come with
- unique identifiers, hledger detects new transactions by date, assuming
+ Since the items being read (CSV records, eg) often do not come with
+ unique identifiers, hledger detects new transactions by date, assuming
that:
1. new items always have the newest dates
2. item dates do not change across reads
- 3. and items with the same date remain in the same relative order
+ 3. and items with the same date remain in the same relative order
across reads.
- These are often true of CSV files representing transactions, or true
- enough so that it works pretty well in practice. 1 is important, but
+ These are often true of CSV files representing transactions, or true
+ enough so that it works pretty well in practice. 1 is important, but
violations of 2 and 3 amongst the old transactions won't matter (and if
- you import often, the new transactions will be few, so less likely to
+ you import often, the new transactions will be few, so less likely to
be the ones affected).
- hledger remembers the latest date processed in each input file by sav-
+ hledger remembers the latest date processed in each input file by sav-
ing a hidden ".latest" state file in the same directory. Eg when read-
- ing finance/bank.csv, it will look for and update the finance/.lat-
- est.bank.csv state file. The format is simple: one or more lines con-
- taining the same ISO-format date (YYYY-MM-DD), meaning "I have pro-
- cessed transactions up to this date, and this many of them on that
+ ing finance/bank.csv, it will look for and update the finance/.lat-
+ est.bank.csv state file. The format is simple: one or more lines con-
+ taining the same ISO-format date (YYYY-MM-DD), meaning "I have pro-
+ cessed transactions up to this date, and this many of them on that
date." Normally you won't see or manipulate these state files yourself.
- But if needed, you can delete them to reset the state (making all
- transactions "new"), or you can construct them to "catch up" to a cer-
+ But if needed, you can delete them to reset the state (making all
+ transactions "new"), or you can construct them to "catch up" to a cer-
tain date.
- Note deduplication (and updating of state files) can also be done by
+ Note deduplication (and updating of state files) can also be done by
print --new, but this is less often used.
Import testing
- With --dry-run, the transactions that will be imported are printed to
+ With --dry-run, the transactions that will be imported are printed to
the terminal, without updating your journal or state files. The output
- is valid journal format, like the print command, so you can re-parse
- it. Eg, to see any importable transactions which CSV rules have not
+ is valid journal format, like the print command, so you can re-parse
+ it. Eg, to see any importable transactions which CSV rules have not
categorised:
$ hledger import --dry bank.csv | hledger -f- -I print unknown
@@ -2971,17 +2963,17 @@ COMMANDS
$ ls bank.csv* | entr bash -c 'echo ====; hledger import --dry bank.csv | hledger -f- -I print unknown'
Importing balance assignments
- Entries added by import will have their posting amounts made explicit
- (like hledger print -x). This means that any balance assignments in
- imported files must be evaluated; but, imported files don't get to see
- the main file's account balances. As a result, importing entries with
+ Entries added by import will have their posting amounts made explicit
+ (like hledger print -x). This means that any balance assignments in
+ imported files must be evaluated; but, imported files don't get to see
+ the main file's account balances. As a result, importing entries with
balance assignments (eg from an institution that provides only balances
- and not posting amounts) will probably generate incorrect posting
+ and not posting amounts) will probably generate incorrect posting
amounts. To avoid this problem, use print instead of import:
$ hledger print IMPORTFILE [--new] >> $LEDGER_FILE
- (If you think import should leave amounts implicit like print does,
+ (If you think import should leave amounts implicit like print does,
please test it and send a pull request.)
Commodity display styles
@@ -2992,12 +2984,12 @@ COMMANDS
incomestatement, is
This command displays an income statement, showing revenues and
- expenses during one or more periods. Amounts are shown with normal
+ expenses during one or more periods. Amounts are shown with normal
positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
The revenue and expense accounts shown are those accounts declared with
- the Revenue or Expense type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-
- level revenue or income or expense account (case insensitive, plurals
+ the Revenue or Expense type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-
+ level revenue or income or expense account (case insensitive, plurals
allowed).
Example:
@@ -3024,22 +3016,22 @@ COMMANDS
0
This command is a higher-level variant of the balance command, and sup-
- ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
+ ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
It is similar to hledger balance '(revenues|income)' expenses, but with
- smarter account detection, and revenues/income displayed with their
+ smarter account detection, and revenues/income displayed with their
sign flipped.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
mental) json.
notes
notes
List the unique notes that appear in transactions.
- This command lists the unique notes that appear in transactions, in
- alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of transac-
- tions. The note is the part of the transaction description after a |
+ This command lists the unique notes that appear in transactions, in
+ alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of transac-
+ tions. The note is the part of the transaction description after a |
character (or if there is no |, the whole description).
Example:
@@ -3052,14 +3044,14 @@ COMMANDS
payees
List the unique payee/payer names that appear in transactions.
- This command lists unique payee/payer names which have been declared
- with payee directives (--declared), used in transaction descriptions
+ This command lists unique payee/payer names which have been declared
+ with payee directives (--declared), used in transaction descriptions
(--used), or both (the default).
- The payee/payer is the part of the transaction description before a |
+ The payee/payer is the part of the transaction description before a |
character (or if there is no |, the whole description).
- You can add query arguments to select a subset of transactions. This
+ You can add query arguments to select a subset of transactions. This
implies --used.
Example:
@@ -3071,10 +3063,10 @@ COMMANDS
prices
prices
- Print market price directives from the journal. With --costs, also
- print synthetic market prices based on transaction prices. With
+ Print market price directives from the journal. With --costs, also
+ print synthetic market prices based on transaction prices. With
--inverted-costs, also print inverse prices based on transaction
- prices. Prices (and postings providing prices) can be filtered by a
+ prices. Prices (and postings providing prices) can be filtered by a
query. Price amounts are always displayed with their full precision.
print
@@ -3084,17 +3076,17 @@ COMMANDS
The print command displays full journal entries (transactions) from the
journal file, sorted by date (or with --date2, by secondary date).
- Amounts are shown mostly normalised to commodity display style, eg the
- placement of commodity symbols will be consistent. All of their deci-
+ Amounts are shown mostly normalised to commodity display style, eg the
+ placement of commodity symbols will be consistent. All of their deci-
mal places are shown, as in the original journal entry (with one alter-
ation: in some cases trailing zeroes are added.)
Amounts are shown right-aligned within each transaction (but not across
all transactions).
- Directives and inter-transaction comments are not shown, currently.
+ Directives and inter-transaction comments are not shown, currently.
This means the print command is somewhat lossy, and if you are using it
- to reformat your journal you should take care to also copy over the
+ to reformat your journal you should take care to also copy over the
directives and file-level comments.
Eg:
@@ -3121,7 +3113,7 @@ COMMANDS
liabilities:debts $1
assets:bank:checking $-1
- print's output is usually a valid hledger journal, and you can process
+ print's output is usually a valid hledger journal, and you can process
it again with a second hledger command. This can be useful for certain
kinds of search, eg:
@@ -3131,39 +3123,39 @@ COMMANDS
There are some situations where print's output can become unparseable:
- o Valuation affects posting amounts but not balance assertion or bal-
+ o Valuation affects posting amounts but not balance assertion or bal-
ance assignment amounts, potentially causing those to fail.
o Auto postings can generate postings with too many missing amounts.
Normally, the journal entry's explicit or implicit amount style is pre-
served. For example, when an amount is omitted in the journal, it will
- not appear in the output. Similarly, when a transaction price is
+ not appear in the output. Similarly, when a transaction price is
implied but not written, it will not appear in the output. You can use
- the -x/--explicit flag to make all amounts and transaction prices
- explicit, which can be useful for troubleshooting or for making your
+ the -x/--explicit flag to make all amounts and transaction prices
+ explicit, which can be useful for troubleshooting or for making your
journal more readable and robust against data entry errors. -x is also
implied by using any of -B,-V,-X,--value.
- Note, -x/--explicit will cause postings with a multi-commodity amount
- (these can arise when a multi-commodity transaction has an implicit
- amount) to be split into multiple single-commodity postings, keeping
+ Note, -x/--explicit will cause postings with a multi-commodity amount
+ (these can arise when a multi-commodity transaction has an implicit
+ amount) to be split into multiple single-commodity postings, keeping
the output parseable.
- With -B/--cost, amounts with transaction prices are converted to cost
+ With -B/--cost, amounts with transaction prices are converted to cost
using that price. This can be used for troubleshooting.
- With -m/--match and a STR argument, print will show at most one trans-
- action: the one one whose description is most similar to STR, and is
- most recent. STR should contain at least two characters. If there is
+ With -m/--match and a STR argument, print will show at most one trans-
+ action: the one one whose description is most similar to STR, and is
+ most recent. STR should contain at least two characters. If there is
no similar-enough match, no transaction will be shown.
- With --new, hledger prints only transactions it has not seen on a pre-
- vious run. This uses the same deduplication system as the import com-
+ With --new, hledger prints only transactions it has not seen on a pre-
+ vious run. This uses the same deduplication system as the import com-
mand. (See import's docs for details.)
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and (experimental)
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and (experimental)
json and sql.
Here's an example of print's CSV output:
@@ -3182,20 +3174,20 @@ COMMANDS
"5","2008/12/31","","*","","pay off","","liabilities:debts","1","$","","1","",""
"5","2008/12/31","","*","","pay off","","assets:bank:checking","-1","$","1","","",""
- o There is one CSV record per posting, with the parent transaction's
+ o There is one CSV record per posting, with the parent transaction's
fields repeated.
o The "txnidx" (transaction index) field shows which postings belong to
- the same transaction. (This number might change if transactions are
- reordered within the file, files are parsed/included in a different
+ the same transaction. (This number might change if transactions are
+ reordered within the file, files are parsed/included in a different
order, etc.)
- o The amount is separated into "commodity" (the symbol) and "amount"
+ o The amount is separated into "commodity" (the symbol) and "amount"
(numeric quantity) fields.
o The numeric amount is repeated in either the "credit" or "debit" col-
- umn, for convenience. (Those names are not accurate in the account-
- ing sense; it just puts negative amounts under credit and zero or
+ umn, for convenience. (Those names are not accurate in the account-
+ ing sense; it just puts negative amounts under credit and zero or
greater amounts under debit.)
print-unique
@@ -3219,14 +3211,14 @@ COMMANDS
Show postings and their running total.
The register command displays matched postings, across all accounts, in
- date order, with their running total or running historical balance.
- (See also the aregister command, which shows matched transactions in a
+ date order, with their running total or running historical balance.
+ (See also the aregister command, which shows matched transactions in a
specific account.)
register normally shows line per posting, but note that multi-commodity
amounts will occupy multiple lines (one line per commodity).
- It is typically used with a query selecting a particular account, to
+ It is typically used with a query selecting a particular account, to
see that account's activity:
$ hledger register checking
@@ -3237,8 +3229,8 @@ COMMANDS
With --date2, it shows and sorts by secondary date instead.
- The --historical/-H flag adds the balance from any undisplayed prior
- postings to the running total. This is useful when you want to see
+ The --historical/-H flag adds the balance from any undisplayed prior
+ postings to the running total. This is useful when you want to see
only recent activity, with a historically accurate running balance:
$ hledger register checking -b 2008/6 --historical
@@ -3248,30 +3240,30 @@ COMMANDS
The --depth option limits the amount of sub-account detail displayed.
- The --average/-A flag shows the running average posting amount instead
+ The --average/-A flag shows the running average posting amount instead
of the running total (so, the final number displayed is the average for
- the whole report period). This flag implies --empty (see below). It
- is affected by --historical. It works best when showing just one
+ the whole report period). This flag implies --empty (see below). It
+ is affected by --historical. It works best when showing just one
account and one commodity.
- The --related/-r flag shows the other postings in the transactions of
+ The --related/-r flag shows the other postings in the transactions of
the postings which would normally be shown.
- The --invert flag negates all amounts. For example, it can be used on
+ The --invert flag negates all amounts. For example, it can be used on
an income account where amounts are normally displayed as negative num-
- bers. It's also useful to show postings on the checking account
+ bers. It's also useful to show postings on the checking account
together with the related account:
$ hledger register --related --invert assets:checking
- With a reporting interval, register shows summary postings, one per
+ With a reporting interval, register shows summary postings, one per
interval, aggregating the postings to each account:
$ hledger register --monthly income
2008/01 income:salary $-1 $-1
2008/06 income:gifts $-1 $-2
- Periods with no activity, and summary postings with a zero amount, are
+ Periods with no activity, and summary postings with a zero amount, are
not shown by default; use the --empty/-E flag to see them:
$ hledger register --monthly income -E
@@ -3288,7 +3280,7 @@ COMMANDS
2008/11 0 $-2
2008/12 0 $-2
- Often, you'll want to see just one line per interval. The --depth
+ Often, you'll want to see just one line per interval. The --depth
option helps with this, causing subaccounts to be aggregated:
$ hledger register --monthly assets --depth 1h
@@ -3296,19 +3288,19 @@ COMMANDS
2008/06 assets $-1 0
2008/12 assets $-1 $-1
- Note when using report intervals, if you specify start/end dates these
- will be adjusted outward if necessary to contain a whole number of
- intervals. This ensures that the first and last intervals are full
+ Note when using report intervals, if you specify start/end dates these
+ will be adjusted outward if necessary to contain a whole number of
+ intervals. This ensures that the first and last intervals are full
length and comparable to the others in the report.
Custom register output
- register uses the full terminal width by default, except on windows.
- You can override this by setting the COLUMNS environment variable (not
+ register uses the full terminal width by default, except on windows.
+ You can override this by setting the COLUMNS environment variable (not
a bash shell variable) or by using the --width/-w option.
- The description and account columns normally share the space equally
- (about half of (width - 40) each). You can adjust this by adding a
- description width as part of --width's argument, comma-separated:
+ The description and account columns normally share the space equally
+ (about half of (width - 40) each). You can adjust this by adding a
+ description width as part of --width's argument, comma-separated:
--width W,D . Here's a diagram (won't display correctly in --help):
<--------------------------------- width (W) ---------------------------------->
@@ -3324,28 +3316,28 @@ COMMANDS
$ hledger reg -w 100,40 # set overall width 100, description width 40
$ hledger reg -w $COLUMNS,40 # use terminal width, & description width 40
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and (experimental)
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and (experimental)
json.
register-match
register-match
Print the one posting whose transaction description is closest to DESC,
- in the style of the register command. If there are multiple equally
- good matches, it shows the most recent. Query options (options, not
- arguments) can be used to restrict the search space. Helps ledger-
+ in the style of the register command. If there are multiple equally
+ good matches, it shows the most recent. Query options (options, not
+ arguments) can be used to restrict the search space. Helps ledger-
autosync detect already-seen transactions when importing.
rewrite
rewrite
Print all transactions, rewriting the postings of matched transactions.
- For now the only rewrite available is adding new postings, like print
+ For now the only rewrite available is adding new postings, like print
--auto.
This is a start at a generic rewriter of transaction entries. It reads
- the default journal and prints the transactions, like print, but adds
+ the default journal and prints the transactions, like print, but adds
one or more specified postings to any transactions matching QUERY. The
- posting amounts can be fixed, or a multiplier of the existing transac-
+ posting amounts can be fixed, or a multiplier of the existing transac-
tion's first posting amount.
Examples:
@@ -3361,7 +3353,7 @@ COMMANDS
(reserve:grocery) *0.25 ; reserve 25% for grocery
(reserve:) *0.25 ; reserve 25% for grocery
- Note the single quotes to protect the dollar sign from bash, and the
+ Note the single quotes to protect the dollar sign from bash, and the
two spaces between account and amount.
More:
@@ -3371,16 +3363,16 @@ COMMANDS
$ hledger rewrite -- expenses:gifts --add-posting '(budget:gifts) *-1"'
$ hledger rewrite -- ^income --add-posting '(budget:foreign currency) *0.25 JPY; diversify'
- Argument for --add-posting option is a usual posting of transaction
- with an exception for amount specification. More precisely, you can
+ Argument for --add-posting option is a usual posting of transaction
+ with an exception for amount specification. More precisely, you can
use '*' (star symbol) before the amount to indicate that that this is a
- factor for an amount of original matched posting. If the amount
- includes a commodity name, the new posting amount will be in the new
- commodity; otherwise, it will be in the matched posting amount's com-
+ factor for an amount of original matched posting. If the amount
+ includes a commodity name, the new posting amount will be in the new
+ commodity; otherwise, it will be in the matched posting amount's com-
modity.
Re-write rules in a file
- During the run this tool will execute so called "Automated Transac-
+ During the run this tool will execute so called "Automated Transac-
tions" found in any journal it process. I.e instead of specifying this
operations in command line you can put them in a journal file.
@@ -3395,7 +3387,7 @@ COMMANDS
budget:gifts *-1
assets:budget *1
- Note that '=' (equality symbol) that is used instead of date in trans-
+ Note that '=' (equality symbol) that is used instead of date in trans-
actions you usually write. It indicates the query by which you want to
match the posting to add new ones.
@@ -3408,12 +3400,12 @@ COMMANDS
--add-posting 'assets:budget *1' \
> rewritten-tidy-output.journal
- It is important to understand that relative order of such entries in
- journal is important. You can re-use result of previously added post-
+ It is important to understand that relative order of such entries in
+ journal is important. You can re-use result of previously added post-
ings.
Diff output format
- To use this tool for batch modification of your journal files you may
+ To use this tool for batch modification of your journal files you may
find useful output in form of unified diff.
$ hledger rewrite -- --diff -f examples/sample.journal '^income' --add-posting '(liabilities:tax) *.33'
@@ -3437,10 +3429,10 @@ COMMANDS
If you'll pass this through patch tool you'll get transactions contain-
ing the posting that matches your query be updated. Note that multiple
- files might be update according to list of input files specified via
+ files might be update according to list of input files specified via
--file options and include directives inside of these files.
- Be careful. Whole transaction being re-formatted in a style of output
+ Be careful. Whole transaction being re-formatted in a style of output
from hledger print.
See also:
@@ -3448,54 +3440,54 @@ COMMANDS
https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/issues/99
rewrite vs. print --auto
- This command predates print --auto, and currently does much the same
+ This command predates print --auto, and currently does much the same
thing, but with these differences:
- o with multiple files, rewrite lets rules in any file affect all other
- files. print --auto uses standard directive scoping; rules affect
+ o with multiple files, rewrite lets rules in any file affect all other
+ files. print --auto uses standard directive scoping; rules affect
only child files.
- o rewrite's query limits which transactions can be rewritten; all are
+ o rewrite's query limits which transactions can be rewritten; all are
printed. print --auto's query limits which transactions are printed.
- o rewrite applies rules specified on command line or in the journal.
+ o rewrite applies rules specified on command line or in the journal.
print --auto applies rules specified in the journal.
roi
roi
- Shows the time-weighted (TWR) and money-weighted (IRR) rate of return
+ Shows the time-weighted (TWR) and money-weighted (IRR) rate of return
on your investments.
- At a minimum, you need to supply a query (which could be just an
- account name) to select your investment(s) with --inv, and another
+ At a minimum, you need to supply a query (which could be just an
+ account name) to select your investment(s) with --inv, and another
query to identify your profit and loss transactions with --pnl.
- If you do not record changes in the value of your investment manually,
- or do not require computation of time-weighted return (TWR), --pnl
+ If you do not record changes in the value of your investment manually,
+ or do not require computation of time-weighted return (TWR), --pnl
could be an empty query (--pnl "" or --pnl STR where STR does not match
any of your accounts).
- This command will compute and display the internalized rate of return
- (IRR) and time-weighted rate of return (TWR) for your investments for
- the time period requested. Both rates of return are annualized before
+ This command will compute and display the internalized rate of return
+ (IRR) and time-weighted rate of return (TWR) for your investments for
+ the time period requested. Both rates of return are annualized before
display, regardless of the length of reporting interval.
- Price directives will be taken into account if you supply appropriate
+ Price directives will be taken into account if you supply appropriate
--cost or --value flags (see VALUATION).
Note, in some cases this report can fail, for these reasons:
- o Error (NotBracketed): No solution for Internal Rate of Return (IRR).
- Possible causes: IRR is huge (>1000000%), balance of investment
+ o Error (NotBracketed): No solution for Internal Rate of Return (IRR).
+ Possible causes: IRR is huge (>1000000%), balance of investment
becomes negative at some point in time.
- o Error (SearchFailed): Failed to find solution for Internal Rate of
+ o Error (SearchFailed): Failed to find solution for Internal Rate of
Return (IRR). Either search does not converge to a solution, or con-
verges too slowly.
Examples:
- o Using roi to compute total return of investment in stocks:
+ o Using roi to compute total return of investment in stocks:
https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/blob/master/examples/roi-
unrealised.ledger
@@ -3505,27 +3497,27 @@ COMMANDS
Note that --inv and --pnl's argument is a query, and queries could have
several space-separated terms (see QUERIES).
- To indicate that all search terms form single command-line argument,
+ To indicate that all search terms form single command-line argument,
you will need to put them in quotes (see Special characters):
$ hledger roi --inv 'term1 term2 term3 ...'
- If any query terms contain spaces themselves, you will need an extra
+ If any query terms contain spaces themselves, you will need an extra
level of nested quoting, eg:
$ hledger roi --inv="'Assets:Test 1'" --pnl="'Equity:Unrealized Profit and Loss'"
Semantics of --inv and --pnl
- Query supplied to --inv has to match all transactions that are related
+ Query supplied to --inv has to match all transactions that are related
to your investment. Transactions not matching --inv will be ignored.
In these transactions, ROI will conside postings that match --inv to be
- "investment postings" and other postings (not matching --inv) will be
- sorted into two categories: "cash flow" and "profit and loss", as ROI
- needs to know which part of the investment value is your contributions
+ "investment postings" and other postings (not matching --inv) will be
+ sorted into two categories: "cash flow" and "profit and loss", as ROI
+ needs to know which part of the investment value is your contributions
and which is due to the return on investment.
- o "Cash flow" is depositing or withdrawing money, buying or selling
+ o "Cash flow" is depositing or withdrawing money, buying or selling
assets, or otherwise converting between your investment commodity and
any other commodity. Example:
@@ -3543,12 +3535,12 @@ COMMANDS
investment:snake oil = $57
equity:unrealized profit or loss
- All non-investment postings are assumed to be "cash flow", unless they
- match --pnl query. Changes in value of your investment due to "profit
- and loss" postings will be considered as part of your investment
+ All non-investment postings are assumed to be "cash flow", unless they
+ match --pnl query. Changes in value of your investment due to "profit
+ and loss" postings will be considered as part of your investment
return.
- Example: if you use --inv snake --pnl equity:unrealized, then postings
+ Example: if you use --inv snake --pnl equity:unrealized, then postings
in the example below would be classifed as:
2019-01-01 Snake Oil #1
@@ -3565,69 +3557,69 @@ COMMANDS
snake oil $50 ; investment posting
IRR and TWR explained
- "ROI" stands for "return on investment". Traditionally this was com-
- puted as a difference between current value of investment and its ini-
+ "ROI" stands for "return on investment". Traditionally this was com-
+ puted as a difference between current value of investment and its ini-
tial value, expressed in percentage of the initial value.
However, this approach is only practical in simple cases, where invest-
- ments receives no in-flows or out-flows of money, and where rate of
+ ments receives no in-flows or out-flows of money, and where rate of
growth is fixed over time. For more complex scenarios you need differ-
- ent ways to compute rate of return, and this command implements two of
+ ent ways to compute rate of return, and this command implements two of
them: IRR and TWR.
- Internal rate of return, or "IRR" (also called "money-weighted rate of
- return") takes into account effects of in-flows and out-flows.
+ Internal rate of return, or "IRR" (also called "money-weighted rate of
+ return") takes into account effects of in-flows and out-flows.
Naively, if you are withdrawing from your investment, your future gains
- would be smaller (in absolute numbers), and will be a smaller percent-
- age of your initial investment, and if you are adding to your invest-
- ment, you will receive bigger absolute gains (but probably at the same
- rate of return). IRR is a way to compute rate of return for each
+ would be smaller (in absolute numbers), and will be a smaller percent-
+ age of your initial investment, and if you are adding to your invest-
+ ment, you will receive bigger absolute gains (but probably at the same
+ rate of return). IRR is a way to compute rate of return for each
period between in-flow or out-flow of money, and then combine them in a
- way that gives you a compound annual rate of return that investment is
+ way that gives you a compound annual rate of return that investment is
expected to generate.
- As mentioned before, in-flows and out-flows would be any cash that you
+ As mentioned before, in-flows and out-flows would be any cash that you
personally put in or withdraw, and for the "roi" command, these are the
- postings that match the query in the--inv argument and NOT match the
+ postings that match the query in the--inv argument and NOT match the
query in the--pnl argument.
- If you manually record changes in the value of your investment as
- transactions that balance them against "profit and loss" (or "unreal-
- ized gains") account or use price directives, then in order for IRR to
- compute the precise effect of your in-flows and out-flows on the rate
- of return, you will need to record the value of your investement on or
+ If you manually record changes in the value of your investment as
+ transactions that balance them against "profit and loss" (or "unreal-
+ ized gains") account or use price directives, then in order for IRR to
+ compute the precise effect of your in-flows and out-flows on the rate
+ of return, you will need to record the value of your investement on or
close to the days when in- or out-flows occur.
- In technical terms, IRR uses the same approach as computation of net
+ In technical terms, IRR uses the same approach as computation of net
present value, and tries to find a discount rate that makes net present
value of all the cash flows of your investment to add up to zero. This
- could be hard to wrap your head around, especially if you haven't done
+ could be hard to wrap your head around, especially if you haven't done
discounted cash flow analysis before. Implementation of IRR in hledger
should produce results that match the XIRR formula in Excel.
- Second way to compute rate of return that roi command implements is
+ Second way to compute rate of return that roi command implements is
called "time-weighted rate of return" or "TWR". Like IRR, it will also
- break the history of your investment into periods between in-flows,
- out-flows and value changes, to compute rate of return per each period
- and then a compound rate of return. However, internal workings of TWR
+ break the history of your investment into periods between in-flows,
+ out-flows and value changes, to compute rate of return per each period
+ and then a compound rate of return. However, internal workings of TWR
are quite different.
- TWR represents your investment as an imaginary "unit fund" where in-
- flows/ out-flows lead to buying or selling "units" of your investment
+ TWR represents your investment as an imaginary "unit fund" where in-
+ flows/ out-flows lead to buying or selling "units" of your investment
and changes in its value change the value of "investment unit". Change
- in "unit price" over the reporting period gives you rate of return of
+ in "unit price" over the reporting period gives you rate of return of
your investment.
- References: * Explanation of rate of return * Explanation of IRR *
- Explanation of TWR * Examples of computing IRR and TWR and discussion
+ References: * Explanation of rate of return * Explanation of IRR *
+ Explanation of TWR * Examples of computing IRR and TWR and discussion
of the limitations of both metrics
stats
stats
Show some journal statistics.
- The stats command displays summary information for the whole journal,
- or a matched part of it. With a reporting interval, it shows a report
+ The stats command displays summary information for the whole journal,
+ or a matched part of it. With a reporting interval, it shows a report
for each report period.
Example:
@@ -3645,35 +3637,35 @@ COMMANDS
Commodities : 1 ($)
Market prices : 12 ($)
- This command also supports output destination and output format selec-
+ This command also supports output destination and output format selec-
tion.
tags
tags
- List the unique tag names used in the journal. With a TAGREGEX argu-
+ List the unique tag names used in the journal. With a TAGREGEX argu-
ment, only tag names matching the regular expression (case insensitive)
- are shown. With QUERY arguments, only transactions matching the query
+ are shown. With QUERY arguments, only transactions matching the query
are considered.
With the --values flag, the tags' unique values are listed instead.
- With --parsed flag, all tags or values are shown in the order they are
+ With --parsed flag, all tags or values are shown in the order they are
parsed from the input data, including duplicates.
- With -E/--empty, any blank/empty values will also be shown, otherwise
+ With -E/--empty, any blank/empty values will also be shown, otherwise
they are omitted.
test
test
Run built-in unit tests.
- This command runs the unit tests built in to hledger and hledger-lib,
- printing the results on stdout. If any test fails, the exit code will
+ This command runs the unit tests built in to hledger and hledger-lib,
+ printing the results on stdout. If any test fails, the exit code will
be non-zero.
- This is mainly used by hledger developers, but you can also use it to
- sanity-check the installed hledger executable on your platform. All
- tests are expected to pass - if you ever see a failure, please report
+ This is mainly used by hledger developers, but you can also use it to
+ sanity-check the installed hledger executable on your platform. All
+ tests are expected to pass - if you ever see a failure, please report
as a bug!
This command also accepts tasty test runner options, written after a --
@@ -3682,7 +3674,7 @@ COMMANDS
$ hledger test -- -pData.Amount --color=never
- For help on these, see https://github.com/feuerbach/tasty#options (--
+ For help on these, see https://github.com/feuerbach/tasty#options (--
--help currently doesn't show them).
About add-on commands
@@ -3690,16 +3682,16 @@ COMMANDS
o whose name starts with hledger-
- o whose name ends with a recognised file extension: .bat,.com,.exe,
+ o whose name ends with a recognised file extension: .bat,.com,.exe,
.hs,.lhs,.pl,.py,.rb,.rkt,.sh or none
o and (on unix, mac) which are executable by the current user.
- Add-ons are a relatively easy way to add local features or experiment
- with new ideas. They can be written in any language, but haskell
- scripts have a big advantage: they can use the same hledger library
- functions that built-in commands use for command-line options, parsing
- and reporting. Some experimental/example add-on scripts can be found
+ Add-ons are a relatively easy way to add local features or experiment
+ with new ideas. They can be written in any language, but haskell
+ scripts have a big advantage: they can use the same hledger library
+ functions that built-in commands use for command-line options, parsing
+ and reporting. Some experimental/example add-on scripts can be found
in the hledger repo's bin/ directory.
Note in a hledger command line, add-on command flags must have a double
@@ -3723,17 +3715,17 @@ COMMANDS
JOURNAL FORMAT
hledger's default file format, representing a General Journal.
- hledger's usual data source is a plain text file containing journal
- entries in hledger journal format. This file represents a standard
- accounting general journal. I use file names ending in .journal, but
+ hledger's usual data source is a plain text file containing journal
+ entries in hledger journal format. This file represents a standard
+ accounting general journal. I use file names ending in .journal, but
that's not required. The journal file contains a number of transaction
entries, each describing a transfer of money (or any commodity) between
two or more named accounts, in a simple format readable by both hledger
and humans.
- hledger's journal format is a compatible subset, mostly, of ledger's
- journal format, so hledger can work with compatible ledger journal
- files as well. It's safe, and encouraged, to run both hledger and
+ hledger's journal format is a compatible subset, mostly, of ledger's
+ journal format, so hledger can work with compatible ledger journal
+ files as well. It's safe, and encouraged, to run both hledger and
ledger on the same journal file, eg to validate the results you're get-
ting.
@@ -3741,25 +3733,25 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
the add or web or import commands to create and update it.
Many users, though, edit the journal file with a text editor, and track
- changes with a version control system such as git. Editor addons such
- as ledger-mode or hledger-mode for Emacs, vim-ledger for Vim, and
+ changes with a version control system such as git. Editor addons such
+ as ledger-mode or hledger-mode for Emacs, vim-ledger for Vim, and
hledger-vscode for Visual Studio Code, make this easier, adding colour,
formatting, tab completion, and useful commands. See Editor configura-
tion at hledger.org for the full list.
- Here's a description of each part of the file format (and hledger's
- data model). These are mostly in the order you'll use them, but in
- some cases related concepts have been grouped together for easy refer-
- ence, or linked before they are introduced, so feel free to skip over
+ Here's a description of each part of the file format (and hledger's
+ data model). These are mostly in the order you'll use them, but in
+ some cases related concepts have been grouped together for easy refer-
+ ence, or linked before they are introduced, so feel free to skip over
anything that looks unnecessary right now.
Transactions
- Transactions are the main unit of information in a journal file. They
- represent events, typically a movement of some quantity of commodities
+ Transactions are the main unit of information in a journal file. They
+ represent events, typically a movement of some quantity of commodities
between two or more named accounts.
- Each transaction is recorded as a journal entry, beginning with a sim-
- ple date in column 0. This can be followed by any of the following
+ Each transaction is recorded as a journal entry, beginning with a sim-
+ ple date in column 0. This can be followed by any of the following
optional fields, separated by spaces:
o a status character (empty, !, or *)
@@ -3768,11 +3760,11 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
o a description (any remaining text until end of line or a semicolon)
- o a comment (any remaining text following a semicolon until end of
+ o a comment (any remaining text following a semicolon until end of
line, and any following indented lines beginning with a semicolon)
o 0 or more indented posting lines, describing what was transferred and
- the accounts involved (indented comment lines are also allowed, but
+ the accounts involved (indented comment lines are also allowed, but
not blank lines or non-indented lines).
Here's a simple journal file containing one transaction:
@@ -3783,35 +3775,35 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Dates
Simple dates
- Dates in the journal file use simple dates format: YYYY-MM-DD or
+ Dates in the journal file use simple dates format: YYYY-MM-DD or
YYYY/MM/DD or YYYY.MM.DD, with leading zeros optional. The year may be
- omitted, in which case it will be inferred from the context: the cur-
- rent transaction, the default year set with a default year directive,
- or the current date when the command is run. Some examples:
+ omitted, in which case it will be inferred from the context: the cur-
+ rent transaction, the default year set with a default year directive,
+ or the current date when the command is run. Some examples:
2010-01-31, 2010/01/31, 2010.1.31, 1/31.
- (The UI also accepts simple dates, as well as the more flexible smart
+ (The UI also accepts simple dates, as well as the more flexible smart
dates documented in the hledger manual.)
Secondary dates
- Real-life transactions sometimes involve more than one date - eg the
+ Real-life transactions sometimes involve more than one date - eg the
date you write a cheque, and the date it clears in your bank. When you
- want to model this, for more accurate daily balances, you can specify
+ want to model this, for more accurate daily balances, you can specify
individual posting dates.
- Or, you can use the older secondary date feature (Ledger calls it aux-
- iliary date or effective date). Note: we support this for compatibil-
- ity, but I usually recommend avoiding this feature; posting dates are
+ Or, you can use the older secondary date feature (Ledger calls it aux-
+ iliary date or effective date). Note: we support this for compatibil-
+ ity, but I usually recommend avoiding this feature; posting dates are
almost always clearer and simpler.
A secondary date is written after the primary date, following an equals
- sign. If the year is omitted, the primary date's year is assumed.
- When running reports, the primary (left) date is used by default, but
- with the --date2 flag (or --aux-date or --effective), the secondary
+ sign. If the year is omitted, the primary date's year is assumed.
+ When running reports, the primary (left) date is used by default, but
+ with the --date2 flag (or --aux-date or --effective), the secondary
(right) date will be used instead.
- The meaning of secondary dates is up to you, but it's best to follow a
- consistent rule. Eg "primary = the bank's clearing date, secondary =
+ The meaning of secondary dates is up to you, but it's best to follow a
+ consistent rule. Eg "primary = the bank's clearing date, secondary =
date the transaction was initiated, if different", as shown here:
2010/2/23=2/19 movie ticket
@@ -3825,11 +3817,11 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
2010-02-19 movie ticket assets:checking $-10 $-10
Posting dates
- You can give individual postings a different date from their parent
- transaction, by adding a posting comment containing a tag (see below)
+ You can give individual postings a different date from their parent
+ transaction, by adding a posting comment containing a tag (see below)
like date:DATE. This is probably the best way to control posting dates
- precisely. Eg in this example the expense should appear in May
- reports, and the deduction from checking should be reported on 6/1 for
+ precisely. Eg in this example the expense should appear in May
+ reports, and the deduction from checking should be reported on 6/1 for
easy bank reconciliation:
2015/5/30
@@ -3842,22 +3834,22 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
$ hledger -f t.j register checking
2015-06-01 assets:checking $-10 $-10
- DATE should be a simple date; if the year is not specified it will use
- the year of the transaction's date. You can set the secondary date
- similarly, with date2:DATE2. The date: or date2: tags must have a
- valid simple date value if they are present, eg a date: tag with no
+ DATE should be a simple date; if the year is not specified it will use
+ the year of the transaction's date. You can set the secondary date
+ similarly, with date2:DATE2. The date: or date2: tags must have a
+ valid simple date value if they are present, eg a date: tag with no
value is not allowed.
Ledger's earlier, more compact bracketed date syntax is also supported:
- [DATE], [DATE=DATE2] or [=DATE2]. hledger will attempt to parse any
+ [DATE], [DATE=DATE2] or [=DATE2]. hledger will attempt to parse any
square-bracketed sequence of the 0123456789/-.= characters in this way.
- With this syntax, DATE infers its year from the transaction and DATE2
+ With this syntax, DATE infers its year from the transaction and DATE2
infers its year from DATE.
Status
- Transactions, or individual postings within a transaction, can have a
- status mark, which is a single character before the transaction
- description or posting account name, separated from it by a space,
+ Transactions, or individual postings within a transaction, can have a
+ status mark, which is a single character before the transaction
+ description or posting account name, separated from it by a space,
indicating one of three statuses:
@@ -3867,23 +3859,23 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
! pending
* cleared
- When reporting, you can filter by status with the -U/--unmarked,
- -P/--pending, and -C/--cleared flags; or the status:, status:!, and
+ When reporting, you can filter by status with the -U/--unmarked,
+ -P/--pending, and -C/--cleared flags; or the status:, status:!, and
status:* queries; or the U, P, C keys in hledger-ui.
- Note, in Ledger and in older versions of hledger, the "unmarked" state
- is called "uncleared". As of hledger 1.3 we have renamed it to
+ Note, in Ledger and in older versions of hledger, the "unmarked" state
+ is called "uncleared". As of hledger 1.3 we have renamed it to
unmarked for clarity.
- To replicate Ledger and old hledger's behaviour of also matching pend-
+ To replicate Ledger and old hledger's behaviour of also matching pend-
ing, combine -U and -P.
- Status marks are optional, but can be helpful eg for reconciling with
+ Status marks are optional, but can be helpful eg for reconciling with
real-world accounts. Some editor modes provide highlighting and short-
- cuts for working with status. Eg in Emacs ledger-mode, you can toggle
+ cuts for working with status. Eg in Emacs ledger-mode, you can toggle
transaction status with C-c C-e, or posting status with C-c C-c.
- What "uncleared", "pending", and "cleared" actually mean is up to you.
+ What "uncleared", "pending", and "cleared" actually mean is up to you.
Here's one suggestion:
@@ -3895,41 +3887,41 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
cleared complete, reconciled as far as possible, and considered cor-
rect
- With this scheme, you would use -PC to see the current balance at your
- bank, -U to see things which will probably hit your bank soon (like
+ With this scheme, you would use -PC to see the current balance at your
+ bank, -U to see things which will probably hit your bank soon (like
uncashed checks), and no flags to see the most up-to-date state of your
finances.
Code
- After the status mark, but before the description, you can optionally
- write a transaction "code", enclosed in parentheses. This is a good
- place to record a check number, or some other important transaction id
+ After the status mark, but before the description, you can optionally
+ write a transaction "code", enclosed in parentheses. This is a good
+ place to record a check number, or some other important transaction id
or reference number.
Description
- A transaction's description is the rest of the line following the date
- and status mark (or until a comment begins). Sometimes called the
+ A transaction's description is the rest of the line following the date
+ and status mark (or until a comment begins). Sometimes called the
"narration" in traditional bookkeeping, it can be used for whatever you
- wish, or left blank. Transaction descriptions can be queried, unlike
+ wish, or left blank. Transaction descriptions can be queried, unlike
comments.
Payee and note
You can optionally include a | (pipe) character in descriptions to sub-
divide the description into separate fields for payee/payer name on the
- left (up to the first |) and an additional note field on the right
- (after the first |). This may be worthwhile if you need to do more
+ left (up to the first |) and an additional note field on the right
+ (after the first |). This may be worthwhile if you need to do more
precise querying and pivoting by payee or by note.
Comments
Lines in the journal beginning with a semicolon (;) or hash (#) or star
- (*) are comments, and will be ignored. (Star comments cause org-mode
- nodes to be ignored, allowing emacs users to fold and navigate their
+ (*) are comments, and will be ignored. (Star comments cause org-mode
+ nodes to be ignored, allowing emacs users to fold and navigate their
journals with org-mode or orgstruct-mode.)
- You can attach comments to a transaction by writing them after the
- description and/or indented on the following lines (before the post-
- ings). Similarly, you can attach comments to an individual posting by
- writing them after the amount and/or indented on the following lines.
+ You can attach comments to a transaction by writing them after the
+ description and/or indented on the following lines (before the post-
+ ings). Similarly, you can attach comments to an individual posting by
+ writing them after the amount and/or indented on the following lines.
Transaction and posting comments must begin with a semicolon (;).
Some examples:
@@ -3952,24 +3944,24 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
; another comment line for posting 2
; a file comment (because not indented)
- You can also comment larger regions of a file using comment and end
+ You can also comment larger regions of a file using comment and end
comment directives.
Tags
- Tags are a way to add extra labels or labelled data to postings and
+ Tags are a way to add extra labels or labelled data to postings and
transactions, which you can then search or pivot on.
- A simple tag is a word (which may contain hyphens) followed by a full
+ A simple tag is a word (which may contain hyphens) followed by a full
colon, written inside a transaction or posting comment line:
2017/1/16 bought groceries ; sometag:
- Tags can have a value, which is the text after the colon, up to the
+ Tags can have a value, which is the text after the colon, up to the
next comma or end of line, with leading/trailing whitespace removed:
expenses:food $10 ; a-posting-tag: the tag value
- Note this means hledger's tag values can not contain commas or new-
+ Note this means hledger's tag values can not contain commas or new-
lines. Ending at commas means you can write multiple short tags on one
line, comma separated:
@@ -3983,57 +3975,57 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
o "tag2" is another tag, whose value is "some value ..."
- Tags in a transaction comment affect the transaction and all of its
- postings, while tags in a posting comment affect only that posting.
- For example, the following transaction has three tags (A, TAG2, third-
+ Tags in a transaction comment affect the transaction and all of its
+ postings, while tags in a posting comment affect only that posting.
+ For example, the following transaction has three tags (A, TAG2, third-
tag) and the posting has four (those plus posting-tag):
1/1 a transaction ; A:, TAG2:
; third-tag: a third transaction tag, <- with a value
(a) $1 ; posting-tag:
- Tags are like Ledger's metadata feature, except hledger's tag values
+ Tags are like Ledger's metadata feature, except hledger's tag values
are simple strings.
Postings
- A posting is an addition of some amount to, or removal of some amount
- from, an account. Each posting line begins with at least one space or
+ A posting is an addition of some amount to, or removal of some amount
+ from, an account. Each posting line begins with at least one space or
tab (2 or 4 spaces is common), followed by:
o (optional) a status character (empty, !, or *), followed by a space
- o (required) an account name (any text, optionally containing single
+ o (required) an account name (any text, optionally containing single
spaces, until end of line or a double space)
o (optional) two or more spaces or tabs followed by an amount.
- Positive amounts are being added to the account, negative amounts are
+ Positive amounts are being added to the account, negative amounts are
being removed.
The amounts within a transaction must always sum up to zero. As a con-
- venience, one amount may be left blank; it will be inferred so as to
+ venience, one amount may be left blank; it will be inferred so as to
balance the transaction.
- Be sure to note the unusual two-space delimiter between account name
- and amount. This makes it easy to write account names containing spa-
- ces. But if you accidentally leave only one space (or tab) before the
+ Be sure to note the unusual two-space delimiter between account name
+ and amount. This makes it easy to write account names containing spa-
+ ces. But if you accidentally leave only one space (or tab) before the
amount, the amount will be considered part of the account name.
Virtual postings
A posting with a parenthesised account name is called a virtual posting
- or unbalanced posting, which means it is exempt from the usual rule
+ or unbalanced posting, which means it is exempt from the usual rule
that a transaction's postings must balance add up to zero.
- This is not part of double entry accounting, so you might choose to
- avoid this feature. Or you can use it sparingly for certain special
- cases where it can be convenient. Eg, you could set opening balances
+ This is not part of double entry accounting, so you might choose to
+ avoid this feature. Or you can use it sparingly for certain special
+ cases where it can be convenient. Eg, you could set opening balances
without using a balancing equity account:
1/1 opening balances
(assets:checking) $1000
(assets:savings) $2000
- A posting with a bracketed account name is called a balanced virtual
+ A posting with a bracketed account name is called a balanced virtual
posting. The balanced virtual postings in a transaction must add up to
zero (separately from other postings). Eg:
@@ -4045,34 +4037,34 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
[assets:checking:available] $10 ; <-
(something:else) $5 ; <- not required to balance
- Ordinary non-parenthesised, non-bracketed postings are called real
- postings. You can exclude virtual postings from reports with the
+ Ordinary non-parenthesised, non-bracketed postings are called real
+ postings. You can exclude virtual postings from reports with the
-R/--real flag or real:1 query.
Account names
- Account names typically have several parts separated by a full colon,
- from which hledger derives a hierarchical chart of accounts. They can
- be anything you like, but in finance there are traditionally five top-
+ Account names typically have several parts separated by a full colon,
+ from which hledger derives a hierarchical chart of accounts. They can
+ be anything you like, but in finance there are traditionally five top-
level accounts: assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses, and equity.
- Account names may contain single spaces, eg: assets:accounts receiv-
- able. Because of this, they must always be followed by two or more
+ Account names may contain single spaces, eg: assets:accounts receiv-
+ able. Because of this, they must always be followed by two or more
spaces (or newline).
Account names can be aliased.
Amounts
- After the account name, there is usually an amount. (Important:
+ After the account name, there is usually an amount. (Important:
between account name and amount, there must be two or more spaces.)
- hledger's amount format is flexible, supporting several international
- formats. Here are some examples. Amounts have a number (the "quan-
+ hledger's amount format is flexible, supporting several international
+ formats. Here are some examples. Amounts have a number (the "quan-
tity"):
1
..and usually a currency symbol or commodity name (more on this below),
- to the left or right of the quantity, with or without a separating
+ to the left or right of the quantity, with or without a separating
space:
$1
@@ -4080,13 +4072,13 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
3 "green apples"
Amounts can be preceded by a minus sign (or a plus sign, though plus is
- the default), The sign can be written before or after a left-side com-
+ the default), The sign can be written before or after a left-side com-
modity symbol:
-$1
$-1
- One or more spaces between the sign and the number are acceptable when
+ One or more spaces between the sign and the number are acceptable when
parsing (but they won't be displayed in output):
+ $1
@@ -4103,8 +4095,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
1.23
1,23456780000009
- In the integer part of the quantity (left of the decimal mark), groups
- of digits can optionally be separated by a "digit group mark" - a
+ In the integer part of the quantity (left of the decimal mark), groups
+ of digits can optionally be separated by a "digit group mark" - a
space, comma, or period (different from the decimal mark):
$1,000,000.00
@@ -4118,39 +4110,39 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
1,000
1.000
- If you don't tell it otherwise, hledger will assume both of the above
+ If you don't tell it otherwise, hledger will assume both of the above
are decimal marks, parsing both numbers as 1. To prevent confusion and
- undetected typos, we recommend adding commodity directives at the top
- of your journal file to explicitly declare the decimal mark (and
- optionally a digit group mark) for each commodity. Read on for more
+ undetected typos, we recommend adding commodity directives at the top
+ of your journal file to explicitly declare the decimal mark (and
+ optionally a digit group mark) for each commodity. Read on for more
about this.
Commodity
- Amounts in hledger have both a "quantity", which is a signed decimal
+ Amounts in hledger have both a "quantity", which is a signed decimal
number, and a "commodity", which is a currency symbol, stock ticker, or
any word or phrase describing something you are tracking.
If the commodity name contains non-letters (spaces, numbers, or punctu-
- ation), you must always write it inside double quotes ("green apples",
+ ation), you must always write it inside double quotes ("green apples",
"ABC123").
- If you write just a bare number, that too will have a commodity, with
+ If you write just a bare number, that too will have a commodity, with
name ""; we call that the "no-symbol commodity".
- Actually, hledger combines these single-commodity amounts into more
- powerful multi-commodity amounts, which are what it works with most of
- the time. A multi-commodity amount could be, eg: 1 USD, 2 EUR, 3.456
- TSLA. In practice, you will only see multi-commodity amounts in
+ Actually, hledger combines these single-commodity amounts into more
+ powerful multi-commodity amounts, which are what it works with most of
+ the time. A multi-commodity amount could be, eg: 1 USD, 2 EUR, 3.456
+ TSLA. In practice, you will only see multi-commodity amounts in
hledger's output; you can't write them directly in the journal file.
- (If you are writing scripts or working with hledger's internals, these
+ (If you are writing scripts or working with hledger's internals, these
are the Amount and MixedAmount types.)
Commodity directives
You can add commodity directives to the journal, preferably at the top,
- to declare your commodities and help with number parsing (see above)
- and display (see below). These are optional, but recommended. They
- are described in more detail in JOURNAL FORMAT -> Declaring commodi-
+ to declare your commodities and help with number parsing (see above)
+ and display (see below). These are optional, but recommended. They
+ are described in more detail in JOURNAL FORMAT -> Declaring commodi-
ties. Here's a quick example:
# number format and display style for $, EUR, INR and the no-symbol commodity:
@@ -4162,48 +4154,48 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Commodity display style
For the amounts in each commodity, hledger chooses a consistent display
- style to use in most reports. (Exceptions: price amounts, and all
+ style to use in most reports. (Exceptions: price amounts, and all
amounts displayed by the print command, are displayed with all of their
decimal digits visible.)
A commodity's display style is inferred as follows.
- First, if a default commodity is declared with D, this commodity and
+ First, if a default commodity is declared with D, this commodity and
its style is applied to any no-symbol amounts in the journal.
- Then each commodity's style is inferred from one of the following, in
+ Then each commodity's style is inferred from one of the following, in
order of preference:
- o The commodity directive for that commodity (including the no-symbol
+ o The commodity directive for that commodity (including the no-symbol
commodity), if any.
- o The amounts in that commodity seen in the journal's transactions.
+ o The amounts in that commodity seen in the journal's transactions.
(Posting amounts only; prices and periodic or auto rules are ignored,
currently.)
- o The built-in fallback style, which looks like this: $1000.00. (Sym-
+ o The built-in fallback style, which looks like this: $1000.00. (Sym-
bol on the left, period decimal mark, two decimal places.)
A style is inferred from journal amounts as follows:
- o Use the general style (decimal mark, symbol placement) of the first
+ o Use the general style (decimal mark, symbol placement) of the first
amount
- o Use the first-seen digit group style (digit group mark, digit group
+ o Use the first-seen digit group style (digit group mark, digit group
sizes), if any
o Use the maximum number of decimal places of all.
- Transaction price amounts don't affect the commodity display style
- directly, but occasionally they can do so indirectly (eg when a post-
- ing's amount is inferred using a transaction price). If you find this
+ Transaction price amounts don't affect the commodity display style
+ directly, but occasionally they can do so indirectly (eg when a post-
+ ing's amount is inferred using a transaction price). If you find this
causing problems, use a commodity directive to fix the display style.
- To summarise: each commodity's amounts will be normalised to (a) the
- style declared by a commodity directive, or (b) the style of the first
- posting amount in the journal, with the first-seen digit group style
- and the maximum-seen number of decimal places. So if your reports are
- showing amounts in a way you don't like, eg with too many decimal
+ To summarise: each commodity's amounts will be normalised to (a) the
+ style declared by a commodity directive, or (b) the style of the first
+ posting amount in the journal, with the first-seen digit group style
+ and the maximum-seen number of decimal places. So if your reports are
+ showing amounts in a way you don't like, eg with too many decimal
places, use a commodity directive. Some examples:
# declare euro, dollar, bitcoin and no-symbol commodities and set their
@@ -4215,17 +4207,17 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Rounding
Amounts are stored internally as decimal numbers with up to 255 decimal
- places, and displayed with the number of decimal places specified by
- the commodity display style. Note, hledger uses banker's rounding: it
- rounds to the nearest even number, eg 0.5 displayed with zero decimal
- places is "0"). (Guaranteed since hledger 1.17.1; in older versions
+ places, and displayed with the number of decimal places specified by
+ the commodity display style. Note, hledger uses banker's rounding: it
+ rounds to the nearest even number, eg 0.5 displayed with zero decimal
+ places is "0"). (Guaranteed since hledger 1.17.1; in older versions
this could vary if hledger was built with Decimal < 0.5.1.)
Transaction prices
Within a transaction, you can note an amount's price in another commod-
- ity. This can be used to document the cost (in a purchase) or selling
- price (in a sale). For example, transaction prices are useful to
- record purchases of a foreign currency. Note transaction prices are
+ ity. This can be used to document the cost (in a purchase) or selling
+ price (in a sale). For example, transaction prices are useful to
+ record purchases of a foreign currency. Note transaction prices are
fixed at the time of the transaction, and do not change over time. See
also market prices, which represent prevailing exchange rates on a cer-
tain date.
@@ -4251,14 +4243,14 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
assets:euros EUR100 ; one hundred euros purchased
assets:dollars $-135 ; for $135
- 4. Like 1, but the @ is parenthesised, i.e. (@); this is for compati-
- bility with Ledger journals (Virtual posting costs), and is equiva-
+ 4. Like 1, but the @ is parenthesised, i.e. (@); this is for compati-
+ bility with Ledger journals (Virtual posting costs), and is equiva-
lent to 1 in hledger.
5. Like 2, but as in 4 the @@ is parenthesised, i.e. (@@); in hledger,
this is equivalent to 2.
- Use the -B/--cost flag to convert amounts to their transaction price's
+ Use the -B/--cost flag to convert amounts to their transaction price's
commodity, if any. (mnemonic: "B" is from "cost Basis", as in Ledger).
Eg here is how -B affects the balance report for the example above:
@@ -4269,8 +4261,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
$-135 assets:dollars
$135 assets:euros # <- the euros' cost
- Note -B is sensitive to the order of postings when a transaction price
- is inferred: the inferred price will be in the commodity of the last
+ Note -B is sensitive to the order of postings when a transaction price
+ is inferred: the inferred price will be in the commodity of the last
amount. So if example 3's postings are reversed, while the transaction
is equivalent, -B shows something different:
@@ -4283,18 +4275,18 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
EUR100 assets:euros
Lot prices, lot dates
- Ledger allows another kind of price, lot price (four variants: {UNIT-
+ Ledger allows another kind of price, lot price (four variants: {UNIT-
PRICE}, {{TOTALPRICE}}, {=FIXEDUNITPRICE}, {{=FIXEDTOTALPRICE}}),
and/or a lot date ([DATE]) to be specified. These are normally used to
- select a lot when selling investments. hledger will parse these, for
- compatibility with Ledger journals, but currently ignores them. A
- transaction price, lot price and/or lot date may appear in any order,
+ select a lot when selling investments. hledger will parse these, for
+ compatibility with Ledger journals, but currently ignores them. A
+ transaction price, lot price and/or lot date may appear in any order,
after the posting amount and before the balance assertion if any.
Balance assertions
- hledger supports Ledger-style balance assertions in journal files.
- These look like, for example, = EXPECTEDBALANCE following a posting's
- amount. Eg here we assert the expected dollar balance in accounts a
+ hledger supports Ledger-style balance assertions in journal files.
+ These look like, for example, = EXPECTEDBALANCE following a posting's
+ amount. Eg here we assert the expected dollar balance in accounts a
and b after each posting:
2013/1/1
@@ -4306,32 +4298,32 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
b $-1 =$-2
After reading a journal file, hledger will check all balance assertions
- and report an error if any of them fail. Balance assertions can pro-
- tect you from, eg, inadvertently disrupting reconciled balances while
- cleaning up old entries. You can disable them temporarily with the
+ and report an error if any of them fail. Balance assertions can pro-
+ tect you from, eg, inadvertently disrupting reconciled balances while
+ cleaning up old entries. You can disable them temporarily with the
-I/--ignore-assertions flag, which can be useful for troubleshooting or
- for reading Ledger files. (Note: this flag currently does not disable
+ for reading Ledger files. (Note: this flag currently does not disable
balance assignments, below).
Assertions and ordering
- hledger sorts an account's postings and assertions first by date and
- then (for postings on the same day) by parse order. Note this is dif-
+ hledger sorts an account's postings and assertions first by date and
+ then (for postings on the same day) by parse order. Note this is dif-
ferent from Ledger, which sorts assertions only by parse order. (Also,
- Ledger assertions do not see the accumulated effect of repeated post-
+ Ledger assertions do not see the accumulated effect of repeated post-
ings to the same account within a transaction.)
So, hledger balance assertions keep working if you reorder differently-
- dated transactions within the journal. But if you reorder same-dated
- transactions or postings, assertions might break and require updating.
+ dated transactions within the journal. But if you reorder same-dated
+ transactions or postings, assertions might break and require updating.
This order dependence does bring an advantage: precise control over the
order of postings and assertions within a day, so you can assert intra-
day balances.
Assertions and included files
- With included files, things are a little more complicated. Including
- preserves the ordering of postings and assertions. If you have multi-
- ple postings to an account on the same day, split across different
- files, and you also want to assert the account's balance on the same
+ With included files, things are a little more complicated. Including
+ preserves the ordering of postings and assertions. If you have multi-
+ ple postings to an account on the same day, split across different
+ files, and you also want to assert the account's balance on the same
day, you'll have to put the assertion in the right file.
Assertions and multiple -f options
@@ -4339,15 +4331,15 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
-f options. Use include or concatenate the files instead.
Assertions and commodities
- The asserted balance must be a simple single-commodity amount, and in
- fact the assertion checks only this commodity's balance within the
- (possibly multi-commodity) account balance. This is how assertions
+ The asserted balance must be a simple single-commodity amount, and in
+ fact the assertion checks only this commodity's balance within the
+ (possibly multi-commodity) account balance. This is how assertions
work in Ledger also. We could call this a "partial" balance assertion.
To assert the balance of more than one commodity in an account, you can
write multiple postings, each asserting one commodity's balance.
- You can make a stronger "total" balance assertion by writing a double
+ You can make a stronger "total" balance assertion by writing a double
equals sign (== EXPECTEDBALANCE). This asserts that there are no other
unasserted commodities in the account (or, that their balance is 0).
@@ -4367,7 +4359,7 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
a 0 == $1
It's not yet possible to make a complete assertion about a balance that
- has multiple commodities. One workaround is to isolate each commodity
+ has multiple commodities. One workaround is to isolate each commodity
into its own subaccount:
2013/1/1
@@ -4381,21 +4373,21 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
a:euro 0 == 1EUR
Assertions and prices
- Balance assertions ignore transaction prices, and should normally be
+ Balance assertions ignore transaction prices, and should normally be
written without one:
2019/1/1
(a) $1 @ EUR1 = $1
- We do allow prices to be written there, however, and print shows them,
- even though they don't affect whether the assertion passes or fails.
- This is for backward compatibility (hledger's close command used to
- generate balance assertions with prices), and because balance assign-
+ We do allow prices to be written there, however, and print shows them,
+ even though they don't affect whether the assertion passes or fails.
+ This is for backward compatibility (hledger's close command used to
+ generate balance assertions with prices), and because balance assign-
ments do use them (see below).
Assertions and subaccounts
- The balance assertions above (= and ==) do not count the balance from
- subaccounts; they check the account's exclusive balance only. You can
+ The balance assertions above (= and ==) do not count the balance from
+ subaccounts; they check the account's exclusive balance only. You can
assert the balance including subaccounts by writing =* or ==*, eg:
2019/1/1
@@ -4409,16 +4401,16 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
tual. They are not affected by the --real/-R flag or real: query.
Assertions and precision
- Balance assertions compare the exactly calculated amounts, which are
- not always what is shown by reports. Eg a commodity directive may
- limit the display precision, but this will not affect balance asser-
+ Balance assertions compare the exactly calculated amounts, which are
+ not always what is shown by reports. Eg a commodity directive may
+ limit the display precision, but this will not affect balance asser-
tions. Balance assertion failure messages show exact amounts.
Balance assignments
- Ledger-style balance assignments are also supported. These are like
- balance assertions, but with no posting amount on the left side of the
- equals sign; instead it is calculated automatically so as to satisfy
- the assertion. This can be a convenience during data entry, eg when
+ Ledger-style balance assignments are also supported. These are like
+ balance assertions, but with no posting amount on the left side of the
+ equals sign; instead it is calculated automatically so as to satisfy
+ the assertion. This can be a convenience during data entry, eg when
setting opening balances:
; starting a new journal, set asset account balances
@@ -4436,14 +4428,14 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
expenses:misc
The calculated amount depends on the account's balance in the commodity
- at that point (which depends on the previously-dated postings of the
- commodity to that account since the last balance assertion or assign-
+ at that point (which depends on the previously-dated postings of the
+ commodity to that account since the last balance assertion or assign-
ment). Note that using balance assignments makes your journal a little
less explicit; to know the exact amount posted, you have to run hledger
or do the calculations yourself, instead of just reading it.
Balance assignments and prices
- A transaction price in a balance assignment will cause the calculated
+ A transaction price in a balance assignment will cause the calculated
amount to have that price attached:
2019/1/1
@@ -4454,51 +4446,55 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
(a) $1 @ EUR2 = $1 @ EUR2
Directives
- A directive is a line in the journal beginning with a special keyword,
+ A directive is a line in the journal beginning with a special keyword,
that influences how the journal is processed. hledger's directives are
based on a subset of Ledger's, but there are many differences (and also
some differences between hledger versions).
Directives' behaviour and interactions can get a little bit complex, so
- here is a table summarising the directives and their effects, with
+ here is a table summarising the directives and their effects, with
links to more detailed docs.
- direc- end subdi- purpose can affect (as of
+ direc- end subdi- purpose can affect (as of
tive directive rec- 2018/06)
tives
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- account any document account names, all entries in all
- text declare account types & dis- files, before or
+ account any document account names, all entries in all
+ text declare account types & dis- files, before or
play order after
+
+
+
+
alias end rewrite account names following entries
- aliases until end of cur-
+ aliases until end of cur-
rent file or end
directive
- apply end apply prepend a common parent to following entries
- account account account names until end of cur-
+ apply end apply prepend a common parent to following entries
+ account account account names until end of cur-
rent file or end
directive
comment end com- ignore part of journal following entries
- ment until end of cur-
+ ment until end of cur-
rent file or end
directive
- commod- format declare a commodity and its number notation:
+ commod- format declare a commodity and its number notation:
ity number notation & display following entries
- style until end of cur-
- rent file; display
+ style until end of cur-
+ rent file; display
style: amounts of
that commodity in
reports
- D declare a commodity to be default commodity:
+ D declare a commodity to be default commodity:
used for commodityless following commod-
- amounts, and its number ityless entries
- notation & display style until end of cur-
+ amounts, and its number ityless entries
+ notation & display style until end of cur-
rent file; number
notation: following
entries in that
commodity until end
- of current file;
+ of current file;
display style:
amounts of that
commodity in
@@ -4506,17 +4502,17 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
include include entries/directives what the included
from another file directives affect
payee declare a payee name following entries
- until end of cur-
+ until end of cur-
rent file
P declare a market price for a amounts of that
commodity commodity in
reports, when -V is
used
- Y declare a year for yearless following entries
- dates until end of cur-
+ Y declare a year for yearless following entries
+ dates until end of cur-
rent file
- = declare an auto posting all entries in par-
- rule, adding postings to ent/current/child
+ = declare an auto posting all entries in par-
+ rule, adding postings to ent/current/child
other transactions files (but not sib-
ling files, see
#1212)
@@ -4524,55 +4520,53 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
And some definitions:
- subdi- optional indented directive line immediately following a parent
+ subdi- optional indented directive line immediately following a parent
rec- directive
tive
number how to interpret numbers when parsing journal entries (the iden-
- nota- tity of the decimal separator character). (Currently each com-
+ nota- tity of the decimal separator character). (Currently each com-
tion modity can have its own notation, even in the same file.)
-
-
- dis- how to display amounts of a commodity in reports (symbol side
+ dis- how to display amounts of a commodity in reports (symbol side
play and spacing, digit groups, decimal separator, decimal places)
style
- direc- which entries and (when there are multiple files) which files
+ direc- which entries and (when there are multiple files) which files
tive are affected by a directive
scope
As you can see, directives vary in which journal entries and files they
- affect, and whether they are focussed on input (parsing) or output
+ affect, and whether they are focussed on input (parsing) or output
(reports). Some directives have multiple effects.
Directives and multiple files
- If you use multiple -f/--file options, or the include directive,
- hledger will process multiple input files. But note that directives
+ If you use multiple -f/--file options, or the include directive,
+ hledger will process multiple input files. But note that directives
which affect input (see above) typically last only until the end of the
file in which they occur.
This may seem inconvenient, but it's intentional; it makes reports sta-
- ble and deterministic, independent of the order of input. Otherwise
- you could see different numbers if you happened to write -f options in
- a different order, or if you moved includes around while cleaning up
+ ble and deterministic, independent of the order of input. Otherwise
+ you could see different numbers if you happened to write -f options in
+ a different order, or if you moved includes around while cleaning up
your files.
- It can be surprising though; for example, it means that alias direc-
+ It can be surprising though; for example, it means that alias direc-
tives do not affect parent or sibling files (see below).
Comment blocks
- A line containing just comment starts a commented region of the file,
+ A line containing just comment starts a commented region of the file,
and a line containing just end comment (or the end of the current file)
ends it. See also comments.
Including other files
- You can pull in the content of additional files by writing an include
+ You can pull in the content of additional files by writing an include
directive, like this:
include FILEPATH
- Only journal files can include, and only journal, timeclock or timedot
+ Only journal files can include, and only journal, timeclock or timedot
files can be included (not CSV files, currently).
- If the file path does not begin with a slash, it is relative to the
+ If the file path does not begin with a slash, it is relative to the
current file's folder.
A tilde means home directory, eg: include ~/main.journal.
@@ -4580,18 +4574,18 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
The path may contain glob patterns to match multiple files, eg: include
*.journal.
- There is limited support for recursive wildcards: **/ (the slash is
- required) matches 0 or more subdirectories. It's not super convenient
- since you have to avoid include cycles and including directories, but
+ There is limited support for recursive wildcards: **/ (the slash is
+ required) matches 0 or more subdirectories. It's not super convenient
+ since you have to avoid include cycles and including directories, but
this can be done, eg: include */**/*.journal.
The path may also be prefixed to force a specific file format, overrid-
- ing the file extension (as described in hledger.1 -> Input files):
+ ing the file extension (as described in hledger.1 -> Input files):
include timedot:~/notes/2020*.md.
Default year
- You can set a default year to be used for subsequent dates which don't
- specify a year. This is a line beginning with Y followed by the year.
+ You can set a default year to be used for subsequent dates which don't
+ specify a year. This is a line beginning with Y followed by the year.
Eg:
Y2009 ; set default year to 2009
@@ -4611,39 +4605,39 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
assets
Declaring payees
- The payee directive can be used to declare a limited set of payees
- which may appear in transaction descriptions. The "payees" check will
- report an error if any transaction refers to a payee that has not been
+ The payee directive can be used to declare a limited set of payees
+ which may appear in transaction descriptions. The "payees" check will
+ report an error if any transaction refers to a payee that has not been
declared. Eg:
payee Whole Foods
Declaring commodities
- You can use commodity directives to declare your commodities. In fact
+ You can use commodity directives to declare your commodities. In fact
the commodity directive performs several functions at once:
- 1. It declares commodities which may be used in the journal. This can
- optionally be enforced, providing useful error checking. (Cf Com-
+ 1. It declares commodities which may be used in the journal. This can
+ optionally be enforced, providing useful error checking. (Cf Com-
modity error checking)
- 2. It declares which decimal mark character (period or comma), to
- expect when parsing input - useful to disambiguate international
- number formats in your data. Without this, hledger will parse both
+ 2. It declares which decimal mark character (period or comma), to
+ expect when parsing input - useful to disambiguate international
+ number formats in your data. Without this, hledger will parse both
1,000 and 1.000 as 1. (Cf Amounts)
- 3. It declares how to render the commodity's amounts when displaying
+ 3. It declares how to render the commodity's amounts when displaying
output - the decimal mark, any digit group marks, the number of dec-
- imal places, symbol placement and so on. (Cf Commodity display
+ imal places, symbol placement and so on. (Cf Commodity display
style)
- You will run into one of the problems solved by commodity directives
+ You will run into one of the problems solved by commodity directives
sooner or later, so we recommend using them, for robust and predictable
parsing and display.
- Generally you should put them at the top of your journal file (since
+ Generally you should put them at the top of your journal file (since
for function 2, they affect only following amounts, cf #793).
- A commodity directive is just the word commodity followed by a sample
+ A commodity directive is just the word commodity followed by a sample
amount, like this:
;commodity SAMPLEAMOUNT
@@ -4651,8 +4645,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
commodity $1000.00
commodity 1,000.0000 AAAA ; optional same-line comment
- It may also be written on multiple lines, and use the format subdirec-
- tive, as in Ledger. Note in this case the commodity symbol appears
+ It may also be written on multiple lines, and use the format subdirec-
+ tive, as in Ledger. Note in this case the commodity symbol appears
twice; it must be the same in both places:
;commodity SYMBOL
@@ -4664,11 +4658,11 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
commodity INR
format INR 1,00,00,000.00
- Remember that if the commodity symbol contains spaces, numbers, or
+ Remember that if the commodity symbol contains spaces, numbers, or
punctuation, it must be enclosed in double quotes (cf Commodity).
- The amount's quantity does not matter; only the format is significant.
- It must include a decimal mark - either a period or a comma - followed
+ The amount's quantity does not matter; only the format is significant.
+ It must include a decimal mark - either a period or a comma - followed
by 0 or more decimal digits.
A few more examples:
@@ -4679,27 +4673,27 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
commodity INR 9,99,99,999.0
commodity 1 000 000.
- Note hledger normally uses banker's rounding, so 0.5 displayed with
+ Note hledger normally uses banker's rounding, so 0.5 displayed with
zero decimal digits is "0". (More at Commodity display style.)
Commodity error checking
- In strict mode, enabled with the -s/--strict flag, hledger will report
- an error if a commodity symbol is used that has not been declared by a
- commodity directive. This works similarly to account error checking,
+ In strict mode, enabled with the -s/--strict flag, hledger will report
+ an error if a commodity symbol is used that has not been declared by a
+ commodity directive. This works similarly to account error checking,
see the notes there for more details.
Default commodity
The D directive sets a default commodity, to be used for any subsequent
- commodityless amounts (ie, plain numbers) seen while parsing the jour-
- nal. This effect lasts until the next D directive, or the end of the
+ commodityless amounts (ie, plain numbers) seen while parsing the jour-
+ nal. This effect lasts until the next D directive, or the end of the
journal.
- For compatibility/historical reasons, D also acts like a commodity
+ For compatibility/historical reasons, D also acts like a commodity
directive (setting the commodity's decimal mark for parsing and display
style for output).
- As with commodity, the amount must include a decimal mark (either
- period or comma). If both commodity and D directives are used for the
+ As with commodity, the amount must include a decimal mark (either
+ period or comma). If both commodity and D directives are used for the
same commodity, the commodity style takes precedence.
The syntax is D AMOUNT. Eg:
@@ -4713,18 +4707,18 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
b
Declaring market prices
- The P directive declares a market price, which is an exchange rate
+ The P directive declares a market price, which is an exchange rate
between two commodities on a certain date. (In Ledger, they are called
- "historical prices".) These are often obtained from a stock exchange,
+ "historical prices".) These are often obtained from a stock exchange,
cryptocurrency exchange, or the foreign exchange market.
The format is:
P DATE COMMODITY1SYMBOL COMMODITY2AMOUNT
- DATE is a simple date, COMMODITY1SYMBOL is the symbol of the commodity
- being priced, and COMMODITY2AMOUNT is the amount (symbol and quantity)
- of commodity 2 that one unit of commodity 1 is worth on this date.
+ DATE is a simple date, COMMODITY1SYMBOL is the symbol of the commodity
+ being priced, and COMMODITY2AMOUNT is the amount (symbol and quantity)
+ of commodity 2 that one unit of commodity 1 is worth on this date.
Examples:
# one euro was worth $1.35 from 2009-01-01 onward:
@@ -4733,69 +4727,69 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
# and $1.40 from 2010-01-01 onward:
P 2010-01-01 EUR $1.40
- The -V, -X and --value flags use these market prices to show amount
+ The -V, -X and --value flags use these market prices to show amount
values in another commodity. See Valuation.
Declaring accounts
account directives can be used to declare accounts (ie, the places that
- amounts are transferred from and to). Though not required, these dec-
+ amounts are transferred from and to). Though not required, these dec-
larations can provide several benefits:
o They can document your intended chart of accounts, providing a refer-
ence.
- o They can help hledger know your accounts' types (asset, liability,
- equity, revenue, expense), useful for reports like balancesheet and
+ o They can help hledger know your accounts' types (asset, liability,
+ equity, revenue, expense), useful for reports like balancesheet and
incomestatement.
- o They control account display order in reports, allowing non-alpha-
+ o They control account display order in reports, allowing non-alpha-
betic sorting (eg Revenues to appear above Expenses).
- o They can store extra information about accounts (account numbers,
+ o They can store extra information about accounts (account numbers,
notes, etc.)
- o They help with account name completion in the add command, hledger-
+ o They help with account name completion in the add command, hledger-
iadd, hledger-web, ledger-mode etc.
- o In strict mode, they restrict which accounts may be posted to by
+ o In strict mode, they restrict which accounts may be posted to by
transactions, which helps detect typos.
- The simplest form is just the word account followed by a hledger-style
+ The simplest form is just the word account followed by a hledger-style
account name, eg this account directive declares the assets:bank:check-
ing account:
account assets:bank:checking
Account error checking
- By default, accounts come into existence when a transaction references
- them by name. This is convenient, but it means hledger can't warn you
+ By default, accounts come into existence when a transaction references
+ them by name. This is convenient, but it means hledger can't warn you
when you mis-spell an account name in the journal. Usually you'll find
- the error later, as an extra account in balance reports, or an incor-
+ the error later, as an extra account in balance reports, or an incor-
rect balance when reconciling.
- In strict mode, enabled with the -s/--strict flag, hledger will report
- an error if any transaction uses an account name that has not been
+ In strict mode, enabled with the -s/--strict flag, hledger will report
+ an error if any transaction uses an account name that has not been
declared by an account directive. Some notes:
- o The declaration is case-sensitive; transactions must use the correct
+ o The declaration is case-sensitive; transactions must use the correct
account name capitalisation.
- o The account directive's scope is "whole file and below" (see direc-
+ o The account directive's scope is "whole file and below" (see direc-
tives). This means it affects all of the current file, and any files
- it includes, but not parent or sibling files. The position of
+ it includes, but not parent or sibling files. The position of
account directives within the file does not matter, though it's usual
to put them at the top.
- o Accounts can only be declared in journal files (but will affect
+ o Accounts can only be declared in journal files (but will affect
included files in other formats).
- o It's currently not possible to declare "all possible subaccounts"
+ o It's currently not possible to declare "all possible subaccounts"
with a wildcard; every account posted to must be declared.
Account comments
Comments, beginning with a semicolon, can be added:
- o on the same line, after two or more spaces (because ; is allowed in
+ o on the same line, after two or more spaces (because ; is allowed in
account names)
o on the next lines, indented
@@ -4809,7 +4803,7 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Same-line comments are not supported by Ledger, or hledger <1.13.
Account subdirectives
- We also allow (and ignore) Ledger-style indented subdirectives, just
+ We also allow (and ignore) Ledger-style indented subdirectives, just
for compatibility.:
account assets:bank:checking
@@ -4822,27 +4816,27 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
[LEDGER-STYLE SUBDIRECTIVES, IGNORED]
Account types
- hledger recognises five main types of account, corresponding to the
+ hledger recognises five main types of account, corresponding to the
account classes in the accounting equation:
Asset, Liability, Equity, Revenue, Expense.
These account types are important for controlling which accounts appear
- in the balancesheet, balancesheetequity, incomestatement reports (and
+ in the balancesheet, balancesheetequity, incomestatement reports (and
probably for other things in future).
- Additionally, we recognise the Cash type, which is also an Asset, and
- which causes accounts to appear in the cashflow report. ("Cash" here
- means liquid assets, eg bank balances but typically not investments or
+ Additionally, we recognise the Cash type, which is also an Asset, and
+ which causes accounts to appear in the cashflow report. ("Cash" here
+ means liquid assets, eg bank balances but typically not investments or
receivables.)
Declaring account types
Generally, to make these reports work you should declare your top-level
accounts and their types, using account directives with type: tags.
- The tag's value should be one of: Asset, Liability, Equity, Revenue,
- Expense, Cash, A, L, E, R, X, C (all case insensitive). The type is
- inherited by all subaccounts except where they override it. Here's a
+ The tag's value should be one of: Asset, Liability, Equity, Revenue,
+ Expense, Cash, A, L, E, R, X, C (all case insensitive). The type is
+ inherited by all subaccounts except where they override it. Here's a
complete example:
account assets ; type: Asset
@@ -4854,8 +4848,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
account expenses ; type: Expense
Auto-detected account types
- If you happen to use common english top-level account names, you may
- not need to declare account types, as they will be detected automati-
+ If you happen to use common english top-level account names, you may
+ not need to declare account types, as they will be detected automati-
cally using the following rules:
If account's name matches this regular expression: | its type is:
@@ -4873,10 +4867,10 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Interference from auto-detected account types
If you assign any account type, it's a good idea to assign all of them,
- to prevent any confusion from mixing declared and auto-detected types.
- Although it's unlikely to happen in real life, here's an example: with
- the following journal, balancesheetequity shows "liabilities" in both
- Liabilities and Equity sections. Declaring another account as
+ to prevent any confusion from mixing declared and auto-detected types.
+ Although it's unlikely to happen in real life, here's an example: with
+ the following journal, balancesheetequity shows "liabilities" in both
+ Liabilities and Equity sections. Declaring another account as
type:Liability would fix it:
account liabilities ; type:Equity
@@ -4887,8 +4881,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
equity -2
Old account type syntax
- In some hledger journals you might instead see this old syntax (the
- letters ALERX, separated from the account name by two or more spaces);
+ In some hledger journals you might instead see this old syntax (the
+ letters ALERX, separated from the account name by two or more spaces);
this is deprecated and may be removed soon:
account assets A
@@ -4898,8 +4892,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
account expenses X
Account display order
- Account directives also set the order in which accounts are displayed,
- eg in reports, the hledger-ui accounts screen, and the hledger-web
+ Account directives also set the order in which accounts are displayed,
+ eg in reports, the hledger-ui accounts screen, and the hledger-web
sidebar. By default accounts are listed in alphabetical order. But if
you have these account directives in the journal:
@@ -4921,20 +4915,20 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Undeclared accounts, if any, are displayed last, in alphabetical order.
- Note that sorting is done at each level of the account tree (within
- each group of sibling accounts under the same parent). And currently,
+ Note that sorting is done at each level of the account tree (within
+ each group of sibling accounts under the same parent). And currently,
this directive:
account other:zoo
- would influence the position of zoo among other's subaccounts, but not
+ would influence the position of zoo among other's subaccounts, but not
the position of other among the top-level accounts. This means:
- o you will sometimes declare parent accounts (eg account other above)
- that you don't intend to post to, just to customize their display
+ o you will sometimes declare parent accounts (eg account other above)
+ that you don't intend to post to, just to customize their display
order
- o sibling accounts stay together (you couldn't display x:y in between
+ o sibling accounts stay together (you couldn't display x:y in between
a:b and a:c).
Rewriting accounts
@@ -4952,15 +4946,15 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
o customising reports
Account aliases also rewrite account names in account directives. They
- do not affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-
+ do not affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-
web.
See also Rewrite account names.
Basic aliases
- To set an account alias, use the alias directive in your journal file.
- This affects all subsequent journal entries in the current file or its
- included files (but note: not sibling or parent files). The spaces
+ To set an account alias, use the alias directive in your journal file.
+ This affects all subsequent journal entries in the current file or its
+ included files (but note: not sibling or parent files). The spaces
around the = are optional:
alias OLD = NEW
@@ -4968,49 +4962,49 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Or, you can use the --alias 'OLD=NEW' option on the command line. This
affects all entries. It's useful for trying out aliases interactively.
- OLD and NEW are case sensitive full account names. hledger will
- replace any occurrence of the old account name with the new one. Sub-
+ OLD and NEW are case sensitive full account names. hledger will
+ replace any occurrence of the old account name with the new one. Sub-
accounts are also affected. Eg:
alias checking = assets:bank:wells fargo:checking
; rewrites "checking" to "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking", or "checking:a" to "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking:a"
Regex aliases
- There is also a more powerful variant that uses a regular expression,
+ There is also a more powerful variant that uses a regular expression,
indicated by the forward slashes:
alias /REGEX/ = REPLACEMENT
or --alias '/REGEX/=REPLACEMENT'.
- REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression. Anywhere it matches
- inside an account name, the matched part will be replaced by REPLACE-
- MENT. If REGEX contains parenthesised match groups, these can be ref-
+ REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression. Anywhere it matches
+ inside an account name, the matched part will be replaced by REPLACE-
+ MENT. If REGEX contains parenthesised match groups, these can be ref-
erenced by the usual numeric backreferences in REPLACEMENT. Eg:
alias /^(.+):bank:([^:]+):(.*)/ = \1:\2 \3
; rewrites "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking" to "assets:wells fargo checking"
- Also note that REPLACEMENT continues to the end of line (or on command
- line, to end of option argument), so it can contain trailing white-
+ Also note that REPLACEMENT continues to the end of line (or on command
+ line, to end of option argument), so it can contain trailing white-
space.
Combining aliases
- You can define as many aliases as you like, using journal directives
+ You can define as many aliases as you like, using journal directives
and/or command line options.
- Recursive aliases - where an account name is rewritten by one alias,
- then by another alias, and so on - are allowed. Each alias sees the
+ Recursive aliases - where an account name is rewritten by one alias,
+ then by another alias, and so on - are allowed. Each alias sees the
effect of previously applied aliases.
- In such cases it can be important to understand which aliases will be
- applied and in which order. For (each account name in) each journal
+ In such cases it can be important to understand which aliases will be
+ applied and in which order. For (each account name in) each journal
entry, we apply:
- 1. alias directives preceding the journal entry, most recently parsed
+ 1. alias directives preceding the journal entry, most recently parsed
first (ie, reading upward from the journal entry, bottom to top)
- 2. --alias options, in the order they appeared on the command line
+ 2. --alias options, in the order they appeared on the command line
(left to right).
In other words, for (an account name in) a given journal entry:
@@ -5021,15 +5015,15 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
o aliases defined after/below the entry do not affect it.
- This gives nearby aliases precedence over distant ones, and helps pro-
- vide semantic stability - aliases will keep working the same way inde-
+ This gives nearby aliases precedence over distant ones, and helps pro-
+ vide semantic stability - aliases will keep working the same way inde-
pendent of which files are being read and in which order.
- In case of trouble, adding --debug=6 to the command line will show
+ In case of trouble, adding --debug=6 to the command line will show
which aliases are being applied when.
Aliases and multiple files
- As explained at Directives and multiple files, alias directives do not
+ As explained at Directives and multiple files, alias directives do not
affect parent or sibling files. Eg in this command,
hledger -f a.aliases -f b.journal
@@ -5056,14 +5050,14 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
include c.journal ; also affected
end aliases
- You can clear (forget) all currently defined aliases with the end
+ You can clear (forget) all currently defined aliases with the end
aliases directive:
end aliases
Default parent account
- You can specify a parent account which will be prepended to all
- accounts within a section of the journal. Use the apply account and
+ You can specify a parent account which will be prepended to all
+ accounts within a section of the journal. Use the apply account and
end apply account directives like so:
apply account home
@@ -5080,7 +5074,7 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
home:food $10
home:cash $-10
- If end apply account is omitted, the effect lasts to the end of the
+ If end apply account is omitted, the effect lasts to the end of the
file. Included files are also affected, eg:
apply account business
@@ -5089,49 +5083,49 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
apply account personal
include personal.journal
- Prior to hledger 1.0, legacy account and end spellings were also sup-
+ Prior to hledger 1.0, legacy account and end spellings were also sup-
ported.
- A default parent account also affects account directives. It does not
- affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-web. If
- account aliases are present, they are applied after the default parent
+ A default parent account also affects account directives. It does not
+ affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-web. If
+ account aliases are present, they are applied after the default parent
account.
Periodic transactions
- Periodic transaction rules describe transactions that recur. They
- allow hledger to generate temporary future transactions to help with
- forecasting, so you don't have to write out each one in the journal,
+ Periodic transaction rules describe transactions that recur. They
+ allow hledger to generate temporary future transactions to help with
+ forecasting, so you don't have to write out each one in the journal,
and it's easy to try out different forecasts.
- Periodic transactions can be a little tricky, so before you use them,
+ Periodic transactions can be a little tricky, so before you use them,
read this whole section - or at least these tips:
- 1. Two spaces accidentally added or omitted will cause you trouble -
+ 1. Two spaces accidentally added or omitted will cause you trouble -
read about this below.
- 2. For troubleshooting, show the generated transactions with hledger
- print --forecast tag:generated or hledger register --forecast
+ 2. For troubleshooting, show the generated transactions with hledger
+ print --forecast tag:generated or hledger register --forecast
tag:generated.
- 3. Forecasted transactions will begin only after the last non-fore-
+ 3. Forecasted transactions will begin only after the last non-fore-
casted transaction's date.
- 4. Forecasted transactions will end 6 months from today, by default.
+ 4. Forecasted transactions will end 6 months from today, by default.
See below for the exact start/end rules.
- 5. period expressions can be tricky. Their documentation needs
+ 5. period expressions can be tricky. Their documentation needs
improvement, but is worth studying.
- 6. Some period expressions with a repeating interval must begin on a
- natural boundary of that interval. Eg in weekly from DATE, DATE
- must be a monday. ~ weekly from 2019/10/1 (a tuesday) will give an
+ 6. Some period expressions with a repeating interval must begin on a
+ natural boundary of that interval. Eg in weekly from DATE, DATE
+ must be a monday. ~ weekly from 2019/10/1 (a tuesday) will give an
error.
7. Other period expressions with an interval are automatically expanded
- to cover a whole number of that interval. (This is done to improve
+ to cover a whole number of that interval. (This is done to improve
reports, but it also affects periodic transactions. Yes, it's a bit
- inconsistent with the above.) Eg: ~ every 10th day of month from
- 2020/01, which is equivalent to ~ every 10th day of month from
+ inconsistent with the above.) Eg: ~ every 10th day of month from
+ 2020/01, which is equivalent to ~ every 10th day of month from
2020/01/01, will be adjusted to start on 2019/12/10.
Periodic transaction rules also have a second meaning: they are used to
@@ -5146,17 +5140,17 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
expenses:rent $2000
assets:bank:checking
- There is an additional constraint on the period expression: the start
- date must fall on a natural boundary of the interval. Eg monthly from
+ There is an additional constraint on the period expression: the start
+ date must fall on a natural boundary of the interval. Eg monthly from
2018/1/1 is valid, but monthly from 2018/1/15 is not.
- Partial or relative dates (M/D, D, tomorrow, last week) in the period
- expression can work (useful or not). They will be relative to today's
- date, unless a Y default year directive is in effect, in which case
+ Partial or relative dates (M/D, D, tomorrow, last week) in the period
+ expression can work (useful or not). They will be relative to today's
+ date, unless a Y default year directive is in effect, in which case
they will be relative to Y/1/1.
Two spaces between period expression and description!
- If the period expression is followed by a transaction description,
+ If the period expression is followed by a transaction description,
these must be separated by two or more spaces. This helps hledger know
where the period expression ends, so that descriptions can not acciden-
tally alter their meaning, as in this example:
@@ -5170,67 +5164,67 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
So,
- o Do write two spaces between your period expression and your transac-
+ o Do write two spaces between your period expression and your transac-
tion description, if any.
- o Don't accidentally write two spaces in the middle of your period
+ o Don't accidentally write two spaces in the middle of your period
expression.
Forecasting with periodic transactions
- The --forecast flag activates any periodic transaction rules in the
- journal. They will generate temporary recurring transactions, which
- are not saved in the journal, but will appear in all reports (eg
+ The --forecast flag activates any periodic transaction rules in the
+ journal. They will generate temporary recurring transactions, which
+ are not saved in the journal, but will appear in all reports (eg
print). This can be useful for estimating balances into the future, or
- experimenting with different scenarios. Or, it can be used as a data
+ experimenting with different scenarios. Or, it can be used as a data
entry aid: describe recurring transactions, and every so often copy the
output of print --forecast into the journal.
- These transactions will have an extra tag indicating which periodic
+ These transactions will have an extra tag indicating which periodic
rule generated them: generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR. And a simi-
- lar, hidden tag (beginning with an underscore) which, because it's
- never displayed by print, can be used to match transactions generated
+ lar, hidden tag (beginning with an underscore) which, because it's
+ never displayed by print, can be used to match transactions generated
"just now": _generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR.
- Periodic transactions are generated within some forecast period. By
+ Periodic transactions are generated within some forecast period. By
default, this
o begins on the later of
o the report start date if specified with -b/-p/date:
- o the day after the latest normal (non-periodic) transaction in the
+ o the day after the latest normal (non-periodic) transaction in the
journal, or today if there are no normal transactions.
- o ends on the report end date if specified with -e/-p/date:, or 6
+ o ends on the report end date if specified with -e/-p/date:, or 6
months (180 days) from today.
- This means that periodic transactions will begin only after the latest
- recorded transaction. And a recorded transaction dated in the future
- can prevent generation of periodic transactions. (You can avoid that
+ This means that periodic transactions will begin only after the latest
+ recorded transaction. And a recorded transaction dated in the future
+ can prevent generation of periodic transactions. (You can avoid that
by writing the future transaction as a one-time periodic rule instead -
put tilde before the date, eg ~ YYYY-MM-DD ...).
Or, you can set your own arbitrary "forecast period", which can overlap
- recorded transactions, and need not be in the future, by providing an
- option argument, like --forecast=PERIODEXPR. Note the equals sign is
+ recorded transactions, and need not be in the future, by providing an
+ option argument, like --forecast=PERIODEXPR. Note the equals sign is
required, a space won't work. PERIODEXPR is a period expression, which
- can specify the start date, end date, or both, like in a date: query.
- (See also hledger.1 -> Report start & end date). Some examples:
+ can specify the start date, end date, or both, like in a date: query.
+ (See also hledger.1 -> Report start & end date). Some examples:
--forecast=202001-202004, --forecast=jan-, --forecast=2020.
Budgeting with periodic transactions
- With the --budget flag, currently supported by the balance command,
- each periodic transaction rule declares recurring budget goals for the
- specified accounts. Eg the first example above declares a goal of
- spending $2000 on rent (and also, a goal of depositing $2000 into
- checking) every month. Goals and actual performance can then be com-
+ With the --budget flag, currently supported by the balance command,
+ each periodic transaction rule declares recurring budget goals for the
+ specified accounts. Eg the first example above declares a goal of
+ spending $2000 on rent (and also, a goal of depositing $2000 into
+ checking) every month. Goals and actual performance can then be com-
pared in budget reports.
See also: Budgeting and Forecasting.
Auto postings
- "Automated postings" or "auto postings" are extra postings which get
+ "Automated postings" or "auto postings" are extra postings which get
added automatically to transactions which match certain queries,
defined by "auto posting rules", when you use the --auto flag.
@@ -5241,27 +5235,27 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
...
ACCOUNT [AMOUNT]
- except the first line is an equals sign (mnemonic: = suggests match-
- ing), followed by a query (which matches existing postings), and each
- "posting" line describes a posting to be generated, and the posting
+ except the first line is an equals sign (mnemonic: = suggests match-
+ ing), followed by a query (which matches existing postings), and each
+ "posting" line describes a posting to be generated, and the posting
amounts can be:
- o a normal amount with a commodity symbol, eg $2. This will be used
+ o a normal amount with a commodity symbol, eg $2. This will be used
as-is.
o a number, eg 2. The commodity symbol (if any) from the matched post-
ing will be added to this.
- o a numeric multiplier, eg *2 (a star followed by a number N). The
+ o a numeric multiplier, eg *2 (a star followed by a number N). The
matched posting's amount (and total price, if any) will be multiplied
by N.
- o a multiplier with a commodity symbol, eg *$2 (a star, number N, and
+ o a multiplier with a commodity symbol, eg *$2 (a star, number N, and
symbol S). The matched posting's amount will be multiplied by N, and
its commodity symbol will be replaced with S.
- Any query term containing spaces must be enclosed in single or double
- quotes, as on the command line. Eg, note the quotes around the second
+ Any query term containing spaces must be enclosed in single or double
+ quotes, as on the command line. Eg, note the quotes around the second
query term below:
= expenses:groceries 'expenses:dining out'
@@ -5300,24 +5294,24 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Auto postings and multiple files
An auto posting rule can affect any transaction in the current file, or
- in any parent file or child file. Note, currently it will not affect
+ in any parent file or child file. Note, currently it will not affect
sibling files (when multiple -f/--file are used - see #1212).
Auto postings and dates
- A posting date (or secondary date) in the matched posting, or (taking
- precedence) a posting date in the auto posting rule itself, will also
+ A posting date (or secondary date) in the matched posting, or (taking
+ precedence) a posting date in the auto posting rule itself, will also
be used in the generated posting.
Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance asser-
tions
Currently, auto postings are added:
- o after missing amounts are inferred, and transactions are checked for
+ o after missing amounts are inferred, and transactions are checked for
balancedness,
o but before balance assertions are checked.
- Note this means that journal entries must be balanced both before and
+ Note this means that journal entries must be balanced both before and
after auto postings are added. This changed in hledger 1.12+; see #893
for background.
@@ -5327,11 +5321,11 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
o generated-posting:= QUERY - shows this was generated by an auto post-
ing rule, and the query
- o _generated-posting:= QUERY - a hidden tag, which does not appear in
+ o _generated-posting:= QUERY - a hidden tag, which does not appear in
hledger's output. This can be used to match postings generated "just
now", rather than generated in the past and saved to the journal.
- Also, any transaction that has been changed by auto posting rules will
+ Also, any transaction that has been changed by auto posting rules will
have these tags added:
o modified: - this transaction was modified
@@ -5342,65 +5336,64 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
CSV FORMAT
How hledger reads CSV data, and the CSV rules file format.
- hledger can read CSV files (Character Separated Value - usually comma,
- semicolon, or tab) containing dated records as if they were journal
+ hledger can read CSV files (Character Separated Value - usually comma,
+ semicolon, or tab) containing dated records as if they were journal
files, automatically converting each CSV record into a transaction.
(To learn about writing CSV, see CSV output.)
We describe each CSV file's format with a corresponding rules file. By
- default this is named like the CSV file with a .rules extension added.
- Eg when reading FILE.csv, hledger also looks for FILE.csv.rules in the
- same directory as FILE.csv. You can specify a different rules file
- with the --rules-file option. If a rules file is not found, hledger
+ default this is named like the CSV file with a .rules extension added.
+ Eg when reading FILE.csv, hledger also looks for FILE.csv.rules in the
+ same directory as FILE.csv. You can specify a different rules file
+ with the --rules-file option. If a rules file is not found, hledger
will create a sample rules file, which you'll need to adjust.
- This file contains rules describing the CSV data (header line, fields
+ This file contains rules describing the CSV data (header line, fields
layout, date format etc.), and how to construct hledger journal entries
(transactions) from it. Often there will also be a list of conditional
rules for categorising transactions based on their descriptions.
- Here's an overview of the CSV rules; these are described more fully
+ Here's an overview of the CSV rules; these are described more fully
below, after the examples:
skip skip one or more header lines or matched CSV
records
-
-
- fields list name CSV fields, assign them to hledger
+ fields list name CSV fields, assign them to hledger
fields
- field assignment assign a value to one hledger field, with
+ field assignment assign a value to one hledger field, with
interpolation
Field names hledger field names, used in the fields list
and field assignments
separator a custom field separator
- if block apply some rules to CSV records matched by
+
+ if block apply some rules to CSV records matched by
patterns
- if table apply some rules to CSV records matched by
+ if table apply some rules to CSV records matched by
patterns, alternate syntax
end skip the remaining CSV records
date-format how to parse dates in CSV records
- decimal-mark the decimal mark used in CSV amounts, if
+ decimal-mark the decimal mark used in CSV amounts, if
ambiguous
- newest-first disambiguate record order when there's only
+ newest-first disambiguate record order when there's only
one date
include inline another CSV rules file
- balance-type choose which type of balance assignments to
+ balance-type choose which type of balance assignments to
use
- Note, for best error messages when reading CSV files, use a .csv, .tsv
+ Note, for best error messages when reading CSV files, use a .csv, .tsv
or .ssv file extension or file prefix - see File Extension below.
There's an introductory Convert CSV files tutorial on hledger.org.
Examples
- Here are some sample hledger CSV rules files. See also the full col-
+ Here are some sample hledger CSV rules files. See also the full col-
lection at:
https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/tree/master/examples/csv
Basic
- At minimum, the rules file must identify the date and amount fields,
- and often it also specifies the date format and how many header lines
+ At minimum, the rules file must identify the date and amount fields,
+ and often it also specifies the date format and how many header lines
there are. Here's a simple CSV file and a rules file for it:
Date, Description, Id, Amount
@@ -5419,8 +5412,8 @@ CSV FORMAT
Default account names are chosen, since we didn't set them.
Bank of Ireland
- Here's a CSV with two amount fields (Debit and Credit), and a balance
- field, which we can use to add balance assertions, which is not neces-
+ Here's a CSV with two amount fields (Debit and Credit), and a balance
+ field, which we can use to add balance assertions, which is not neces-
sary but provides extra error checking:
Date,Details,Debit,Credit,Balance
@@ -5462,13 +5455,13 @@ CSV FORMAT
assets:bank:boi:checking EUR-5.0 = EUR126.0
expenses:unknown EUR5.0
- The balance assertions don't raise an error above, because we're read-
- ing directly from CSV, but they will be checked if these entries are
+ The balance assertions don't raise an error above, because we're read-
+ ing directly from CSV, but they will be checked if these entries are
imported into a journal file.
Amazon
Here we convert amazon.com order history, and use an if block to gener-
- ate a third posting if there's a fee. (In practice you'd probably get
+ ate a third posting if there's a fee. (In practice you'd probably get
this data from your bank instead, but it's an example.)
"Date","Type","To/From","Name","Status","Amount","Fees","Transaction ID"
@@ -5520,7 +5513,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
expenses:fees $1.00
Paypal
- Here's a real-world rules file for (customised) Paypal CSV, with some
+ Here's a real-world rules file for (customised) Paypal CSV, with some
Paypal-specific rules, and a second rules file included:
"Date","Time","TimeZone","Name","Type","Status","Currency","Gross","Fee","Net","From Email Address","To Email Address","Transaction ID","Item Title","Item ID","Reference Txn ID","Receipt ID","Balance","Note"
@@ -5675,9 +5668,9 @@ CSV FORMAT
skip
skip N
- The word "skip" followed by a number (or no number, meaning 1) tells
- hledger to ignore this many non-empty lines preceding the CSV data.
- (Empty/blank lines are skipped automatically.) You'll need this when-
+ The word "skip" followed by a number (or no number, meaning 1) tells
+ hledger to ignore this many non-empty lines preceding the CSV data.
+ (Empty/blank lines are skipped automatically.) You'll need this when-
ever your CSV data contains header lines.
It also has a second purpose: it can be used inside if blocks to ignore
@@ -5686,19 +5679,19 @@ CSV FORMAT
fields list
fields FIELDNAME1, FIELDNAME2, ...
- A fields list (the word "fields" followed by comma-separated field
- names) is the quick way to assign CSV field values to hledger fields.
- (The other way is field assignments, see below.) A fields list does
+ A fields list (the word "fields" followed by comma-separated field
+ names) is the quick way to assign CSV field values to hledger fields.
+ (The other way is field assignments, see below.) A fields list does
does two things:
- 1. It names the CSV fields. This is optional, but can be convenient
+ 1. It names the CSV fields. This is optional, but can be convenient
later for interpolating them.
- 2. Whenever you use a standard hledger field name (defined below), the
+ 2. Whenever you use a standard hledger field name (defined below), the
CSV value is assigned to that part of the hledger transaction.
- Here's an example that says "use the 1st, 2nd and 4th fields as the
- transaction's date, description and amount; name the last two fields
+ Here's an example that says "use the 1st, 2nd and 4th fields as the
+ transaction's date, description and amount; name the last two fields
for later reference; and ignore the others":
fields date, description, , amount, , , somefield, anotherfield
@@ -5708,18 +5701,18 @@ CSV FORMAT
o The fields list always use commas, even if your CSV data uses another
separator character.
- o Currently there must be least two items in the list (at least one
+ o Currently there must be least two items in the list (at least one
comma).
- o Field names may not contain spaces. Spaces before/after field names
+ o Field names may not contain spaces. Spaces before/after field names
are optional.
- o If the CSV contains column headings, it's a good idea to use these,
+ o If the CSV contains column headings, it's a good idea to use these,
suitably modified, as the basis for your field names (eg lower-cased,
with underscores instead of spaces).
- o If some heading names match standard hledger fields, but you don't
- want to set the hledger fields directly, alter those names, eg by
+ o If some heading names match standard hledger fields, but you don't
+ want to set the hledger fields directly, alter those names, eg by
appending an underscore.
o Fields you don't care about can be given a dummy name (eg: _ ), or no
@@ -5728,15 +5721,15 @@ CSV FORMAT
field assignment
HLEDGERFIELDNAME FIELDVALUE
- Field assignments are the more flexible way to assign CSV values to
+ Field assignments are the more flexible way to assign CSV values to
hledger fields. They can be used instead of or in addition to a fields
list (see above).
- To assign a value to a hledger field, write the field name (any of the
- standard hledger field/pseudo-field names, defined below), a space,
- followed by a text value on the same line. This text value may inter-
- polate CSV fields, referenced by their 1-based position in the CSV
- record (%N), or by the name they were given in the fields list (%CSV-
+ To assign a value to a hledger field, write the field name (any of the
+ standard hledger field/pseudo-field names, defined below), a space,
+ followed by a text value on the same line. This text value may inter-
+ polate CSV fields, referenced by their 1-based position in the CSV
+ record (%N), or by the name they were given in the fields list (%CSV-
FIELDNAME).
Some examples:
@@ -5749,14 +5742,14 @@ CSV FORMAT
Tips:
- o Interpolation strips outer whitespace (so a CSV value like " 1 "
+ o Interpolation strips outer whitespace (so a CSV value like " 1 "
becomes 1 when interpolated) (#1051).
o See also Tips below.
Field names
Here are the standard hledger field (and pseudo-field) names, which you
- can use in a fields list and in field assignments. For more about the
+ can use in a fields list and in field assignments. For more about the
transaction parts they refer to, see Transactions.
date field
@@ -5786,63 +5779,63 @@ CSV FORMAT
Assigning to accountN, where N is 1 to 99, sets the account name of the
Nth posting, and causes that posting to be generated.
- Most often there are two postings, so you'll want to set account1 and
- account2. Typically account1 is associated with the CSV file, and is
- set once with a top-level assignment, while account2 is set based on
+ Most often there are two postings, so you'll want to set account1 and
+ account2. Typically account1 is associated with the CSV file, and is
+ set once with a top-level assignment, while account2 is set based on
each transaction's description, and in conditional blocks.
- If a posting's account name is left unset but its amount is set (see
- below), a default account name will be chosen (like "expenses:unknown"
+ If a posting's account name is left unset but its amount is set (see
+ below), a default account name will be chosen (like "expenses:unknown"
or "income:unknown").
amount field
- amountN sets the amount of the Nth posting, and causes that posting to
- be generated. By assigning to amount1, amount2, ... etc. you can
+ amountN sets the amount of the Nth posting, and causes that posting to
+ be generated. By assigning to amount1, amount2, ... etc. you can
generate up to 99 postings.
- amountN-in and amountN-out can be used instead, if the CSV uses sepa-
- rate fields for debits and credits (inflows and outflows). hledger
- assumes both of these CSV fields are unsigned, and will automatically
- negate the "-out" value. If they are signed, see "Setting amounts"
+ amountN-in and amountN-out can be used instead, if the CSV uses sepa-
+ rate fields for debits and credits (inflows and outflows). hledger
+ assumes both of these CSV fields are unsigned, and will automatically
+ negate the "-out" value. If they are signed, see "Setting amounts"
below.
- amount, or amount-in and amount-out are a legacy mode, to keep pre-
- hledger-1.17 CSV rules files working (and for occasional convenience).
- They are suitable only for two-posting transactions; they set both
- posting 1's and posting 2's amount. Posting 2's amount will be
+ amount, or amount-in and amount-out are a legacy mode, to keep pre-
+ hledger-1.17 CSV rules files working (and for occasional convenience).
+ They are suitable only for two-posting transactions; they set both
+ posting 1's and posting 2's amount. Posting 2's amount will be
negated, and also converted to cost if there's a transaction price.
If you have an existing rules file using the unnumbered form, you might
- want to use the numbered form in certain conditional blocks, without
- having to update and retest all the old rules. To facilitate this,
- posting 1 ignores amount/amount-in/amount-out if any of
+ want to use the numbered form in certain conditional blocks, without
+ having to update and retest all the old rules. To facilitate this,
+ posting 1 ignores amount/amount-in/amount-out if any of
amount1/amount1-in/amount1-out are assigned, and posting 2 ignores them
- if any of amount2/amount2-in/amount2-out are assigned, avoiding con-
+ if any of amount2/amount2-in/amount2-out are assigned, avoiding con-
flicts.
currency field
- currency sets a currency symbol, to be prepended to all postings'
- amounts. You can use this if the CSV amounts do not have a currency
+ currency sets a currency symbol, to be prepended to all postings'
+ amounts. You can use this if the CSV amounts do not have a currency
symbol, eg if it is in a separate column.
- currencyN prepends a currency symbol to just the Nth posting's amount.
+ currencyN prepends a currency symbol to just the Nth posting's amount.
balance field
- balanceN sets a balance assertion amount (or if the posting amount is
+ balanceN sets a balance assertion amount (or if the posting amount is
left empty, a balance assignment) on posting N.
balance is a compatibility spelling for hledger <1.17; it is equivalent
to balance1.
- You can adjust the type of assertion/assignment with the balance-type
+ You can adjust the type of assertion/assignment with the balance-type
rule (see below).
See Tips below for more about setting amounts and currency.
separator
- You can use the separator rule to read other kinds of character-sepa-
- rated data. The argument is any single separator character, or the
- words tab or space (case insensitive). Eg, for comma-separated values
+ You can use the separator rule to read other kinds of character-sepa-
+ rated data. The argument is any single separator character, or the
+ words tab or space (case insensitive). Eg, for comma-separated values
(CSV):
separator ,
@@ -5855,7 +5848,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
separator TAB
- If the input file has a .csv, .ssv or .tsv file extension (or a csv:,
+ If the input file has a .csv, .ssv or .tsv file extension (or a csv:,
ssv:, tsv: prefix), the appropriate separator will be inferred automat-
ically, and you won't need this rule.
@@ -5870,8 +5863,8 @@ CSV FORMAT
RULE
RULE
- Conditional blocks ("if blocks") are a block of rules that are applied
- only to CSV records which match certain patterns. They are often used
+ Conditional blocks ("if blocks") are a block of rules that are applied
+ only to CSV records which match certain patterns. They are often used
for customising account names based on transaction descriptions.
Matching the whole record
@@ -5880,16 +5873,16 @@ CSV FORMAT
REGEX
REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression that tries to match any-
- where within the CSV record. It is a POSIX ERE (extended regular
- expression) that also supports GNU word boundaries (\b, \B, \<, \>),
- and nothing else. If you have trouble, be sure to check our doc:
+ where within the CSV record. It is a POSIX ERE (extended regular
+ expression) that also supports GNU word boundaries (\b, \B, \<, \>),
+ and nothing else. If you have trouble, be sure to check our doc:
https://hledger.org/hledger.html#regular-expressions
- Important note: the record that is matched is not the original record,
- but a synthetic one, with any enclosing double quotes (but not enclos-
+ Important note: the record that is matched is not the original record,
+ but a synthetic one, with any enclosing double quotes (but not enclos-
ing whitespace) removed, and always comma-separated (which means that a
- field containing a comma will appear like two fields). Eg, if the
- original record is 2020-01-01; "Acme, Inc."; 1,000, the REGEX will
+ field containing a comma will appear like two fields). Eg, if the
+ original record is 2020-01-01; "Acme, Inc."; 1,000, the REGEX will
actually see 2020-01-01,Acme, Inc., 1,000).
Matching individual fields
@@ -5897,14 +5890,14 @@ CSV FORMAT
%CSVFIELD REGEX
- which matches just the content of a particular CSV field. CSVFIELD is
- a percent sign followed by the field's name or column number, like
+ which matches just the content of a particular CSV field. CSVFIELD is
+ a percent sign followed by the field's name or column number, like
%date or %1.
Combining matchers
A single matcher can be written on the same line as the "if"; or multi-
ple matchers can be written on the following lines, non-indented. Mul-
- tiple matchers are OR'd (any one of them can match), unless one begins
+ tiple matchers are OR'd (any one of them can match), unless one begins
with an & symbol, in which case it is AND'ed with the previous matcher.
if
@@ -5913,8 +5906,8 @@ CSV FORMAT
RULE
Rules applied on successful match
- After the patterns there should be one or more rules to apply, all
- indented by at least one space. Three kinds of rule are allowed in
+ After the patterns there should be one or more rules to apply, all
+ indented by at least one space. Three kinds of rule are allowed in
conditional blocks:
o field assignments (to set a hledger field)
@@ -5944,11 +5937,11 @@ CSV FORMAT
MATCHER3,VALUE31,VALUE32,...,VALUE3n
<empty line>
- Conditional tables ("if tables") are a different syntax to specify
- field assignments that will be applied only to CSV records which match
+ Conditional tables ("if tables") are a different syntax to specify
+ field assignments that will be applied only to CSV records which match
certain patterns.
- MATCHER could be either field or record matcher, as described above.
+ MATCHER could be either field or record matcher, as described above.
When MATCHER matches, values from that row would be assigned to the CSV
fields named on the if line, in the same order.
@@ -5972,17 +5965,17 @@ CSV FORMAT
...
CSVFIELDNAMEn VALUE3n
- Each line starting with MATCHER should contain enough (possibly empty)
+ Each line starting with MATCHER should contain enough (possibly empty)
values for all the listed fields.
- Rules would be checked and applied in the order they are listed in the
+ Rules would be checked and applied in the order they are listed in the
table and, like with if blocks, later rules (in the same or another ta-
ble) or if blocks could override the effect of any rule.
- Instead of ',' you can use a variety of other non-alphanumeric charac-
+ Instead of ',' you can use a variety of other non-alphanumeric charac-
ters as a separator. First character after if is taken to be the sepa-
- rator for the rest of the table. It is the responsibility of the user
- to ensure that separator does not occur inside MATCHERs and values -
+ rator for the rest of the table. It is the responsibility of the user
+ to ensure that separator does not occur inside MATCHERs and values -
there is no way to escape separator.
Example:
@@ -5993,7 +5986,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
2020/01/12.*Plumbing LLC,expenses:house:upkeep,emergency plumbing call-out
end
- This rule can be used inside if blocks (only), to make hledger stop
+ This rule can be used inside if blocks (only), to make hledger stop
reading this CSV file and move on to the next input file, or to command
execution. Eg:
@@ -6004,10 +5997,10 @@ CSV FORMAT
date-format
date-format DATEFMT
- This is a helper for the date (and date2) fields. If your CSV dates
- are not formatted like YYYY-MM-DD, YYYY/MM/DD or YYYY.MM.DD, you'll
- need to add a date-format rule describing them with a strptime date
- parsing pattern, which must parse the CSV date value completely. Some
+ This is a helper for the date (and date2) fields. If your CSV dates
+ are not formatted like YYYY-MM-DD, YYYY/MM/DD or YYYY.MM.DD, you'll
+ need to add a date-format rule describing them with a strptime date
+ parsing pattern, which must parse the CSV date value completely. Some
examples:
# MM/DD/YY
@@ -6028,9 +6021,9 @@ CSV FORMAT
https://hackage.haskell.org/package/time/docs/Data-Time-For-
mat.html#v:formatTime
- Note that although you can parse date-times which include a time zone,
- that time zone is ignored; it will not change the date that is parsed.
- This means when reading CSV data with times not in your local time
+ Note that although you can parse date-times which include a time zone,
+ that time zone is ignored; it will not change the date that is parsed.
+ This means when reading CSV data with times not in your local time
zone, dates can be "off by one".
decimal-mark
@@ -6040,22 +6033,22 @@ CSV FORMAT
decimal-mark ,
- hledger automatically accepts either period or comma as a decimal mark
- when parsing numbers (cf Amounts). However if any numbers in the CSV
- contain digit group marks, such as thousand-separating commas, you
- should declare the decimal mark explicitly with this rule, to avoid
+ hledger automatically accepts either period or comma as a decimal mark
+ when parsing numbers (cf Amounts). However if any numbers in the CSV
+ contain digit group marks, such as thousand-separating commas, you
+ should declare the decimal mark explicitly with this rule, to avoid
misparsed numbers.
newest-first
- hledger always sorts the generated transactions by date. Transactions
- on the same date should appear in the same order as their CSV records,
- as hledger can usually auto-detect whether the CSV's normal order is
+ hledger always sorts the generated transactions by date. Transactions
+ on the same date should appear in the same order as their CSV records,
+ as hledger can usually auto-detect whether the CSV's normal order is
oldest first or newest first. But if all of the following are true:
- o the CSV might sometimes contain just one day of data (all records
+ o the CSV might sometimes contain just one day of data (all records
having the same date)
- o the CSV records are normally in reverse chronological order (newest
+ o the CSV records are normally in reverse chronological order (newest
at the top)
o and you care about preserving the order of same-day transactions
@@ -6068,9 +6061,9 @@ CSV FORMAT
include
include RULESFILE
- This includes the contents of another CSV rules file at this point.
- RULESFILE is an absolute file path or a path relative to the current
- file's directory. This can be useful for sharing common rules between
+ This includes the contents of another CSV rules file at this point.
+ RULESFILE is an absolute file path or a path relative to the current
+ file's directory. This can be useful for sharing common rules between
several rules files, eg:
# someaccount.csv.rules
@@ -6085,10 +6078,10 @@ CSV FORMAT
balance-type
Balance assertions generated by assigning to balanceN are of the simple
- = type by default, which is a single-commodity, subaccount-excluding
+ = type by default, which is a single-commodity, subaccount-excluding
assertion. You may find the subaccount-including variants more useful,
- eg if you have created some virtual subaccounts of checking to help
- with budgeting. You can select a different type of assertion with the
+ eg if you have created some virtual subaccounts of checking to help
+ with budgeting. You can select a different type of assertion with the
balance-type rule:
# balance assertions will consider all commodities and all subaccounts
@@ -6103,19 +6096,19 @@ CSV FORMAT
Tips
Rapid feedback
- It's a good idea to get rapid feedback while creating/troubleshooting
+ It's a good idea to get rapid feedback while creating/troubleshooting
CSV rules. Here's a good way, using entr from http://eradman.com/entr-
project :
$ ls foo.csv* | entr bash -c 'echo ----; hledger -f foo.csv print desc:SOMEDESC'
- A desc: query (eg) is used to select just one, or a few, transactions
- of interest. "bash -c" is used to run multiple commands, so we can
- echo a separator each time the command re-runs, making it easier to
+ A desc: query (eg) is used to select just one, or a few, transactions
+ of interest. "bash -c" is used to run multiple commands, so we can
+ echo a separator each time the command re-runs, making it easier to
read the output.
Valid CSV
- hledger accepts CSV conforming to RFC 4180. When CSV values are
+ hledger accepts CSV conforming to RFC 4180. When CSV values are
enclosed in quotes, note:
o they must be double quotes (not single quotes)
@@ -6123,9 +6116,9 @@ CSV FORMAT
o spaces outside the quotes are not allowed
File Extension
- To help hledger identify the format and show the right error messages,
- CSV/SSV/TSV files should normally be named with a .csv, .ssv or .tsv
- filename extension. Or, the file path should be prefixed with csv:,
+ To help hledger identify the format and show the right error messages,
+ CSV/SSV/TSV files should normally be named with a .csv, .ssv or .tsv
+ filename extension. Or, the file path should be prefixed with csv:,
ssv: or tsv:. Eg:
$ hledger -f foo.ssv print
@@ -6134,48 +6127,48 @@ CSV FORMAT
$ cat foo | hledger -f ssv:- foo
- You can override the file extension with a separator rule if needed.
+ You can override the file extension with a separator rule if needed.
See also: Input files in the hledger manual.
Reading multiple CSV files
- If you use multiple -f options to read multiple CSV files at once,
- hledger will look for a correspondingly-named rules file for each CSV
- file. But if you use the --rules-file option, that rules file will be
+ If you use multiple -f options to read multiple CSV files at once,
+ hledger will look for a correspondingly-named rules file for each CSV
+ file. But if you use the --rules-file option, that rules file will be
used for all the CSV files.
Valid transactions
After reading a CSV file, hledger post-processes and validates the gen-
erated journal entries as it would for a journal file - balancing them,
- applying balance assignments, and canonicalising amount styles. Any
- errors at this stage will be reported in the usual way, displaying the
+ applying balance assignments, and canonicalising amount styles. Any
+ errors at this stage will be reported in the usual way, displaying the
problem entry.
There is one exception: balance assertions, if you have generated them,
- will not be checked, since normally these will work only when the CSV
- data is part of the main journal. If you do need to check balance
+ will not be checked, since normally these will work only when the CSV
+ data is part of the main journal. If you do need to check balance
assertions generated from CSV right away, pipe into another hledger:
$ hledger -f file.csv print | hledger -f- print
Deduplicating, importing
- When you download a CSV file periodically, eg to get your latest bank
- transactions, the new file may overlap with the old one, containing
+ When you download a CSV file periodically, eg to get your latest bank
+ transactions, the new file may overlap with the old one, containing
some of the same records.
The import command will (a) detect the new transactions, and (b) append
just those transactions to your main journal. It is idempotent, so you
- don't have to remember how many times you ran it or with which version
- of the CSV. (It keeps state in a hidden .latest.FILE.csv file.) This
+ don't have to remember how many times you ran it or with which version
+ of the CSV. (It keeps state in a hidden .latest.FILE.csv file.) This
is the easiest way to import CSV data. Eg:
# download the latest CSV files, then run this command.
# Note, no -f flags needed here.
$ hledger import *.csv [--dry]
- This method works for most CSV files. (Where records have a stable
+ This method works for most CSV files. (Where records have a stable
chronological order, and new records appear only at the new end.)
- A number of other tools and workflows, hledger-specific and otherwise,
+ A number of other tools and workflows, hledger-specific and otherwise,
exist for converting, deduplicating, classifying and managing CSV data.
See:
@@ -6196,13 +6189,13 @@ CSV FORMAT
a. If both fields are unsigned:
Assign to amountN-in and amountN-out. This sets posting N's amount
- to whichever of these has a non-zero value, and negates the "-out"
+ to whichever of these has a non-zero value, and negates the "-out"
value.
b. If either field is signed (can contain a minus sign):
- Use a conditional rule to flip the sign (of non-empty values).
- Since hledger always negates amountN-out, if it was already nega-
- tive, we must undo that by negating once more (but only if the
+ Use a conditional rule to flip the sign (of non-empty values).
+ Since hledger always negates amountN-out, if it was already nega-
+ tive, we must undo that by negating once more (but only if the
field is non-empty):
fields date, description, amount1-in, amount1-out
@@ -6210,8 +6203,8 @@ CSV FORMAT
amount1-out -%amount1-out
c. If both fields, or neither field, can contain a non-zero value:
- hledger normally expects exactly one of the fields to have a non-
- zero value. Eg, the amountN-in/amountN-out rules would reject
+ hledger normally expects exactly one of the fields to have a non-
+ zero value. Eg, the amountN-in/amountN-out rules would reject
value pairs like these:
"", ""
@@ -6219,7 +6212,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
"1", "none"
So, use smarter conditional rules to set the amount from the appro-
- priate field. Eg, these rules would make it use only the value
+ priate field. Eg, these rules would make it use only the value
containing non-zero digits, handling the above:
fields date, description, in, out
@@ -6228,7 +6221,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
if %out [1-9]
amount1 %out
- 3. If you are stuck with hledger <1.17, or you want posting 2's amount
+ 3. If you are stuck with hledger <1.17, or you want posting 2's amount
converted to cost:
Assign to amount (or to amount-in and amount-out). (The old numberless
syntax, which sets amount1 and amount2.)
@@ -6238,15 +6231,15 @@ CSV FORMAT
ance assignment. (Old syntax: balance, equivalent to balance1.)
o If hledger guesses the wrong default account name:
- When setting the amount via balance assertion, hledger may guess
- the wrong default account name. So, set the account name explic-
+ When setting the amount via balance assertion, hledger may guess
+ the wrong default account name. So, set the account name explic-
itly, eg:
fields date, description, balance1
account1 assets:checking
Amount signs
- There is some special handling for amount signs, to simplify parsing
+ There is some special handling for amount signs, to simplify parsing
and sign-flipping:
o If an amount value begins with a plus sign:
@@ -6255,17 +6248,17 @@ CSV FORMAT
o If an amount value is parenthesised:
it will be de-parenthesised and sign-flipped: (AMT) becomes -AMT
- o If an amount value has two minus signs (or two sets of parentheses,
+ o If an amount value has two minus signs (or two sets of parentheses,
or a minus sign and parentheses):
they cancel out and will be removed: --AMT or -(AMT) becomes AMT
- o If an amount value contains just a sign (or just a set of parenthe-
+ o If an amount value contains just a sign (or just a set of parenthe-
ses):
- that is removed, making it an empty value. "+" or "-" or "()" becomes
+ that is removed, making it an empty value. "+" or "-" or "()" becomes
"".
Setting currency/commodity
- If the currency/commodity symbol is included in the CSV's amount
+ If the currency/commodity symbol is included in the CSV's amount
field(s):
2020-01-01,foo,$123.00
@@ -6284,7 +6277,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
2020-01-01,foo,USD,123.00
You can assign that to the currency pseudo-field, which has the special
- effect of prepending itself to every amount in the transaction (on the
+ effect of prepending itself to every amount in the transaction (on the
left, with no separating space):
fields date,description,currency,amount
@@ -6293,7 +6286,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
expenses:unknown USD123.00
income:unknown USD-123.00
- Or, you can use a field assignment to construct the amount yourself,
+ Or, you can use a field assignment to construct the amount yourself,
with more control. Eg to put the symbol on the right, and separated by
a space:
@@ -6304,7 +6297,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
expenses:unknown 123.00 USD
income:unknown -123.00 USD
- Note we used a temporary field name (cur) that is not currency - that
+ Note we used a temporary field name (cur) that is not currency - that
would trigger the prepending effect, which we don't want here.
Amount decimal places
@@ -6312,13 +6305,13 @@ CSV FORMAT
amount1 influence commodity display styles, such as the number of deci-
mal places displayed in reports.
- The original amounts as written in the CSV file do not affect display
+ The original amounts as written in the CSV file do not affect display
style (because we don't yet reliably know their commodity).
Referencing other fields
- In field assignments, you can interpolate only CSV fields, not hledger
- fields. In the example below, there's both a CSV field and a hledger
- field named amount1, but %amount1 always means the CSV field, not the
+ In field assignments, you can interpolate only CSV fields, not hledger
+ fields. In the example below, there's both a CSV field and a hledger
+ field named amount1, but %amount1 always means the CSV field, not the
hledger field:
# Name the third CSV field "amount1"
@@ -6330,7 +6323,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
# Set comment to the CSV amount1 (not the amount1 assigned above)
comment %amount1
- Here, since there's no CSV amount1 field, %amount1 will produce a lit-
+ Here, since there's no CSV amount1 field, %amount1 will produce a lit-
eral "amount1":
fields date,description,csvamount
@@ -6338,7 +6331,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
# Can't interpolate amount1 here
comment %amount1
- When there are multiple field assignments to the same hledger field,
+ When there are multiple field assignments to the same hledger field,
only the last one takes effect. Here, comment's value will be be B, or
C if "something" is matched, but never A:
@@ -6348,14 +6341,14 @@ CSV FORMAT
comment C
How CSV rules are evaluated
- Here's how to think of CSV rules being evaluated (if you really need
+ Here's how to think of CSV rules being evaluated (if you really need
to). First,
- o include - all includes are inlined, from top to bottom, depth first.
- (At each include point the file is inlined and scanned for further
+ o include - all includes are inlined, from top to bottom, depth first.
+ (At each include point the file is inlined and scanned for further
includes, recursively, before proceeding.)
- Then "global" rules are evaluated, top to bottom. If a rule is
+ Then "global" rules are evaluated, top to bottom. If a rule is
repeated, the last one wins:
o skip (at top level)
@@ -6369,33 +6362,33 @@ CSV FORMAT
Then for each CSV record in turn:
- o test all if blocks. If any of them contain a end rule, skip all
+ o test all if blocks. If any of them contain a end rule, skip all
remaining CSV records. Otherwise if any of them contain a skip rule,
- skip that many CSV records. If there are multiple matched skip
+ skip that many CSV records. If there are multiple matched skip
rules, the first one wins.
- o collect all field assignments at top level and in matched if blocks.
- When there are multiple assignments for a field, keep only the last
+ o collect all field assignments at top level and in matched if blocks.
+ When there are multiple assignments for a field, keep only the last
one.
- o compute a value for each hledger field - either the one that was
- assigned to it (and interpolate the %CSVFIELDNAME references), or a
+ o compute a value for each hledger field - either the one that was
+ assigned to it (and interpolate the %CSVFIELDNAME references), or a
default
o generate a synthetic hledger transaction from these values.
- This is all part of the CSV reader, one of several readers hledger can
- use to parse input files. When all files have been read successfully,
- the transactions are passed as input to whichever hledger command the
+ This is all part of the CSV reader, one of several readers hledger can
+ use to parse input files. When all files have been read successfully,
+ the transactions are passed as input to whichever hledger command the
user specified.
TIMECLOCK FORMAT
The time logging format of timeclock.el, as read by hledger.
- hledger can read time logs in timeclock format. As with Ledger, these
+ hledger can read time logs in timeclock format. As with Ledger, these
are (a subset of) timeclock.el's format, containing clock-in and clock-
- out entries as in the example below. The date is a simple date. The
- time format is HH:MM[:SS][+-ZZZZ]. Seconds and timezone are optional.
+ out entries as in the example below. The date is a simple date. The
+ time format is HH:MM[:SS][+-ZZZZ]. Seconds and timezone are optional.
The timezone, if present, must be four digits and is ignored (currently
the time is always interpreted as a local time).
@@ -6404,9 +6397,9 @@ TIMECLOCK FORMAT
i 2015/03/31 22:21:45 another account
o 2015/04/01 02:00:34
- hledger treats each clock-in/clock-out pair as a transaction posting
- some number of hours to an account. Or if the session spans more than
- one day, it is split into several transactions, one for each day. For
+ hledger treats each clock-in/clock-out pair as a transaction posting
+ some number of hours to an account. Or if the session spans more than
+ one day, it is split into several transactions, one for each day. For
the above time log, hledger print generates these journal entries:
$ hledger -f t.timeclock print
@@ -6427,72 +6420,100 @@ TIMECLOCK FORMAT
To generate time logs, ie to clock in and clock out, you could:
- o use emacs and the built-in timeclock.el, or the extended timeclock-
+ o use emacs and the built-in timeclock.el, or the extended timeclock-
x.el and perhaps the extras in ledgerutils.el
o at the command line, use these bash aliases: shell alias ti="echo
- i `date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` \$* >>$TIMELOG" alias to="echo o
+ i `date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` \$* >>$TIMELOG" alias to="echo o
`date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` >>$TIMELOG"
o or use the old ti and to scripts in the ledger 2.x repository. These
- rely on a "timeclock" executable which I think is just the ledger 2
+ rely on a "timeclock" executable which I think is just the ledger 2
executable renamed.
TIMEDOT FORMAT
- hledger's human-friendly time logging format.
+ timedot format is hledger's human-friendly time logging format. Com-
+ pared to timeclock format, it is
- Timedot is a plain text format for logging dated, categorised quanti-
- ties (of time, usually), supported by hledger. It is convenient for
- approximate and retroactive time logging, eg when the real-time clock-
- in/out required with a timeclock file is too precise or too interrup-
- tive. It can be formatted like a bar chart, making clear at a glance
- where time was spent.
+ o convenient for quick, approximate, and retroactive time logging
- Though called "timedot", this format is read by hledger as commodity-
- less quantities, so it could be used to represent dated quantities
- other than time. In the docs below we'll assume it's time.
+ o readable: you can see at a glance where time was spent.
- A timedot file contains a series of day entries. A day entry begins
- with a non-indented hledger-style simple date (Y-M-D, Y/M/D, Y.M.D..)
- Any additional text on the same line is used as a transaction descrip-
- tion for this day.
+ A timedot file contains a series of day entries, which might look like
+ this:
- This is followed by optionally-indented timelog items for that day, one
- per line. Each timelog item is a note, usually a
- hledger:style:account:name representing a time category, followed by
- two or more spaces, and a quantity. Each timelog item generates a
- hledger transaction.
+ 2021-08-04
+ hom:errands .... ....
+ fos:hledger:timedot .. ; docs
+ per:admin:finance
- Quantities can be written as:
+ hledger reads this as three time transactions on this day, with each
+ dot representing a quarter-hour spent:
- o dots: a sequence of dots (.) representing quarter hours. Spaces may
- optionally be used for grouping. Eg: .... ..
+ $ hledger -f a.timedot print # .timedot file extension activates the timedot reader
+ 2021-08-04 *
+ (hom:errands) 2.00
- o an integral or decimal number, representing hours. Eg: 1.5
+ 2021-08-04 *
+ (fos:hledger:timedot) 0.50
- o an integral or decimal number immediately followed by a unit symbol
- s, m, h, d, w, mo, or y, representing seconds, minutes, hours, days
- weeks, months or years respectively. Eg: 90m. The following equiva-
- lencies are assumed, currently: 1m = 60s, 1h = 60m, 1d = 24h, 1w =
- 7d, 1mo = 30d, 1y=365d.
+ 2021-08-04 *
+ (per:admin:finance) 0
- There is some flexibility allowing notes and todo lists to be kept
- right in the time log, if needed:
+ A day entry begins with a date line:
- o Blank lines and lines beginning with # or ; are ignored.
+ o a non-indented simple date (Y-M-D, Y/M/D, or Y.M.D).
- o Lines not ending with a double-space and quantity are parsed as items
- taking no time, which will not appear in balance reports by default.
- (Add -E to see them.)
+ Optionally this can be followed on the same line by
- o Org mode headlines (lines beginning with one or more * followed by a
- space) can be used as date lines or timelog items (the stars are
- ignored). Also all org headlines before the first date line are
- ignored. This means org users can manage their timelog as an org
- outline (eg using org-mode/orgstruct-mode in Emacs), for organisa-
- tion, faster navigation, controlling visibility etc.
+ o a common transaction description for this day
- Examples:
+ o a common transaction comment for this day, after a semicolon (;).
+
+ After the date line are zero or more optionally-indented time transac-
+ tion lines, consisting of:
+
+ o an account name - any word or phrase, usually a hledger-style account
+ name.
+
+ o two or more spaces - a field separator, required if there is an
+ amount (as in journal format).
+
+ o a timedot amount - dots representing quarter hours, or a number rep-
+ resenting hours.
+
+ o an optional comment beginning with semicolon. This is ignored.
+
+ In more detail, timedot amounts can be:
+
+ o dots: zero or more period characters, each representing one quarter-
+ hour. Spaces are ignored and can be used for grouping. Eg: .... ..
+
+ o a number, representing hours. Eg: 1.5
+
+ o a number immediately followed by a unit symbol s, m, h, d, w, mo, or
+ y, representing seconds, minutes, hours, days weeks, months or years.
+ Eg 1.5h or 90m. The following equivalencies are assumed:
+ 60s = 1m, 60m = 1h, 24h = 1d, 7d = 1w, 30d = 1mo, 365d = 1y. (This
+ unit will not be visible in the generated transaction amount, which is
+ always in hours.)
+
+ There is some added flexibility to help with keeping time log data in
+ the same file as your notes, todo lists, etc.:
+
+ o Lines beginning with # or ;, and blank lines, are ignored.
+
+ o Lines not ending with a double-space and amount are parsed as trans-
+ actions with zero amount. (Most hledger reports hide these by
+ default; add -E to see them.)
+
+ o One or more stars (*) followed by a space, at the start of a line, is
+ ignored. So date lines or time transaction lines can also be Org-
+ mode headlines.
+
+ o All Org-mode headlines before the first date line are ignored.
+
+ More examples:
# on this day, 6h was spent on client work, 1.5h on haskell FOSS work, etc.
2016/2/1
@@ -6532,14 +6553,14 @@ TIMEDOT FORMAT
Reporting:
- $ hledger -f t.timedot print date:2016/2/2
+ $ hledger -f a.timedot print date:2016/2/2
2016-02-02 *
(inc:client1) 2.00
2016-02-02 *
(biz:research) 0.25
- $ hledger -f t.timedot bal --daily --tree
+ $ hledger -f a.timedot bal --daily --tree
Balance changes in 2016-02-01-2016-02-03:
|| 2016-02-01d 2016-02-02d 2016-02-03d
@@ -6554,26 +6575,25 @@ TIMEDOT FORMAT
------------++----------------------------------------
|| 7.75 2.25 8.00
- I prefer to use period for separating account components. We can make
- this work with an account alias:
+ Using period instead of colon as account name separator:
2016/2/4
fos.hledger.timedot 4
fos.ledger ..
- $ hledger -f t.timedot --alias /\\./=: bal date:2016/2/4 --tree
+ $ hledger -f a.timedot --alias /\\./=: bal --tree
4.50 fos
4.00 hledger:timedot
0.50 ledger
--------------------
4.50
- Here is a sample.timedot.
+ A sample.timedot file.
COMMON TASKS
- Here are some quick examples of how to do some basic tasks with
- hledger. For more details, see the reference section below, the
- hledger_journal(5) manual, or the more extensive docs at
+ Here are some quick examples of how to do some basic tasks with
+ hledger. For more details, see the reference section below, the
+ hledger_journal(5) manual, or the more extensive docs at
https://hledger.org.
Getting help
@@ -6589,26 +6609,26 @@ COMMON TASKS
https://hledger.org#help-feedback
Constructing command lines
- hledger has an extensive and powerful command line interface. We
+ hledger has an extensive and powerful command line interface. We
strive to keep it simple and ergonomic, but you may run into one of the
confusing real world details described in OPTIONS, below. If that hap-
pens, here are some tips that may help:
- o command-specific options must go after the command (it's fine to put
+ o command-specific options must go after the command (it's fine to put
all options there) (hledger CMD OPTS ARGS)
- o running add-on executables directly simplifies command line parsing
+ o running add-on executables directly simplifies command line parsing
(hledger-ui OPTS ARGS)
o enclose "problematic" args in single quotes
- o if needed, also add a backslash to hide regular expression metachar-
+ o if needed, also add a backslash to hide regular expression metachar-
acters from the shell
o to see how a misbehaving command is being parsed, add --debug=2.
Starting a journal file
- hledger looks for your accounting data in a journal file,
+ hledger looks for your accounting data in a journal file,
$HOME/.hledger.journal by default:
$ hledger stats
@@ -6616,9 +6636,9 @@ COMMON TASKS
Please create it first, eg with "hledger add" or a text editor.
Or, specify an existing journal file with -f or LEDGER_FILE.
- You can override this by setting the LEDGER_FILE environment variable.
+ You can override this by setting the LEDGER_FILE environment variable.
It's a good practice to keep this important file under version control,
- and to start a new file each year. So you could do something like
+ and to start a new file each year. So you could do something like
this:
$ mkdir ~/finance
@@ -6642,20 +6662,20 @@ COMMON TASKS
Market prices : 0 ()
Setting opening balances
- Pick a starting date for which you can look up the balances of some
- real-world assets (bank accounts, wallet..) and liabilities (credit
+ Pick a starting date for which you can look up the balances of some
+ real-world assets (bank accounts, wallet..) and liabilities (credit
cards..).
- To avoid a lot of data entry, you may want to start with just one or
- two accounts, like your checking account or cash wallet; and pick a
- recent starting date, like today or the start of the week. You can
+ To avoid a lot of data entry, you may want to start with just one or
+ two accounts, like your checking account or cash wallet; and pick a
+ recent starting date, like today or the start of the week. You can
always come back later and add more accounts and older transactions, eg
going back to january 1st.
- Add an opening balances transaction to the journal, declaring the bal-
+ Add an opening balances transaction to the journal, declaring the bal-
ances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
- o The first way: open the journal in any text editor and save an entry
+ o The first way: open the journal in any text editor and save an entry
like this:
2020-01-01 * opening balances
@@ -6665,19 +6685,19 @@ COMMON TASKS
liabilities:creditcard $-50 = $-50
equity:opening/closing balances
- These are start-of-day balances, ie whatever was in the account at
+ These are start-of-day balances, ie whatever was in the account at
the end of the previous day.
- The * after the date is an optional status flag. Here it means
+ The * after the date is an optional status flag. Here it means
"cleared & confirmed".
- The currency symbols are optional, but usually a good idea as you'll
+ The currency symbols are optional, but usually a good idea as you'll
be dealing with multiple currencies sooner or later.
- The = amounts are optional balance assertions, providing extra error
+ The = amounts are optional balance assertions, providing extra error
checking.
- o The second way: run hledger add and follow the prompts to record a
+ o The second way: run hledger add and follow the prompts to record a
similar transaction:
$ hledger add
@@ -6714,18 +6734,18 @@ COMMON TASKS
Starting the next transaction (. or ctrl-D/ctrl-C to quit)
Date [2020-01-01]: .
- If you're using version control, this could be a good time to commit
+ If you're using version control, this could be a good time to commit
the journal. Eg:
$ git commit -m 'initial balances' 2020.journal
Recording transactions
- As you spend or receive money, you can record these transactions using
- one of the methods above (text editor, hledger add) or by using the
- hledger-iadd or hledger-web add-ons, or by using the import command to
+ As you spend or receive money, you can record these transactions using
+ one of the methods above (text editor, hledger add) or by using the
+ hledger-iadd or hledger-web add-ons, or by using the import command to
convert CSV data downloaded from your bank.
- Here are some simple transactions, see the hledger_journal(5) manual
+ Here are some simple transactions, see the hledger_journal(5) manual
and hledger.org for more ideas:
2020/1/10 * gift received
@@ -6741,22 +6761,22 @@ COMMON TASKS
assets:bank:checking $1000
Reconciling
- Periodically you should reconcile - compare your hledger-reported bal-
- ances against external sources of truth, like bank statements or your
- bank's website - to be sure that your ledger accurately represents the
- real-world balances (and, that the real-world institutions have not
- made a mistake!). This gets easy and fast with (1) practice and (2)
- frequency. If you do it daily, it can take 2-10 minutes. If you let
- it pile up, expect it to take longer as you hunt down errors and dis-
+ Periodically you should reconcile - compare your hledger-reported bal-
+ ances against external sources of truth, like bank statements or your
+ bank's website - to be sure that your ledger accurately represents the
+ real-world balances (and, that the real-world institutions have not
+ made a mistake!). This gets easy and fast with (1) practice and (2)
+ frequency. If you do it daily, it can take 2-10 minutes. If you let
+ it pile up, expect it to take longer as you hunt down errors and dis-
crepancies.
A typical workflow:
- 1. Reconcile cash. Count what's in your wallet. Compare with what
- hledger reports (hledger bal cash). If they are different, try to
- remember the missing transaction, or look for the error in the
- already-recorded transactions. A register report can be helpful
- (hledger reg cash). If you can't find the error, add an adjustment
+ 1. Reconcile cash. Count what's in your wallet. Compare with what
+ hledger reports (hledger bal cash). If they are different, try to
+ remember the missing transaction, or look for the error in the
+ already-recorded transactions. A register report can be helpful
+ (hledger reg cash). If you can't find the error, add an adjustment
transaction. Eg if you have $105 after the above, and can't explain
the missing $2, it could be:
@@ -6766,26 +6786,26 @@ COMMON TASKS
2. Reconcile checking. Log in to your bank's website. Compare today's
(cleared) balance with hledger's cleared balance (hledger bal check-
- ing -C). If they are different, track down the error or record the
- missing transaction(s) or add an adjustment transaction, similar to
+ ing -C). If they are different, track down the error or record the
+ missing transaction(s) or add an adjustment transaction, similar to
the above. Unlike the cash case, you can usually compare the trans-
- action history and running balance from your bank with the one
- reported by hledger reg checking -C. This will be easier if you
- generally record transaction dates quite similar to your bank's
+ action history and running balance from your bank with the one
+ reported by hledger reg checking -C. This will be easier if you
+ generally record transaction dates quite similar to your bank's
clearing dates.
3. Repeat for other asset/liability accounts.
- Tip: instead of the register command, use hledger-ui to see a live-
+ Tip: instead of the register command, use hledger-ui to see a live-
updating register while you edit the journal: hledger-ui --watch --reg-
ister checking -C
- After reconciling, it could be a good time to mark the reconciled
- transactions' status as "cleared and confirmed", if you want to track
- that, by adding the * marker. Eg in the paycheck transaction above,
+ After reconciling, it could be a good time to mark the reconciled
+ transactions' status as "cleared and confirmed", if you want to track
+ that, by adding the * marker. Eg in the paycheck transaction above,
insert * between 2020-01-15 and paycheck
- If you're using version control, this can be another good time to com-
+ If you're using version control, this can be another good time to com-
mit:
$ git commit -m 'txns' 2020.journal
@@ -6857,7 +6877,7 @@ COMMON TASKS
--------------------
0
- Show only asset and liability balances, as a flat list, limited to
+ Show only asset and liability balances, as a flat list, limited to
depth 2:
$ hledger bal assets liabilities --flat -2
@@ -6867,7 +6887,7 @@ COMMON TASKS
--------------------
$4055
- Show the same thing without negative numbers, formatted as a simple
+ Show the same thing without negative numbers, formatted as a simple
balance sheet:
$ hledger bs --flat -2
@@ -6934,15 +6954,15 @@ COMMON TASKS
2020-01-13 ****
Migrating to a new file
- At the end of the year, you may want to continue your journal in a new
+ At the end of the year, you may want to continue your journal in a new
file, so that old transactions don't slow down or clutter your reports,
- and to help ensure the integrity of your accounting history. See the
+ and to help ensure the integrity of your accounting history. See the
close command.
If using version control, don't forget to git add the new file.
LIMITATIONS
- The need to precede add-on command options with -- when invoked from
+ The need to precede add-on command options with -- when invoked from
hledger is awkward.
When input data contains non-ascii characters, a suitable system locale
@@ -6958,36 +6978,36 @@ LIMITATIONS
In a Cygwin/MSYS/Mintty window, the tab key is not supported in hledger
add.
- Not all of Ledger's journal file syntax is supported. See file format
+ Not all of Ledger's journal file syntax is supported. See file format
differences.
- On large data files, hledger is slower and uses more memory than
+ On large data files, hledger is slower and uses more memory than
Ledger.
TROUBLESHOOTING
- Here are some issues you might encounter when you run hledger (and
- remember you can also seek help from the IRC channel, mail list or bug
+ Here are some issues you might encounter when you run hledger (and
+ remember you can also seek help from the IRC channel, mail list or bug
tracker):
Successfully installed, but "No command 'hledger' found"
stack and cabal install binaries into a special directory, which should
- be added to your PATH environment variable. Eg on unix-like systems,
+ be added to your PATH environment variable. Eg on unix-like systems,
that is ~/.local/bin and ~/.cabal/bin respectively.
I set a custom LEDGER_FILE, but hledger is still using the default file
- LEDGER_FILE should be a real environment variable, not just a shell
- variable. The command env | grep LEDGER_FILE should show it. You may
+ LEDGER_FILE should be a real environment variable, not just a shell
+ variable. The command env | grep LEDGER_FILE should show it. You may
need to use export. Here's an explanation.
- Getting errors like "Illegal byte sequence" or "Invalid or incomplete
- multibyte or wide character" or "commitAndReleaseBuffer: invalid argu-
+ Getting errors like "Illegal byte sequence" or "Invalid or incomplete
+ multibyte or wide character" or "commitAndReleaseBuffer: invalid argu-
ment (invalid character)"
Programs compiled with GHC (hledger, haskell build tools, etc.) need to
have a UTF-8-aware locale configured in the environment, otherwise they
- will fail with these kinds of errors when they encounter non-ascii
+ will fail with these kinds of errors when they encounter non-ascii
characters.
- To fix it, set the LANG environment variable to some locale which sup-
+ To fix it, set the LANG environment variable to some locale which sup-
ports UTF-8. The locale you choose must be installed on your system.
Here's an example of setting LANG temporarily, on Ubuntu GNU/Linux:
@@ -7002,8 +7022,8 @@ TROUBLESHOOTING
POSIX
$ LANG=en_US.utf8 hledger -f my.journal print # ensure it is used for this command
- If available, C.UTF-8 will also work. If your preferred locale isn't
- listed by locale -a, you might need to install it. Eg on
+ If available, C.UTF-8 will also work. If your preferred locale isn't
+ listed by locale -a, you might need to install it. Eg on
Ubuntu/Debian:
$ apt-get install language-pack-fr
@@ -7023,8 +7043,8 @@ TROUBLESHOOTING
$ echo "export LANG=en_US.utf8" >>~/.bash_profile
$ bash --login
- Exact spelling and capitalisation may be important. Note the differ-
- ence on MacOS (UTF-8, not utf8). Some platforms (eg ubuntu) allow
+ Exact spelling and capitalisation may be important. Note the differ-
+ ence on MacOS (UTF-8, not utf8). Some platforms (eg ubuntu) allow
variant spellings, but others (eg macos) require it to be exact:
$ locale -a | grep -iE en_us.*utf
@@ -7034,7 +7054,7 @@ TROUBLESHOOTING
REPORTING BUGS
- Report bugs at http://bugs.hledger.org (or on the #hledger IRC channel
+ Report bugs at http://bugs.hledger.org (or on the #hledger IRC channel
or hledger mail list)
@@ -7052,4 +7072,4 @@ SEE ALSO
-hledger-1.22.1 August 2021 HLEDGER(1)
+hledger-1.22.2 August 2021 HLEDGER(1)
diff --git a/hledger.1 b/hledger.1
index 58f8153..3a03b67 100644
--- a/hledger.1
+++ b/hledger.1
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
.\"t
-.TH "HLEDGER" "1" "August 2021" "hledger-1.22.1 " "hledger User Manuals"
+.TH "HLEDGER" "1" "August 2021" "hledger-1.22.2 " "hledger User Manuals"
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
This is the command-line interface (CLI) for the hledger accounting
tool.
Here we also describe hledger\[aq]s concepts and file formats.
-This manual is for hledger 1.22.1.
+This manual is for hledger 1.22.2.
.SH SYNOPSIS
.PP
\f[C]hledger\f[R]
@@ -2511,30 +2511,23 @@ aregister, areg
.P
.PD
.PP
-Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account, with
-each line item representing one transaction.
+Show the transactions and running historical balance of a single
+account, with each transaction displayed as one line.
.PP
-\f[C]aregister\f[R] shows the transactions affecting a particular
-account and its subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole
-transaction - as in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other
-accounting apps.
+\f[C]aregister\f[R] shows the overall transactions affecting a
+particular account (and any subaccounts).
+Each report line represents one transaction in this account.
+Transactions before the report start date are always included in the
+running balance (\f[C]--historical\f[R] mode is always on).
.PP
-Note this is unlike the \f[C]register\f[R] command, which shows
-individual postings and does not always show a single account or a
-historical balance.
+This is a more \[dq]real world\[dq], bank-like view than the
+\f[C]register\f[R] command (which shows individual postings, possibly
+from multiple accounts, not necessarily in historical mode).
+As a quick rule of thumb: - use \f[C]aregister\f[R] for reviewing and
+reconciling real-world asset/liability accounts - use \f[C]register\f[R]
+for reviewing detailed revenues/expenses.
.PP
-A reminder, \[dq]historical\[dq] balances include any balance from
-transactions before the report start date, so (if opening balances are
-recorded correctly) \f[C]aregister\f[R] will show the real-world
-balances of an account, as you would see in a bank statement.
-.PP
-As a quick rule of thumb, use \f[C]aregister\f[R] for reconciling
-real-world asset/liability accounts and \f[C]register\f[R] for reviewing
-detailed revenues/expenses.
-.PP
-\f[C]aregister\f[R] shows the register for just one account (and its
-subaccounts).
-This account must be specified as the first argument.
+\f[C]aregister\f[R] requires one argument: the account to report on.
You can write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive
regular expression which will select the alphabetically first matched
account.
@@ -2542,8 +2535,24 @@ account.
\f[C]assets:bbb:checking\f[R] accounts, \f[C]hledger areg checking\f[R]
would select \f[C]assets:aaa:checking\f[R].)
.PP
+Transactions involving subaccounts of this account will also be shown.
+\f[C]aregister\f[R] ignores depth limits, so its final total will always
+match a balance report with similar arguments.
+.PP
Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transactions
shown.
+Note some queries will disturb the running balance, causing it to be
+different from the account\[aq]s real-world running balance.
+.PP
+An example: this shows the transactions and historical running balance
+during july, in the first account whose name contains
+\[dq]checking\[dq]:
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[C]
+$ hledger areg checking date:jul
+\f[R]
+.fi
.PP
Each \f[C]aregister\f[R] line item shows:
.IP \[bu] 2
@@ -2560,12 +2569,10 @@ the account\[aq]s historical running balance after this transaction.
Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default; add
the \f[C]-E/--empty\f[R] flag to show them.
.PP
-\f[C]aregister\f[R] ignores a depth limit, so its final total will
-always match a balance report with similar arguments.
-.PP
This command also supports the output destination and output format
-options The output formats supported are \f[C]txt\f[R], \f[C]csv\f[R],
-and \f[C]json\f[R].
+options.
+The output formats supported are \f[C]txt\f[R], \f[C]csv\f[R], and
+\f[C]json\f[R].
.SS aregister and custom posting dates
.PP
Transactions whose date is outside the report period can still be shown,
@@ -2579,26 +2586,6 @@ To filter strictly by transaction date instead, add the
\f[C]--txn-dates\f[R] flag.
If you use this flag and some of your postings have custom dates,
it\[aq]s probably best to assume the running balance is wrong.
-.PP
-Examples:
-.PP
-Show all transactions and historical running balance in the first
-account whose name contains \[dq]checking\[dq]:
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[C]
-$ hledger areg checking
-\f[R]
-.fi
-.PP
-Show transactions and historical running balance in all asset accounts
-during july:
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[C]
-$ hledger areg assets date:jul
-\f[R]
-.fi
.SS balance
.PP
balance, bal
@@ -8851,70 +8838,111 @@ These rely on a \[dq]timeclock\[dq] executable which I think is just the
ledger 2 executable renamed.
.SH TIMEDOT FORMAT
.PP
-hledger\[aq]s human-friendly time logging format.
-.PP
-Timedot is a plain text format for logging dated, categorised quantities
-(of time, usually), supported by hledger.
-It is convenient for approximate and retroactive time logging, eg when
-the real-time clock-in/out required with a timeclock file is too precise
-or too interruptive.
-It can be formatted like a bar chart, making clear at a glance where
-time was spent.
-.PP
-Though called \[dq]timedot\[dq], this format is read by hledger as
-commodityless quantities, so it could be used to represent dated
-quantities other than time.
-In the docs below we\[aq]ll assume it\[aq]s time.
-.PP
-A timedot file contains a series of day entries.
-A day entry begins with a non-indented hledger-style simple date (Y-M-D,
-Y/M/D, Y.M.D..) Any additional text on the same line is used as a
-transaction description for this day.
-.PP
-This is followed by optionally-indented timelog items for that day, one
-per line.
-Each timelog item is a note, usually a hledger:style:account:name
-representing a time category, followed by two or more spaces, and a
-quantity.
-Each timelog item generates a hledger transaction.
-.PP
-Quantities can be written as:
-.IP \[bu] 2
-dots: a sequence of dots (.) representing quarter hours.
-Spaces may optionally be used for grouping.
-Eg: ....
-\&..
-.IP \[bu] 2
-an integral or decimal number, representing hours.
-Eg: 1.5
-.IP \[bu] 2
-an integral or decimal number immediately followed by a unit symbol
-\f[C]s\f[R], \f[C]m\f[R], \f[C]h\f[R], \f[C]d\f[R], \f[C]w\f[R],
-\f[C]mo\f[R], or \f[C]y\f[R], representing seconds, minutes, hours, days
-weeks, months or years respectively.
-Eg: 90m.
-The following equivalencies are assumed, currently: 1m = 60s, 1h = 60m,
-1d = 24h, 1w = 7d, 1mo = 30d, 1y=365d.
-.PP
-There is some flexibility allowing notes and todo lists to be kept right
-in the time log, if needed:
+\f[C]timedot\f[R] format is hledger\[aq]s human-friendly time logging
+format.
+Compared to \f[C]timeclock\f[R] format, it is
.IP \[bu] 2
-Blank lines and lines beginning with \f[C]#\f[R] or \f[C];\f[R] are
+convenient for quick, approximate, and retroactive time logging
+.IP \[bu] 2
+readable: you can see at a glance where time was spent.
+.PP
+A timedot file contains a series of day entries, which might look like
+this:
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[C]
+2021-08-04
+hom:errands .... ....
+fos:hledger:timedot .. ; docs
+per:admin:finance
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+hledger reads this as three time transactions on this day, with each dot
+representing a quarter-hour spent:
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[C]
+$ hledger -f a.timedot print # .timedot file extension activates the timedot reader
+2021-08-04 *
+ (hom:errands) 2.00
+
+2021-08-04 *
+ (fos:hledger:timedot) 0.50
+
+2021-08-04 *
+ (per:admin:finance) 0
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+A day entry begins with a date line:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a non-indented \f[B]simple date\f[R] (Y-M-D, Y/M/D, or Y.M.D).
+.PP
+Optionally this can be followed on the same line by
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a common \f[B]transaction description\f[R] for this day
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a common \f[B]transaction comment\f[R] for this day, after a semicolon
+(\f[C];\f[R]).
+.PP
+After the date line are zero or more optionally-indented time
+transaction lines, consisting of:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+an \f[B]account name\f[R] - any word or phrase, usually a hledger-style
+account name.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+\f[B]two or more spaces\f[R] - a field separator, required if there is
+an amount (as in journal format).
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a \f[B]timedot amount\f[R] - dots representing quarter hours, or a
+number representing hours.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+an optional \f[B]comment\f[R] beginning with semicolon.
+This is ignored.
+.PP
+In more detail, timedot amounts can be:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+\f[B]dots\f[R]: zero or more period characters, each representing one
+quarter-hour.
+Spaces are ignored and can be used for grouping.
+Eg: \f[C].... ..\f[R]
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a \f[B]number\f[R], representing hours.
+Eg: \f[C]1.5\f[R]
+.IP \[bu] 2
+a \f[B]number immediately followed by a unit symbol\f[R] \f[C]s\f[R],
+\f[C]m\f[R], \f[C]h\f[R], \f[C]d\f[R], \f[C]w\f[R], \f[C]mo\f[R], or
+\f[C]y\f[R], representing seconds, minutes, hours, days weeks, months or
+years.
+Eg \f[C]1.5h\f[R] or \f[C]90m\f[R].
+The following equivalencies are assumed:
+.PD 0
+.P
+.PD
+\f[C]60s\f[R] = \f[C]1m\f[R], \f[C]60m\f[R] = \f[C]1h\f[R],
+\f[C]24h\f[R] = \f[C]1d\f[R], \f[C]7d\f[R] = \f[C]1w\f[R], \f[C]30d\f[R]
+= \f[C]1mo\f[R], \f[C]365d\f[R] = \f[C]1y\f[R].
+(This unit will not be visible in the generated transaction amount,
+which is always in hours.)
+.PP
+There is some added flexibility to help with keeping time log data in
+the same file as your notes, todo lists, etc.:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Lines beginning with \f[C]#\f[R] or \f[C];\f[R], and blank lines, are
ignored.
.IP \[bu] 2
-Lines not ending with a double-space and quantity are parsed as items
-taking no time, which will not appear in balance reports by default.
-(Add -E to see them.)
+Lines not ending with a double-space and amount are parsed as
+transactions with zero amount.
+(Most hledger reports hide these by default; add -E to see them.)
.IP \[bu] 2
-Org mode headlines (lines beginning with one or more \f[C]*\f[R]
-followed by a space) can be used as date lines or timelog items (the
-stars are ignored).
-Also all org headlines before the first date line are ignored.
-This means org users can manage their timelog as an org outline (eg
-using org-mode/orgstruct-mode in Emacs), for organisation, faster
-navigation, controlling visibility etc.
+One or more stars (\f[C]*\f[R]) followed by a space, at the start of a
+line, is ignored.
+So date lines or time transaction lines can also be Org-mode headlines.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+All Org-mode headlines before the first date line are ignored.
.PP
-Examples:
+More examples:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
@@ -8972,7 +9000,7 @@ Reporting:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-$ hledger -f t.timedot print date:2016/2/2
+$ hledger -f a.timedot print date:2016/2/2
2016-02-02 *
(inc:client1) 2.00
@@ -8983,7 +9011,7 @@ $ hledger -f t.timedot print date:2016/2/2
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-$ hledger -f t.timedot bal --daily --tree
+$ hledger -f a.timedot bal --daily --tree
Balance changes in 2016-02-01-2016-02-03:
|| 2016-02-01d 2016-02-02d 2016-02-03d
@@ -9000,8 +9028,7 @@ Balance changes in 2016-02-01-2016-02-03:
\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-I prefer to use period for separating account components.
-We can make this work with an account alias:
+Using period instead of colon as account name separator:
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
@@ -9013,7 +9040,7 @@ fos.ledger ..
.IP
.nf
\f[C]
-$ hledger -f t.timedot --alias /\[rs]\[rs]./=: bal date:2016/2/4 --tree
+$ hledger -f a.timedot --alias /\[rs]\[rs]./=: bal --tree
4.50 fos
4.00 hledger:timedot
0.50 ledger
@@ -9022,7 +9049,7 @@ $ hledger -f t.timedot --alias /\[rs]\[rs]./=: bal date:2016/2/4 --tree
\f[R]
.fi
.PP
-Here is a sample.timedot.
+A sample.timedot file.
.SH COMMON TASKS
.PP
Here are some quick examples of how to do some basic tasks with hledger.
diff --git a/hledger.cabal b/hledger.cabal
index 287d87c..38665b5 100644
--- a/hledger.cabal
+++ b/hledger.cabal
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ cabal-version: 1.12
-- see: https://github.com/sol/hpack
name: hledger
-version: 1.22.1
+version: 1.22.2
synopsis: Command-line interface for the hledger accounting system
description: The command-line interface for the hledger accounting system.
Its basic function is to read a plain text file describing
@@ -136,7 +136,7 @@ library
other-modules:
Paths_hledger
ghc-options: -Wall -fno-warn-unused-do-bind -fno-warn-name-shadowing -fno-warn-missing-signatures -fno-warn-type-defaults -fno-warn-orphans -optP-Wno-nonportable-include-path
- cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.22.1"
+ cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.22.2"
build-depends:
Decimal >=0.5.1
, Diff
@@ -154,7 +154,7 @@ library
, githash >=0.1.2
, hashable >=1.2.4
, haskeline >=0.6
- , hledger-lib >=1.22.1 && <1.23
+ , hledger-lib >=1.22.2 && <1.23
, lucid
, math-functions >=0.3.3.0
, megaparsec >=7.0.0 && <9.2
@@ -188,7 +188,7 @@ executable hledger
hs-source-dirs:
app
ghc-options: -Wall -fno-warn-unused-do-bind -fno-warn-name-shadowing -fno-warn-missing-signatures -fno-warn-type-defaults -fno-warn-orphans -optP-Wno-nonportable-include-path
- cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.22.1"
+ cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.22.2"
build-depends:
Decimal >=0.5.1
, aeson >=1
@@ -205,7 +205,7 @@ executable hledger
, githash >=0.1.2
, haskeline >=0.6
, hledger
- , hledger-lib >=1.22.1 && <1.23
+ , hledger-lib >=1.22.2 && <1.23
, math-functions >=0.3.3.0
, megaparsec >=7.0.0 && <9.2
, mtl >=2.2.1
@@ -239,7 +239,7 @@ test-suite unittest
hs-source-dirs:
test
ghc-options: -Wall -fno-warn-unused-do-bind -fno-warn-name-shadowing -fno-warn-missing-signatures -fno-warn-type-defaults -fno-warn-orphans -optP-Wno-nonportable-include-path
- cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.22.1"
+ cpp-options: -DVERSION="1.22.2"
build-depends:
Decimal >=0.5.1
, aeson >=1
@@ -256,7 +256,7 @@ test-suite unittest
, githash >=0.1.2
, haskeline >=0.6
, hledger
- , hledger-lib >=1.22.1 && <1.23
+ , hledger-lib >=1.22.2 && <1.23
, math-functions >=0.3.3.0
, megaparsec >=7.0.0 && <9.2
, mtl >=2.2.1
@@ -305,7 +305,7 @@ benchmark bench
, githash >=0.1.2
, haskeline >=0.6
, hledger
- , hledger-lib >=1.22.1 && <1.23
+ , hledger-lib >=1.22.2 && <1.23
, html
, math-functions >=0.3.3.0
, megaparsec >=7.0.0 && <9.2
diff --git a/hledger.info b/hledger.info
index a0b5430..a88d1d5 100644
--- a/hledger.info
+++ b/hledger.info
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ hledger(1)
This is the command-line interface (CLI) for the hledger accounting
tool. Here we also describe hledger's concepts and file formats. This
-manual is for hledger 1.22.1.
+manual is for hledger 1.22.2.
'hledger'
@@ -2000,37 +2000,42 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: aregister, Next: balance, Prev: add, Up: COMMANDS
aregister, areg
- Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account,
-with each line item representing one transaction.
+ Show the transactions and running historical balance of a single
+account, with each transaction displayed as one line.
- 'aregister' shows the transactions affecting a particular account and
-its subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole transaction -
-as in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other accounting
-apps.
+ 'aregister' shows the overall transactions affecting a particular
+account (and any subaccounts). Each report line represents one
+transaction in this account. Transactions before the report start date
+are always included in the running balance ('--historical' mode is
+always on).
- Note this is unlike the 'register' command, which shows individual
-postings and does not always show a single account or a historical
-balance.
-
- A reminder, "historical" balances include any balance from
-transactions before the report start date, so (if opening balances are
-recorded correctly) 'aregister' will show the real-world balances of an
-account, as you would see in a bank statement.
-
- As a quick rule of thumb, use 'aregister' for reconciling real-world
-asset/liability accounts and 'register' for reviewing detailed
+ This is a more "real world", bank-like view than the 'register'
+command (which shows individual postings, possibly from multiple
+accounts, not necessarily in historical mode). As a quick rule of
+thumb: - use 'aregister' for reviewing and reconciling real-world
+asset/liability accounts - use 'register' for reviewing detailed
revenues/expenses.
- 'aregister' shows the register for just one account (and its
-subaccounts). This account must be specified as the first argument.
-You can write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive
-regular expression which will select the alphabetically first matched
-account. (Eg if you have 'assets:aaa:checking' and
-'assets:bbb:checking' accounts, 'hledger areg checking' would select
-'assets:aaa:checking'.)
+ 'aregister' requires one argument: the account to report on. You can
+write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive regular
+expression which will select the alphabetically first matched account.
+(Eg if you have 'assets:aaa:checking' and 'assets:bbb:checking'
+accounts, 'hledger areg checking' would select 'assets:aaa:checking'.)
+
+ Transactions involving subaccounts of this account will also be
+shown. 'aregister' ignores depth limits, so its final total will always
+match a balance report with similar arguments.
Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the
-transactions shown.
+transactions shown. Note some queries will disturb the running balance,
+causing it to be different from the account's real-world running
+balance.
+
+ An example: this shows the transactions and historical running
+balance during july, in the first account whose name contains
+"checking":
+
+$ hledger areg checking date:jul
Each 'aregister' line item shows:
@@ -2044,11 +2049,8 @@ transactions shown.
Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default;
add the '-E/--empty' flag to show them.
- 'aregister' ignores a depth limit, so its final total will always
-match a balance report with similar arguments.
-
This command also supports the output destination and output format
-options The output formats supported are 'txt', 'csv', and 'json'.
+options. The output formats supported are 'txt', 'csv', and 'json'.
* Menu:
@@ -2070,18 +2072,6 @@ matching the one shown by 'register -H' with the same arguments.
flag. If you use this flag and some of your postings have custom dates,
it's probably best to assume the running balance is wrong.
- Examples:
-
- Show all transactions and historical running balance in the first
-account whose name contains "checking":
-
-$ hledger areg checking
-
- Show transactions and historical running balance in all asset
-accounts during july:
-
-$ hledger areg assets date:jul
-

File: hledger.info, Node: balance, Next: balancesheet, Prev: aregister, Up: COMMANDS
@@ -7807,60 +7797,86 @@ File: hledger.info, Node: TIMEDOT FORMAT, Next: COMMON TASKS, Prev: TIMECLOCK
15 TIMEDOT FORMAT
*****************
-hledger's human-friendly time logging format.
+'timedot' format is hledger's human-friendly time logging format.
+Compared to 'timeclock' format, it is
- Timedot is a plain text format for logging dated, categorised
-quantities (of time, usually), supported by hledger. It is convenient
-for approximate and retroactive time logging, eg when the real-time
-clock-in/out required with a timeclock file is too precise or too
-interruptive. It can be formatted like a bar chart, making clear at a
-glance where time was spent.
+ * convenient for quick, approximate, and retroactive time logging
+ * readable: you can see at a glance where time was spent.
- Though called "timedot", this format is read by hledger as
-commodityless quantities, so it could be used to represent dated
-quantities other than time. In the docs below we'll assume it's time.
+ A timedot file contains a series of day entries, which might look
+like this:
- A timedot file contains a series of day entries. A day entry begins
-with a non-indented hledger-style simple date (Y-M-D, Y/M/D, Y.M.D..)
-Any additional text on the same line is used as a transaction
-description for this day.
+2021-08-04
+hom:errands .... ....
+fos:hledger:timedot .. ; docs
+per:admin:finance
- This is followed by optionally-indented timelog items for that day,
-one per line. Each timelog item is a note, usually a
-hledger:style:account:name representing a time category, followed by two
-or more spaces, and a quantity. Each timelog item generates a hledger
-transaction.
+ hledger reads this as three time transactions on this day, with each
+dot representing a quarter-hour spent:
- Quantities can be written as:
+$ hledger -f a.timedot print # .timedot file extension activates the timedot reader
+2021-08-04 *
+ (hom:errands) 2.00
- * dots: a sequence of dots (.) representing quarter hours. Spaces
- may optionally be used for grouping. Eg: .... ..
+2021-08-04 *
+ (fos:hledger:timedot) 0.50
- * an integral or decimal number, representing hours. Eg: 1.5
+2021-08-04 *
+ (per:admin:finance) 0
- * an integral or decimal number immediately followed by a unit symbol
- 's', 'm', 'h', 'd', 'w', 'mo', or 'y', representing seconds,
- minutes, hours, days weeks, months or years respectively. Eg: 90m.
- The following equivalencies are assumed, currently: 1m = 60s, 1h =
- 60m, 1d = 24h, 1w = 7d, 1mo = 30d, 1y=365d.
+ A day entry begins with a date line:
- There is some flexibility allowing notes and todo lists to be kept
-right in the time log, if needed:
+ * a non-indented *simple date* (Y-M-D, Y/M/D, or Y.M.D).
- * Blank lines and lines beginning with '#' or ';' are ignored.
+ Optionally this can be followed on the same line by
- * Lines not ending with a double-space and quantity are parsed as
- items taking no time, which will not appear in balance reports by
- default. (Add -E to see them.)
+ * a common *transaction description* for this day
+ * a common *transaction comment* for this day, after a semicolon
+ (';').
- * Org mode headlines (lines beginning with one or more '*' followed
- by a space) can be used as date lines or timelog items (the stars
- are ignored). Also all org headlines before the first date line
- are ignored. This means org users can manage their timelog as an
- org outline (eg using org-mode/orgstruct-mode in Emacs), for
- organisation, faster navigation, controlling visibility etc.
+ After the date line are zero or more optionally-indented time
+transaction lines, consisting of:
- Examples:
+ * an *account name* - any word or phrase, usually a hledger-style
+ account name.
+ * *two or more spaces* - a field separator, required if there is an
+ amount (as in journal format).
+ * a *timedot amount* - dots representing quarter hours, or a number
+ representing hours.
+ * an optional *comment* beginning with semicolon. This is ignored.
+
+ In more detail, timedot amounts can be:
+
+ * *dots*: zero or more period characters, each representing one
+ quarter-hour. Spaces are ignored and can be used for grouping.
+ Eg: '.... ..'
+
+ * a *number*, representing hours. Eg: '1.5'
+
+ * a *number immediately followed by a unit symbol* 's', 'm', 'h',
+ 'd', 'w', 'mo', or 'y', representing seconds, minutes, hours, days
+ weeks, months or years. Eg '1.5h' or '90m'. The following
+ equivalencies are assumed:
+ '60s' = '1m', '60m' = '1h', '24h' = '1d', '7d' = '1w', '30d' =
+ '1mo', '365d' = '1y'. (This unit will not be visible in the
+ generated transaction amount, which is always in hours.)
+
+ There is some added flexibility to help with keeping time log data in
+the same file as your notes, todo lists, etc.:
+
+ * Lines beginning with '#' or ';', and blank lines, are ignored.
+
+ * Lines not ending with a double-space and amount are parsed as
+ transactions with zero amount. (Most hledger reports hide these by
+ default; add -E to see them.)
+
+ * One or more stars ('*') followed by a space, at the start of a
+ line, is ignored. So date lines or time transaction lines can also
+ be Org-mode headlines.
+
+ * All Org-mode headlines before the first date line are ignored.
+
+ More examples:
# on this day, 6h was spent on client work, 1.5h on haskell FOSS work, etc.
2016/2/1
@@ -7900,14 +7916,14 @@ adm:planning: trip
Reporting:
-$ hledger -f t.timedot print date:2016/2/2
+$ hledger -f a.timedot print date:2016/2/2
2016-02-02 *
(inc:client1) 2.00
2016-02-02 *
(biz:research) 0.25
-$ hledger -f t.timedot bal --daily --tree
+$ hledger -f a.timedot bal --daily --tree
Balance changes in 2016-02-01-2016-02-03:
|| 2016-02-01d 2016-02-02d 2016-02-03d
@@ -7922,21 +7938,20 @@ Balance changes in 2016-02-01-2016-02-03:
------------++----------------------------------------
|| 7.75 2.25 8.00
- I prefer to use period for separating account components. We can
-make this work with an account alias:
+ Using period instead of colon as account name separator:
2016/2/4
fos.hledger.timedot 4
fos.ledger ..
-$ hledger -f t.timedot --alias /\\./=: bal date:2016/2/4 --tree
+$ hledger -f a.timedot --alias /\\./=: bal --tree
4.50 fos
4.00 hledger:timedot
0.50 ledger
--------------------
4.50
- Here is a sample.timedot.
+ A sample.timedot file.

File: hledger.info, Node: COMMON TASKS, Next: LIMITATIONS, Prev: TIMEDOT FORMAT, Up: Top
@@ -8567,386 +8582,386 @@ Node: add65702
Ref: #add65805
Node: aregister68598
Ref: #aregister68712
-Node: aregister and custom posting dates70910
-Ref: #aregister-and-custom-posting-dates71076
-Node: balance71897
-Ref: #balance72016
-Node: balance features72931
-Ref: #balance-features73071
-Node: Simple balance report74728
-Ref: #simple-balance-report74910
-Node: Filtered balance report76363
-Ref: #filtered-balance-report76550
-Node: List or tree mode76850
-Ref: #list-or-tree-mode77018
-Node: Depth limiting78336
-Ref: #depth-limiting78502
-Node: Multi-period balance report79263
-Ref: #multi-period-balance-report79455
-Node: Sorting by amount81707
-Ref: #sorting-by-amount81876
-Node: Percentages82342
-Ref: #percentages82498
-Node: Balance change end balance83432
-Ref: #balance-change-end-balance83623
-Node: Balance report types85051
-Ref: #balance-report-types85241
-Node: Useful balance reports89314
-Ref: #useful-balance-reports89495
-Node: Budget report90580
-Ref: #budget-report90764
-Node: Budget report start date96003
-Ref: #budget-report-start-date96172
-Node: Nested budgets97504
-Ref: #nested-budgets97653
-Node: Customising single-period balance reports101093
-Ref: #customising-single-period-balance-reports101302
-Node: balancesheet103450
-Ref: #balancesheet103588
-Node: balancesheetequity104887
-Ref: #balancesheetequity105038
-Node: cashflow106418
-Ref: #cashflow106542
-Node: check107688
-Ref: #check107793
-Node: Basic checks108427
-Ref: #basic-checks108545
-Node: Strict checks109096
-Ref: #strict-checks109237
-Node: Other checks109673
-Ref: #other-checks109813
-Node: Custom checks110170
-Ref: #custom-checks110290
-Node: close110707
-Ref: #close110811
-Node: close usage112333
-Ref: #close-usage112428
-Node: codes115241
-Ref: #codes115351
-Node: commodities116063
-Ref: #commodities116192
-Node: descriptions116274
-Ref: #descriptions116404
-Node: diff116708
-Ref: #diff116816
-Node: files117863
-Ref: #files117965
-Node: help118112
-Ref: #help118214
-Node: import118941
-Ref: #import119057
-Node: Deduplication119922
-Ref: #deduplication120047
-Node: Import testing121941
-Ref: #import-testing122106
-Node: Importing balance assignments122594
-Ref: #importing-balance-assignments122800
-Node: Commodity display styles123449
-Ref: #commodity-display-styles123622
-Node: incomestatement123751
-Ref: #incomestatement123886
-Node: notes125191
-Ref: #notes125306
-Node: payees125674
-Ref: #payees125782
-Node: prices126308
-Ref: #prices126416
-Node: print126757
-Ref: #print126869
-Node: print-unique132184
-Ref: #print-unique132312
-Node: register132597
-Ref: #register132726
-Node: Custom register output137172
-Ref: #custom-register-output137303
-Node: register-match138640
-Ref: #register-match138776
-Node: rewrite139127
-Ref: #rewrite139244
-Node: Re-write rules in a file141150
-Ref: #re-write-rules-in-a-file141313
-Node: Diff output format142462
-Ref: #diff-output-format142645
-Node: rewrite vs print --auto143737
-Ref: #rewrite-vs.-print---auto143897
-Node: roi144453
-Ref: #roi144553
-Node: Spaces and special characters in --inv and --pnl146239
-Ref: #spaces-and-special-characters-in---inv-and---pnl146479
-Node: Semantics of --inv and --pnl146967
-Ref: #semantics-of---inv-and---pnl147206
-Node: IRR and TWR explained149056
-Ref: #irr-and-twr-explained149216
-Node: stats152284
-Ref: #stats152385
-Node: tags153173
-Ref: #tags153273
-Node: test153792
-Ref: #test153908
-Node: About add-on commands154655
-Ref: #about-add-on-commands154792
-Node: JOURNAL FORMAT155923
-Ref: #journal-format156051
-Node: Transactions158247
-Ref: #transactions158362
-Node: Dates159376
-Ref: #dates159492
-Node: Simple dates159557
-Ref: #simple-dates159677
-Node: Secondary dates160186
-Ref: #secondary-dates160334
-Node: Posting dates161670
-Ref: #posting-dates161793
-Node: Status163165
-Ref: #status163275
-Node: Code164983
-Ref: #code165095
-Node: Description165327
-Ref: #description165455
-Node: Payee and note165775
-Ref: #payee-and-note165883
-Node: Comments166218
-Ref: #comments166340
-Node: Tags167534
-Ref: #tags-1167645
-Node: Postings169038
-Ref: #postings169162
-Node: Virtual postings170188
-Ref: #virtual-postings170299
-Node: Account names171604
-Ref: #account-names171741
-Node: Amounts172229
-Ref: #amounts172366
-Node: Decimal marks digit group marks173322
-Ref: #decimal-marks-digit-group-marks173499
-Node: Commodity174371
-Ref: #commodity174531
-Node: Commodity directives175483
-Ref: #commodity-directives175657
-Node: Commodity display style176144
-Ref: #commodity-display-style176323
-Node: Rounding178431
-Ref: #rounding178551
-Node: Transaction prices178963
-Ref: #transaction-prices179129
-Node: Lot prices lot dates181560
-Ref: #lot-prices-lot-dates181743
-Node: Balance assertions182231
-Ref: #balance-assertions182409
-Node: Assertions and ordering183442
-Ref: #assertions-and-ordering183624
-Node: Assertions and included files184324
-Ref: #assertions-and-included-files184561
-Node: Assertions and multiple -f options184894
-Ref: #assertions-and-multiple--f-options185144
-Node: Assertions and commodities185276
-Ref: #assertions-and-commodities185502
-Node: Assertions and prices186659
-Ref: #assertions-and-prices186867
-Node: Assertions and subaccounts187307
-Ref: #assertions-and-subaccounts187530
-Node: Assertions and virtual postings187854
-Ref: #assertions-and-virtual-postings188090
-Node: Assertions and precision188232
-Ref: #assertions-and-precision188419
-Node: Balance assignments188686
-Ref: #balance-assignments188856
-Node: Balance assignments and prices190020
-Ref: #balance-assignments-and-prices190186
-Node: Directives190410
-Ref: #directives190573
-Node: Directives and multiple files195927
-Ref: #directives-and-multiple-files196123
-Node: Comment blocks196787
-Ref: #comment-blocks196964
-Node: Including other files197140
-Ref: #including-other-files197314
-Node: Default year198238
-Ref: #default-year198396
-Node: Declaring payees198803
-Ref: #declaring-payees198969
-Node: Declaring commodities199215
-Ref: #declaring-commodities199396
-Node: Commodity error checking201776
-Ref: #commodity-error-checking201926
-Node: Default commodity202183
-Ref: #default-commodity202363
-Node: Declaring market prices203239
-Ref: #declaring-market-prices203428
-Node: Declaring accounts204241
-Ref: #declaring-accounts204421
-Node: Account error checking205623
-Ref: #account-error-checking205789
-Node: Account comments206968
-Ref: #account-comments207152
-Node: Account subdirectives207576
-Ref: #account-subdirectives207761
-Node: Account types208074
-Ref: #account-types208248
-Node: Declaring account types208984
-Ref: #declaring-account-types209163
-Node: Auto-detected account types209813
-Ref: #auto-detected-account-types210054
-Node: Interference from auto-detected account types211014
-Ref: #interference-from-auto-detected-account-types211291
-Node: Old account type syntax211774
-Ref: #old-account-type-syntax211971
-Node: Account display order212271
-Ref: #account-display-order212431
-Node: Rewriting accounts213582
-Ref: #rewriting-accounts213761
-Node: Basic aliases214518
-Ref: #basic-aliases214654
-Node: Regex aliases215398
-Ref: #regex-aliases215560
-Node: Combining aliases216279
-Ref: #combining-aliases216462
-Node: Aliases and multiple files217738
-Ref: #aliases-and-multiple-files217937
-Node: end aliases218516
-Ref: #end-aliases218663
-Node: Default parent account218764
-Ref: #default-parent-account218954
-Node: Periodic transactions219838
-Ref: #periodic-transactions220021
-Node: Periodic rule syntax221938
-Ref: #periodic-rule-syntax222138
-Node: Two spaces between period expression and description!222842
-Ref: #two-spaces-between-period-expression-and-description223155
-Node: Forecasting with periodic transactions223839
-Ref: #forecasting-with-periodic-transactions224138
-Node: Budgeting with periodic transactions226193
-Ref: #budgeting-with-periodic-transactions226426
-Node: Auto postings226835
-Ref: #auto-postings226971
-Node: Auto postings and multiple files229150
-Ref: #auto-postings-and-multiple-files229348
-Node: Auto postings and dates229557
-Ref: #auto-postings-and-dates229825
-Node: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions230000
-Ref: #auto-postings-and-transaction-balancing-inferred-amounts-balance-assertions230345
-Node: Auto posting tags230687
-Ref: #auto-posting-tags230896
-Node: CSV FORMAT231532
-Ref: #csv-format231660
-Node: Examples234289
-Ref: #examples234392
-Node: Basic234600
-Ref: #basic234702
-Node: Bank of Ireland235244
-Ref: #bank-of-ireland235381
-Node: Amazon236843
-Ref: #amazon236963
-Node: Paypal238682
-Ref: #paypal238778
-Node: CSV rules246422
-Ref: #csv-rules246540
-Node: skip246873
-Ref: #skip246973
-Node: fields list247348
-Ref: #fields-list247487
-Node: field assignment248990
-Ref: #field-assignment249142
-Node: Field names250070
-Ref: #field-names250210
-Node: date field250590
-Ref: #date-field250710
-Node: date2 field250758
-Ref: #date2-field250901
-Node: status field250957
-Ref: #status-field251102
-Node: code field251151
-Ref: #code-field251298
-Node: description field251343
-Ref: #description-field251505
-Node: comment field251564
-Ref: #comment-field251721
-Node: account field251936
-Ref: #account-field252088
-Node: amount field252663
-Ref: #amount-field252814
-Node: currency field254059
-Ref: #currency-field254214
-Node: balance field254471
-Ref: #balance-field254605
-Node: separator254977
-Ref: #separator255109
-Node: if block255649
-Ref: #if-block255776
-Node: Matching the whole record256177
-Ref: #matching-the-whole-record256354
-Node: Matching individual fields257157
-Ref: #matching-individual-fields257363
-Node: Combining matchers257587
-Ref: #combining-matchers257785
-Node: Rules applied on successful match258098
-Ref: #rules-applied-on-successful-match258291
-Node: if table258945
-Ref: #if-table259066
-Node: end260804
-Ref: #end260918
-Node: date-format261142
-Ref: #date-format261276
-Node: decimal-mark262272
-Ref: #decimal-mark262419
-Node: newest-first262758
-Ref: #newest-first262901
-Node: include263584
-Ref: #include263717
-Node: balance-type264161
-Ref: #balance-type264283
-Node: Tips264983
-Ref: #tips265074
-Node: Rapid feedback265373
-Ref: #rapid-feedback265492
-Node: Valid CSV265952
-Ref: #valid-csv266084
-Node: File Extension266276
-Ref: #file-extension266430
-Node: Reading multiple CSV files266859
-Ref: #reading-multiple-csv-files267046
-Node: Valid transactions267287
-Ref: #valid-transactions267467
-Node: Deduplicating importing268095
-Ref: #deduplicating-importing268276
-Node: Setting amounts269309
-Ref: #setting-amounts269466
-Node: Amount signs271907
-Ref: #amount-signs272061
-Node: Setting currency/commodity272748
-Ref: #setting-currencycommodity272936
-Node: Amount decimal places274110
-Ref: #amount-decimal-places274302
-Node: Referencing other fields274614
-Ref: #referencing-other-fields274813
-Node: How CSV rules are evaluated275710
-Ref: #how-csv-rules-are-evaluated275885
-Node: TIMECLOCK FORMAT277336
-Ref: #timeclock-format277476
-Node: TIMEDOT FORMAT279537
-Ref: #timedot-format279675
-Node: COMMON TASKS283951
-Ref: #common-tasks284080
-Node: Getting help284487
-Ref: #getting-help284621
-Node: Constructing command lines285174
-Ref: #constructing-command-lines285368
-Node: Starting a journal file286065
-Ref: #starting-a-journal-file286265
-Node: Setting opening balances287453
-Ref: #setting-opening-balances287651
-Node: Recording transactions290792
-Ref: #recording-transactions290974
-Node: Reconciling291530
-Ref: #reconciling291675
-Node: Reporting293932
-Ref: #reporting294074
-Node: Migrating to a new file298073
-Ref: #migrating-to-a-new-file298223
-Node: LIMITATIONS298522
-Ref: #limitations298650
-Node: TROUBLESHOOTING299393
-Ref: #troubleshooting299508
+Node: aregister and custom posting dates71077
+Ref: #aregister-and-custom-posting-dates71243
+Node: balance71795
+Ref: #balance71914
+Node: balance features72829
+Ref: #balance-features72969
+Node: Simple balance report74626
+Ref: #simple-balance-report74808
+Node: Filtered balance report76261
+Ref: #filtered-balance-report76448
+Node: List or tree mode76748
+Ref: #list-or-tree-mode76916
+Node: Depth limiting78234
+Ref: #depth-limiting78400
+Node: Multi-period balance report79161
+Ref: #multi-period-balance-report79353
+Node: Sorting by amount81605
+Ref: #sorting-by-amount81774
+Node: Percentages82240
+Ref: #percentages82396
+Node: Balance change end balance83330
+Ref: #balance-change-end-balance83521
+Node: Balance report types84949
+Ref: #balance-report-types85139
+Node: Useful balance reports89212
+Ref: #useful-balance-reports89393
+Node: Budget report90478
+Ref: #budget-report90662
+Node: Budget report start date95901
+Ref: #budget-report-start-date96070
+Node: Nested budgets97402
+Ref: #nested-budgets97551
+Node: Customising single-period balance reports100991
+Ref: #customising-single-period-balance-reports101200
+Node: balancesheet103348
+Ref: #balancesheet103486
+Node: balancesheetequity104785
+Ref: #balancesheetequity104936
+Node: cashflow106316
+Ref: #cashflow106440
+Node: check107586
+Ref: #check107691
+Node: Basic checks108325
+Ref: #basic-checks108443
+Node: Strict checks108994
+Ref: #strict-checks109135
+Node: Other checks109571
+Ref: #other-checks109711
+Node: Custom checks110068
+Ref: #custom-checks110188
+Node: close110605
+Ref: #close110709
+Node: close usage112231
+Ref: #close-usage112326
+Node: codes115139
+Ref: #codes115249
+Node: commodities115961
+Ref: #commodities116090
+Node: descriptions116172
+Ref: #descriptions116302
+Node: diff116606
+Ref: #diff116714
+Node: files117761
+Ref: #files117863
+Node: help118010
+Ref: #help118112
+Node: import118839
+Ref: #import118955
+Node: Deduplication119820
+Ref: #deduplication119945
+Node: Import testing121839
+Ref: #import-testing122004
+Node: Importing balance assignments122492
+Ref: #importing-balance-assignments122698
+Node: Commodity display styles123347
+Ref: #commodity-display-styles123520
+Node: incomestatement123649
+Ref: #incomestatement123784
+Node: notes125089
+Ref: #notes125204
+Node: payees125572
+Ref: #payees125680
+Node: prices126206
+Ref: #prices126314
+Node: print126655
+Ref: #print126767
+Node: print-unique132082
+Ref: #print-unique132210
+Node: register132495
+Ref: #register132624
+Node: Custom register output137070
+Ref: #custom-register-output137201
+Node: register-match138538
+Ref: #register-match138674
+Node: rewrite139025
+Ref: #rewrite139142
+Node: Re-write rules in a file141048
+Ref: #re-write-rules-in-a-file141211
+Node: Diff output format142360
+Ref: #diff-output-format142543
+Node: rewrite vs print --auto143635
+Ref: #rewrite-vs.-print---auto143795
+Node: roi144351
+Ref: #roi144451
+Node: Spaces and special characters in --inv and --pnl146137
+Ref: #spaces-and-special-characters-in---inv-and---pnl146377
+Node: Semantics of --inv and --pnl146865
+Ref: #semantics-of---inv-and---pnl147104
+Node: IRR and TWR explained148954
+Ref: #irr-and-twr-explained149114
+Node: stats152182
+Ref: #stats152283
+Node: tags153071
+Ref: #tags153171
+Node: test153690
+Ref: #test153806
+Node: About add-on commands154553
+Ref: #about-add-on-commands154690
+Node: JOURNAL FORMAT155821
+Ref: #journal-format155949
+Node: Transactions158145
+Ref: #transactions158260
+Node: Dates159274
+Ref: #dates159390
+Node: Simple dates159455
+Ref: #simple-dates159575
+Node: Secondary dates160084
+Ref: #secondary-dates160232
+Node: Posting dates161568
+Ref: #posting-dates161691
+Node: Status163063
+Ref: #status163173
+Node: Code164881
+Ref: #code164993
+Node: Description165225
+Ref: #description165353
+Node: Payee and note165673
+Ref: #payee-and-note165781
+Node: Comments166116
+Ref: #comments166238
+Node: Tags167432
+Ref: #tags-1167543
+Node: Postings168936
+Ref: #postings169060
+Node: Virtual postings170086
+Ref: #virtual-postings170197
+Node: Account names171502
+Ref: #account-names171639
+Node: Amounts172127
+Ref: #amounts172264
+Node: Decimal marks digit group marks173220
+Ref: #decimal-marks-digit-group-marks173397
+Node: Commodity174269
+Ref: #commodity174429
+Node: Commodity directives175381
+Ref: #commodity-directives175555
+Node: Commodity display style176042
+Ref: #commodity-display-style176221
+Node: Rounding178329
+Ref: #rounding178449
+Node: Transaction prices178861
+Ref: #transaction-prices179027
+Node: Lot prices lot dates181458
+Ref: #lot-prices-lot-dates181641
+Node: Balance assertions182129
+Ref: #balance-assertions182307
+Node: Assertions and ordering183340
+Ref: #assertions-and-ordering183522
+Node: Assertions and included files184222
+Ref: #assertions-and-included-files184459
+Node: Assertions and multiple -f options184792
+Ref: #assertions-and-multiple--f-options185042
+Node: Assertions and commodities185174
+Ref: #assertions-and-commodities185400
+Node: Assertions and prices186557
+Ref: #assertions-and-prices186765
+Node: Assertions and subaccounts187205
+Ref: #assertions-and-subaccounts187428
+Node: Assertions and virtual postings187752
+Ref: #assertions-and-virtual-postings187988
+Node: Assertions and precision188130
+Ref: #assertions-and-precision188317
+Node: Balance assignments188584
+Ref: #balance-assignments188754
+Node: Balance assignments and prices189918
+Ref: #balance-assignments-and-prices190084
+Node: Directives190308
+Ref: #directives190471
+Node: Directives and multiple files195825
+Ref: #directives-and-multiple-files196021
+Node: Comment blocks196685
+Ref: #comment-blocks196862
+Node: Including other files197038
+Ref: #including-other-files197212
+Node: Default year198136
+Ref: #default-year198294
+Node: Declaring payees198701
+Ref: #declaring-payees198867
+Node: Declaring commodities199113
+Ref: #declaring-commodities199294
+Node: Commodity error checking201674
+Ref: #commodity-error-checking201824
+Node: Default commodity202081
+Ref: #default-commodity202261
+Node: Declaring market prices203137
+Ref: #declaring-market-prices203326
+Node: Declaring accounts204139
+Ref: #declaring-accounts204319
+Node: Account error checking205521
+Ref: #account-error-checking205687
+Node: Account comments206866
+Ref: #account-comments207050
+Node: Account subdirectives207474
+Ref: #account-subdirectives207659
+Node: Account types207972
+Ref: #account-types208146
+Node: Declaring account types208882
+Ref: #declaring-account-types209061
+Node: Auto-detected account types209711
+Ref: #auto-detected-account-types209952
+Node: Interference from auto-detected account types210912
+Ref: #interference-from-auto-detected-account-types211189
+Node: Old account type syntax211672
+Ref: #old-account-type-syntax211869
+Node: Account display order212169
+Ref: #account-display-order212329
+Node: Rewriting accounts213480
+Ref: #rewriting-accounts213659
+Node: Basic aliases214416
+Ref: #basic-aliases214552
+Node: Regex aliases215296
+Ref: #regex-aliases215458
+Node: Combining aliases216177
+Ref: #combining-aliases216360
+Node: Aliases and multiple files217636
+Ref: #aliases-and-multiple-files217835
+Node: end aliases218414
+Ref: #end-aliases218561
+Node: Default parent account218662
+Ref: #default-parent-account218852
+Node: Periodic transactions219736
+Ref: #periodic-transactions219919
+Node: Periodic rule syntax221836
+Ref: #periodic-rule-syntax222036
+Node: Two spaces between period expression and description!222740
+Ref: #two-spaces-between-period-expression-and-description223053
+Node: Forecasting with periodic transactions223737
+Ref: #forecasting-with-periodic-transactions224036
+Node: Budgeting with periodic transactions226091
+Ref: #budgeting-with-periodic-transactions226324
+Node: Auto postings226733
+Ref: #auto-postings226869
+Node: Auto postings and multiple files229048
+Ref: #auto-postings-and-multiple-files229246
+Node: Auto postings and dates229455
+Ref: #auto-postings-and-dates229723
+Node: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions229898
+Ref: #auto-postings-and-transaction-balancing-inferred-amounts-balance-assertions230243
+Node: Auto posting tags230585
+Ref: #auto-posting-tags230794
+Node: CSV FORMAT231430
+Ref: #csv-format231558
+Node: Examples234187
+Ref: #examples234290
+Node: Basic234498
+Ref: #basic234600
+Node: Bank of Ireland235142
+Ref: #bank-of-ireland235279
+Node: Amazon236741
+Ref: #amazon236861
+Node: Paypal238580
+Ref: #paypal238676
+Node: CSV rules246320
+Ref: #csv-rules246438
+Node: skip246771
+Ref: #skip246871
+Node: fields list247246
+Ref: #fields-list247385
+Node: field assignment248888
+Ref: #field-assignment249040
+Node: Field names249968
+Ref: #field-names250108
+Node: date field250488
+Ref: #date-field250608
+Node: date2 field250656
+Ref: #date2-field250799
+Node: status field250855
+Ref: #status-field251000
+Node: code field251049
+Ref: #code-field251196
+Node: description field251241
+Ref: #description-field251403
+Node: comment field251462
+Ref: #comment-field251619
+Node: account field251834
+Ref: #account-field251986
+Node: amount field252561
+Ref: #amount-field252712
+Node: currency field253957
+Ref: #currency-field254112
+Node: balance field254369
+Ref: #balance-field254503
+Node: separator254875
+Ref: #separator255007
+Node: if block255547
+Ref: #if-block255674
+Node: Matching the whole record256075
+Ref: #matching-the-whole-record256252
+Node: Matching individual fields257055
+Ref: #matching-individual-fields257261
+Node: Combining matchers257485
+Ref: #combining-matchers257683
+Node: Rules applied on successful match257996
+Ref: #rules-applied-on-successful-match258189
+Node: if table258843
+Ref: #if-table258964
+Node: end260702
+Ref: #end260816
+Node: date-format261040
+Ref: #date-format261174
+Node: decimal-mark262170
+Ref: #decimal-mark262317
+Node: newest-first262656
+Ref: #newest-first262799
+Node: include263482
+Ref: #include263615
+Node: balance-type264059
+Ref: #balance-type264181
+Node: Tips264881
+Ref: #tips264972
+Node: Rapid feedback265271
+Ref: #rapid-feedback265390
+Node: Valid CSV265850
+Ref: #valid-csv265982
+Node: File Extension266174
+Ref: #file-extension266328
+Node: Reading multiple CSV files266757
+Ref: #reading-multiple-csv-files266944
+Node: Valid transactions267185
+Ref: #valid-transactions267365
+Node: Deduplicating importing267993
+Ref: #deduplicating-importing268174
+Node: Setting amounts269207
+Ref: #setting-amounts269364
+Node: Amount signs271805
+Ref: #amount-signs271959
+Node: Setting currency/commodity272646
+Ref: #setting-currencycommodity272834
+Node: Amount decimal places274008
+Ref: #amount-decimal-places274200
+Node: Referencing other fields274512
+Ref: #referencing-other-fields274711
+Node: How CSV rules are evaluated275608
+Ref: #how-csv-rules-are-evaluated275783
+Node: TIMECLOCK FORMAT277234
+Ref: #timeclock-format277374
+Node: TIMEDOT FORMAT279435
+Ref: #timedot-format279573
+Node: COMMON TASKS284135
+Ref: #common-tasks284264
+Node: Getting help284671
+Ref: #getting-help284805
+Node: Constructing command lines285358
+Ref: #constructing-command-lines285552
+Node: Starting a journal file286249
+Ref: #starting-a-journal-file286449
+Node: Setting opening balances287637
+Ref: #setting-opening-balances287835
+Node: Recording transactions290976
+Ref: #recording-transactions291158
+Node: Reconciling291714
+Ref: #reconciling291859
+Node: Reporting294116
+Ref: #reporting294258
+Node: Migrating to a new file298257
+Ref: #migrating-to-a-new-file298407
+Node: LIMITATIONS298706
+Ref: #limitations298834
+Node: TROUBLESHOOTING299577
+Ref: #troubleshooting299692

End Tag Table
diff --git a/hledger.txt b/hledger.txt
index 0253f7d..0f47205 100644
--- a/hledger.txt
+++ b/hledger.txt
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@ HLEDGER(1) hledger User Manuals HLEDGER(1)
NAME
This is the command-line interface (CLI) for the hledger accounting
tool. Here we also describe hledger's concepts and file formats. This
- manual is for hledger 1.22.1.
+ manual is for hledger 1.22.2.
SYNOPSIS
hledger
@@ -1677,34 +1677,38 @@ COMMANDS
aregister
aregister, areg
- Show the transactions and running historical balance in an account,
- with each line item representing one transaction.
+ Show the transactions and running historical balance of a single
+ account, with each transaction displayed as one line.
- aregister shows the transactions affecting a particular account and its
- subaccounts, with each line item representing a whole transaction - as
- in bank statements, hledger-ui, hledger-web and other accounting apps.
+ aregister shows the overall transactions affecting a particular account
+ (and any subaccounts). Each report line represents one transaction in
+ this account. Transactions before the report start date are always
+ included in the running balance (--historical mode is always on).
- Note this is unlike the register command, which shows individual post-
- ings and does not always show a single account or a historical balance.
+ This is a more "real world", bank-like view than the register command
+ (which shows individual postings, possibly from multiple accounts, not
+ necessarily in historical mode). As a quick rule of thumb: - use areg-
+ ister for reviewing and reconciling real-world asset/liability accounts
+ - use register for reviewing detailed revenues/expenses.
- A reminder, "historical" balances include any balance from transactions
- before the report start date, so (if opening balances are recorded cor-
- rectly) aregister will show the real-world balances of an account, as
- you would see in a bank statement.
-
- As a quick rule of thumb, use aregister for reconciling real-world
- asset/liability accounts and register for reviewing detailed rev-
- enues/expenses.
-
- aregister shows the register for just one account (and its subac-
- counts). This account must be specified as the first argument. You
- can write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive regular
+ aregister requires one argument: the account to report on. You can
+ write either the full account name, or a case-insensitive regular
expression which will select the alphabetically first matched account.
(Eg if you have assets:aaa:checking and assets:bbb:checking accounts,
hledger areg checking would select assets:aaa:checking.)
+ Transactions involving subaccounts of this account will also be shown.
+ aregister ignores depth limits, so its final total will always match a
+ balance report with similar arguments.
+
Any additional arguments form a query which will filter the transac-
- tions shown.
+ tions shown. Note some queries will disturb the running balance, caus-
+ ing it to be different from the account's real-world running balance.
+
+ An example: this shows the transactions and historical running balance
+ during july, in the first account whose name contains "checking":
+
+ $ hledger areg checking date:jul
Each aregister line item shows:
@@ -1721,52 +1725,37 @@ COMMANDS
Transactions making a net change of zero are not shown by default; add
the -E/--empty flag to show them.
- aregister ignores a depth limit, so its final total will always match a
- balance report with similar arguments.
-
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and json.
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options. The output formats supported are txt, csv, and json.
aregister and custom posting dates
- Transactions whose date is outside the report period can still be
- shown, if they have a posting to this account dated inside the report
- period. (And in this case it's the posting date that is shown.) This
+ Transactions whose date is outside the report period can still be
+ shown, if they have a posting to this account dated inside the report
+ period. (And in this case it's the posting date that is shown.) This
ensures that aregister can show an accurate historical running balance,
matching the one shown by register -H with the same arguments.
- To filter strictly by transaction date instead, add the --txn-dates
- flag. If you use this flag and some of your postings have custom
+ To filter strictly by transaction date instead, add the --txn-dates
+ flag. If you use this flag and some of your postings have custom
dates, it's probably best to assume the running balance is wrong.
- Examples:
-
- Show all transactions and historical running balance in the first
- account whose name contains "checking":
-
- $ hledger areg checking
-
- Show transactions and historical running balance in all asset accounts
- during july:
-
- $ hledger areg assets date:jul
-
balance
balance, bal
Show accounts and their balances.
- balance is one of hledger's oldest and most versatile commands, for
- listing account balances, balance changes, values, value changes and
+ balance is one of hledger's oldest and most versatile commands, for
+ listing account balances, balance changes, values, value changes and
more, during one time period or many. Generally it shows a table, with
rows representing accounts, and columns representing periods.
- Note there are some higher-level variants of the balance command with
- convenient defaults, which can be simpler to use: balancesheet, bal-
+ Note there are some higher-level variants of the balance command with
+ convenient defaults, which can be simpler to use: balancesheet, bal-
ancesheetequity, cashflow and incomestatement. When you need more con-
trol, then use balance.
balance features
- Here's a quick overview of the balance command's features, followed by
- more detailed descriptions and examples. Many of these work with the
+ Here's a quick overview of the balance command's features, followed by
+ more detailed descriptions and examples. Many of these work with the
higher-level commands as well.
balance can show..
@@ -1815,7 +1804,7 @@ COMMANDS
..with..
- o totals (-T), averages (-A), percentages (-%), inverted sign
+ o totals (-T), averages (-A), percentages (-%), inverted sign
(--invert)
o rows and columns swapped (--transpose)
@@ -1825,18 +1814,18 @@ COMMANDS
o custom-formatted line items (single-period reports only) (--format)
This command supports the output destination and output format options,
- with output formats txt, csv, json, and (multi-period reports only:)
- html. In txt output in a colour-supporting terminal, negative amounts
+ with output formats txt, csv, json, and (multi-period reports only:)
+ html. In txt output in a colour-supporting terminal, negative amounts
are shown in red.
Simple balance report
- With no arguments, balance shows a list of all accounts and their
- change of balance - ie, the sum of posting amounts, both inflows and
- outflows - during the entire period of the journal. For real-world
- accounts, this should also match their end balance at the end of the
+ With no arguments, balance shows a list of all accounts and their
+ change of balance - ie, the sum of posting amounts, both inflows and
+ outflows - during the entire period of the journal. For real-world
+ accounts, this should also match their end balance at the end of the
journal period (more on this below).
- Accounts are sorted by declaration order if any, and then alphabeti-
+ Accounts are sorted by declaration order if any, and then alphabeti-
cally by account name. For instance, using examples/sample.journal:
$ hledger bal
@@ -1851,7 +1840,7 @@ COMMANDS
0
Accounts with a zero balance (and no non-zero subaccounts, in tree mode
- - see below) are hidden by default. Use -E/--empty to show them
+ - see below) are hidden by default. Use -E/--empty to show them
(revealing assets:bank:checking here):
$ hledger -f examples/sample.journal bal -E
@@ -1866,11 +1855,11 @@ COMMANDS
--------------------
0
- The total of the amounts displayed is shown as the last line, unless
+ The total of the amounts displayed is shown as the last line, unless
-N/--no-total is used.
Filtered balance report
- You can show fewer accounts, a different time period, totals from
+ You can show fewer accounts, a different time period, totals from
cleared transactions only, etc. by using query arguments or options to
limit the postings being matched. Eg:
@@ -1880,10 +1869,10 @@ COMMANDS
$-2
List or tree mode
- By default, or with -l/--flat, accounts are shown as a flat list with
+ By default, or with -l/--flat, accounts are shown as a flat list with
their full names visible, as in the examples above.
- With -t/--tree, the account hierarchy is shown, with subaccounts'
+ With -t/--tree, the account hierarchy is shown, with subaccounts'
"leaf" names indented below their parent:
$ hledger balance
@@ -1903,24 +1892,24 @@ COMMANDS
Notes:
o "Boring" accounts are combined with their subaccount for more compact
- output, unless --no-elide is used. Boring accounts have no balance
- of their own and just one subaccount (eg assets:bank and liabilities
+ output, unless --no-elide is used. Boring accounts have no balance
+ of their own and just one subaccount (eg assets:bank and liabilities
above).
- o All balances shown are "inclusive", ie including the balances from
- all subaccounts. Note this means some repetition in the output,
+ o All balances shown are "inclusive", ie including the balances from
+ all subaccounts. Note this means some repetition in the output,
which requires explanation when sharing reports with non-plaintextac-
- counting-users. A tree mode report's final total is the sum of the
+ counting-users. A tree mode report's final total is the sum of the
top-level balances shown, not of all the balances shown.
- o Each group of sibling accounts (ie, under a common parent) is sorted
+ o Each group of sibling accounts (ie, under a common parent) is sorted
separately.
Depth limiting
- With a depth:N query, or --depth N option, or just -N, balance reports
- will show accounts only to the specified depth, hiding the deeper sub-
- accounts. Account balances at the depth limit always include the bal-
- ances from any hidden subaccounts (even in list mode). This can be
+ With a depth:N query, or --depth N option, or just -N, balance reports
+ will show accounts only to the specified depth, hiding the deeper sub-
+ accounts. Account balances at the depth limit always include the bal-
+ ances from any hidden subaccounts (even in list mode). This can be
useful for getting an overview. Eg, limiting to depth 1:
$ hledger balance -N -1
@@ -1929,7 +1918,7 @@ COMMANDS
$-2 income
$1 liabilities
- You can also hide top-level account name parts, using --drop N. This
+ You can also hide top-level account name parts, using --drop N. This
can be useful for hiding repetitive top-level account names:
$ hledger bal expenses --drop 1
@@ -1940,9 +1929,9 @@ COMMANDS
Multi-period balance report
- With a report interval (set by the -D/--daily, -W/--weekly,
- -M/--monthly, -Q/--quarterly, -Y/--yearly, or -p/--period flag), bal-
- ance shows a tabular report, with columns representing successive time
+ With a report interval (set by the -D/--daily, -W/--weekly,
+ -M/--monthly, -Q/--quarterly, -Y/--yearly, or -p/--period flag), bal-
+ ance shows a tabular report, with columns representing successive time
periods (and a title):
$ hledger balance --quarterly income expenses -E
@@ -1963,21 +1952,21 @@ COMMANDS
encompass the displayed subperiods (so that the first and last subpe-
riods have the same duration as the others).
- o Leading and trailing periods (columns) containing all zeroes are not
+ o Leading and trailing periods (columns) containing all zeroes are not
shown, unless -E/--empty is used.
- o Accounts (rows) containing all zeroes are not shown, unless
+ o Accounts (rows) containing all zeroes are not shown, unless
-E/--empty is used.
- o Amounts with many commodities are shown in abbreviated form, unless
+ o Amounts with many commodities are shown in abbreviated form, unless
--no-elide is used. (experimental)
- o Average and/or total columns can be added with the -A/--average and
+ o Average and/or total columns can be added with the -A/--average and
-T/--row-total flags.
o The --transpose flag can be used to exchange rows and columns.
- o The --pivot FIELD option causes a different transaction field to be
+ o The --pivot FIELD option causes a different transaction field to be
used as "account name". See PIVOTING.
Multi-period reports with many periods can be too wide for easy viewing
@@ -1991,29 +1980,29 @@ COMMANDS
o Reduce the terminal's font size
- o View with a pager like less, eg: hledger bal -D --color=yes | less
+ o View with a pager like less, eg: hledger bal -D --color=yes | less
-RS
- o Output as CSV and use a CSV viewer like visidata (hledger bal -D -O
- csv | vd -f csv), Emacs' csv-mode (M-x csv-mode, C-c C-a), or a
+ o Output as CSV and use a CSV viewer like visidata (hledger bal -D -O
+ csv | vd -f csv), Emacs' csv-mode (M-x csv-mode, C-c C-a), or a
spreadsheet (hledger bal -D -o a.csv && open a.csv)
- o Output as HTML and view with a browser: hledger bal -D -o a.html &&
+ o Output as HTML and view with a browser: hledger bal -D -o a.html &&
open a.html
Sorting by amount
- With -S/--sort-amount, accounts with the largest (most positive) bal-
- ances are shown first. Eg: hledger bal expenses -MAS shows your big-
+ With -S/--sort-amount, accounts with the largest (most positive) bal-
+ ances are shown first. Eg: hledger bal expenses -MAS shows your big-
gest averaged monthly expenses first.
- Revenues and liability balances are typically negative, however, so -S
- shows these in reverse order. To work around this, you can add
- --invert to flip the signs. (Or, use one of the higher-level reports,
- which flip the sign automatically. Eg: hledger incomestatement -MAS).
+ Revenues and liability balances are typically negative, however, so -S
+ shows these in reverse order. To work around this, you can add
+ --invert to flip the signs. (Or, use one of the higher-level reports,
+ which flip the sign automatically. Eg: hledger incomestatement -MAS).
Percentages
- With -%/--percent, balance reports show each account's value expressed
+ With -%/--percent, balance reports show each account's value expressed
as a percentage of the (column) total:
$ hledger bal expenses -Q -%
@@ -2027,62 +2016,62 @@ COMMANDS
|| 0 100.0 % 0 0
Note it is not useful to calculate percentages if the amounts in a col-
- umn have mixed signs. In this case, make a separate report for each
+ umn have mixed signs. In this case, make a separate report for each
sign, eg:
$ hledger bal -% amt:`>0`
$ hledger bal -% amt:`<0`
- Similarly, if the amounts in a column have mixed commodities, convert
- them to one commodity with -B, -V, -X or --value, or make a separate
+ Similarly, if the amounts in a column have mixed commodities, convert
+ them to one commodity with -B, -V, -X or --value, or make a separate
report for each commodity:
$ hledger bal -% cur:\\$
$ hledger bal -% cur:EUR
Balance change, end balance
- It's important to be clear on the meaning of the numbers shown in bal-
+ It's important to be clear on the meaning of the numbers shown in bal-
ance reports. Here is some terminology we use:
- A balance change is the net amount added to, or removed from, an
+ A balance change is the net amount added to, or removed from, an
account during some period.
- An end balance is the amount accumulated in an account as of some date
- (and some time, but hledger doesn't store that; assume end of day in
+ An end balance is the amount accumulated in an account as of some date
+ (and some time, but hledger doesn't store that; assume end of day in
your timezone). It is the sum of previous balance changes.
- We call it a historical end balance if it includes all balance changes
+ We call it a historical end balance if it includes all balance changes
since the account was created. For a real world account, this means it
- will match the "historical record", eg the balances reported in your
+ will match the "historical record", eg the balances reported in your
bank statements or bank web UI. (If they are correct!)
- In general, balance changes are what you want to see when reviewing
+ In general, balance changes are what you want to see when reviewing
revenues and expenses, and historical end balances are what you want to
see when reviewing or reconciling asset, liability and equity accounts.
- balance shows balance changes by default. To see accurate historical
+ balance shows balance changes by default. To see accurate historical
end balances:
- 1. Initialise account starting balances with an "opening balances"
- transaction (a transfer from equity to the account), unless the
+ 1. Initialise account starting balances with an "opening balances"
+ transaction (a transfer from equity to the account), unless the
journal covers the account's full lifetime.
2. Include all of of the account's prior postings in the report, by not
- specifying a report start date, or by using the -H/--historical
+ specifying a report start date, or by using the -H/--historical
flag. (-H causes report start date to be ignored when summing post-
ings.)
Balance report types
For more flexible reporting, there are three important option groups:
- hledger balance [CALCULATIONTYPE] [ACCUMULATIONTYPE] [VALUATIONTYPE]
+ hledger balance [CALCULATIONTYPE] [ACCUMULATIONTYPE] [VALUATIONTYPE]
...
- The first two are the most important: calculation type selects the
- basic calculation to perform for each table cell, while accumulation
+ The first two are the most important: calculation type selects the
+ basic calculation to perform for each table cell, while accumulation
type says which postings should be included in each cell's calculation.
- Typically one or both of these are selected by default, so you don't
- need to write them explicitly. A valuation type can be added if you
+ Typically one or both of these are selected by default, so you don't
+ need to write them explicitly. A valuation type can be added if you
want to convert the basic report to value or cost.
Calculation type:
@@ -2096,20 +2085,20 @@ COMMANDS
ues
Accumulation type:
- Which postings should be included in each cell's calculation. It is
+ Which postings should be included in each cell's calculation. It is
one of:
- o --change : postings from column start to column end, ie within the
- cell's period. Typically used to see revenues/expenses. (default
+ o --change : postings from column start to column end, ie within the
+ cell's period. Typically used to see revenues/expenses. (default
for balance, incomestatement)
- o --cumulative : postings from report start to column end, eg to show
+ o --cumulative : postings from report start to column end, eg to show
changes accumulated since the report's start date. Rarely used.
- o --historical/-H : postings from journal start to column end, ie all
+ o --historical/-H : postings from journal start to column end, ie all
postings from account creation to the end of the cell's period. Typ-
ically used to see historical end balances of assets/liabili-
- ties/equity. (default for balancesheet, balancesheetequity, cash-
+ ties/equity. (default for balancesheet, balancesheetequity, cash-
flow)
Valuation type:
@@ -2122,7 +2111,7 @@ COMMANDS
o --value=then[,COMM] : show value at transaction dates
- o --value=end[,COMM] : show value at period end date(s) (default with
+ o --value=end[,COMM] : show value at period end date(s) (default with
--valuechange)
o --value=now[,COMM] : show value at today's date
@@ -2131,13 +2120,13 @@ COMMANDS
or one of their aliases: --cost/-B, --market/-V or --exchange/-X.
- Most combinations of these options should produce reasonable reports,
- but if you find any that seem wrong or misleading, let us know. The
+ Most combinations of these options should produce reasonable reports,
+ but if you find any that seem wrong or misleading, let us know. The
following restrictions are applied:
o --valuechange implies --value=end
- o --valuechange makes --change the default when used with the bal-
+ o --valuechange makes --change the default when used with the bal-
ancesheet/balancesheetequity commands
o --cumulative or --historical disables --row-total/-T
@@ -2152,17 +2141,20 @@ COMMANDS
lation:
v
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+
+
--change change in period sum of posting- period-end DATE-value of
- date market val- value of change change in
+ date market val- value of change change in
ues in period in period period
--cumu- change from sum of posting- period-end DATE-value of
- lative report start to date market val- value of change change from
+ lative report start to date market val- value of change change from
period end ues from report from report report start
start to period start to period to period end
end end
--his- change from sum of posting- period-end DATE-value of
- torical journal start to date market val- value of change change from
- /-H period end (his- ues from journal from journal journal start
+ torical journal start to date market val- value of change change from
+ /-H period end (his- ues from journal from journal journal start
torical end bal- start to period start to period to period end
ance) end end
@@ -2170,25 +2162,25 @@ COMMANDS
Some frequently used balance options/reports are:
o bal -M revenues expenses
- Show revenues/expenses in each month. Also available as the incomes-
+ Show revenues/expenses in each month. Also available as the incomes-
tatement command.
o bal -M -H assets liabilities
- Show historical asset/liability balances at each month end. Also
+ Show historical asset/liability balances at each month end. Also
available as the balancesheet command.
o bal -M -H assets liabilities equity
- Show historical asset/liability/equity balances at each month end.
+ Show historical asset/liability/equity balances at each month end.
Also available as the balancesheetequity command.
o bal -M assets not:receivable
- Show changes to liquid assets in each month. Also available as the
+ Show changes to liquid assets in each month. Also available as the
cashflow command.
Also:
o bal -M expenses -2 -SA
- Show monthly expenses summarised to depth 2 and sorted by average
+ Show monthly expenses summarised to depth 2 and sorted by average
amount.
o bal -M --budget expenses
@@ -2202,12 +2194,12 @@ COMMANDS
Show top gainers [or losers] last week
Budget report
- The --budget report type activates extra columns showing any budget
- goals for each account and period. The budget goals are defined by
- periodic transactions. This is very useful for comparing planned and
+ The --budget report type activates extra columns showing any budget
+ goals for each account and period. The budget goals are defined by
+ periodic transactions. This is very useful for comparing planned and
actual income, expenses, time usage, etc.
- For example, you can take average monthly expenses in the common
+ For example, you can take average monthly expenses in the common
expense categories to construct a minimal monthly budget:
;; Budget
@@ -2254,26 +2246,26 @@ COMMANDS
This is different from a normal balance report in several ways:
- o Only accounts with budget goals during the report period are shown,
+ o Only accounts with budget goals during the report period are shown,
by default.
- o In each column, in square brackets after the actual amount, budget
- goal amounts are shown, and the actual/goal percentage. (Note: bud-
+ o In each column, in square brackets after the actual amount, budget
+ goal amounts are shown, and the actual/goal percentage. (Note: bud-
get goals should be in the same commodity as the actual amount.)
- o All parent accounts are always shown, even in list mode. Eg assets,
+ o All parent accounts are always shown, even in list mode. Eg assets,
assets:bank, and expenses above.
- o Amounts always include all subaccounts, budgeted or unbudgeted, even
+ o Amounts always include all subaccounts, budgeted or unbudgeted, even
in list mode.
This means that the numbers displayed will not always add up! Eg above,
- the expenses actual amount includes the gifts and supplies transac-
- tions, but the expenses:gifts and expenses:supplies accounts are not
+ the expenses actual amount includes the gifts and supplies transac-
+ tions, but the expenses:gifts and expenses:supplies accounts are not
shown, as they have no budget amounts declared.
- This can be confusing. When you need to make things clearer, use the
- -E/--empty flag, which will reveal all accounts including unbudgeted
+ This can be confusing. When you need to make things clearer, use the
+ -E/--empty flag, which will reveal all accounts including unbudgeted
ones, giving the full picture. Eg:
$ hledger balance -M --budget --empty
@@ -2315,12 +2307,12 @@ COMMANDS
For more examples and notes, see Budgeting.
Budget report start date
- This might be a bug, but for now: when making budget reports, it's a
+ This might be a bug, but for now: when making budget reports, it's a
good idea to explicitly set the report's start date to the first day of
- a reporting period, because a periodic rule like ~ monthly generates
- its transactions on the 1st of each month, and if your journal has no
- regular transactions on the 1st, the default report start date could
- exclude that budget goal, which can be a little surprising. Eg here
+ a reporting period, because a periodic rule like ~ monthly generates
+ its transactions on the 1st of each month, and if your journal has no
+ regular transactions on the 1st, the default report start date could
+ exclude that budget goal, which can be a little surprising. Eg here
the default report period is just the day of 2020-01-15:
~ monthly in 2020
@@ -2339,9 +2331,9 @@ COMMANDS
--------------++------------
|| $400
- To avoid this, specify the budget report's period, or at least the
- start date, with -b/-e/-p/date:, to ensure it includes the budget goal
- transactions (periodic transactions) that you want. Eg, adding -b
+ To avoid this, specify the budget report's period, or at least the
+ start date, with -b/-e/-p/date:, to ensure it includes the budget goal
+ transactions (periodic transactions) that you want. Eg, adding -b
2020/1/1 to the above:
$ hledger bal expenses --budget -b 2020/1/1
@@ -2354,12 +2346,12 @@ COMMANDS
|| $400 [80% of $500]
Nested budgets
- You can add budgets to any account in your account hierarchy. If you
+ You can add budgets to any account in your account hierarchy. If you
have budgets on both parent account and some of its children, then bud-
- get(s) of the child account(s) would be added to the budget of their
+ get(s) of the child account(s) would be added to the budget of their
parent, much like account balances behave.
- In the most simple case this means that once you add a budget to any
+ In the most simple case this means that once you add a budget to any
account, all its parents would have budget as well.
To illustrate this, consider the following budget:
@@ -2369,13 +2361,13 @@ COMMANDS
expenses:personal:electronics $100.00
liabilities
- With this, monthly budget for electronics is defined to be $100 and
- budget for personal expenses is an additional $1000, which implicitly
+ With this, monthly budget for electronics is defined to be $100 and
+ budget for personal expenses is an additional $1000, which implicitly
means that budget for both expenses:personal and expenses is $1100.
- Transactions in expenses:personal:electronics will be counted both
- towards its $100 budget and $1100 of expenses:personal , and transac-
- tions in any other subaccount of expenses:personal would be counted
+ Transactions in expenses:personal:electronics will be counted both
+ towards its $100 budget and $1100 of expenses:personal , and transac-
+ tions in any other subaccount of expenses:personal would be counted
towards only towards the budget of expenses:personal.
For example, let's consider these transactions:
@@ -2401,9 +2393,9 @@ COMMANDS
expenses:personal $30.00
liabilities
- As you can see, we have transactions in expenses:personal:electron-
- ics:upgrades and expenses:personal:train tickets, and since both of
- these accounts are without explicitly defined budget, these transac-
+ As you can see, we have transactions in expenses:personal:electron-
+ ics:upgrades and expenses:personal:train tickets, and since both of
+ these accounts are without explicitly defined budget, these transac-
tions would be counted towards budgets of expenses:personal:electronics
and expenses:personal accordingly:
@@ -2419,7 +2411,7 @@ COMMANDS
-------------------------------++-------------------------------
|| 0 [ 0]
- And with --empty, we can get a better picture of budget allocation and
+ And with --empty, we can get a better picture of budget allocation and
consumption:
$ hledger balance --budget -M --empty
@@ -2438,7 +2430,7 @@ COMMANDS
Customising single-period balance reports
For single-period balance reports displayed in the terminal (only), you
- can use --format FMT to customise the format and content of each line.
+ can use --format FMT to customise the format and content of each line.
Eg:
$ hledger balance --format "%20(account) %12(total)"
@@ -2456,7 +2448,7 @@ COMMANDS
0
The FMT format string (plus a newline) specifies the formatting applied
- to each account/balance pair. It may contain any suitable text, with
+ to each account/balance pair. It may contain any suitable text, with
data fields interpolated like so:
%[MIN][.MAX](FIELDNAME)
@@ -2467,14 +2459,14 @@ COMMANDS
o FIELDNAME must be enclosed in parentheses, and can be one of:
- o depth_spacer - a number of spaces equal to the account's depth, or
+ o depth_spacer - a number of spaces equal to the account's depth, or
if MIN is specified, MIN * depth spaces.
o account - the account's name
o total - the account's balance/posted total, right justified
- Also, FMT can begin with an optional prefix to control how multi-com-
+ Also, FMT can begin with an optional prefix to control how multi-com-
modity amounts are rendered:
o %_ - render on multiple lines, bottom-aligned (the default)
@@ -2483,34 +2475,34 @@ COMMANDS
o %, - render on one line, comma-separated
- There are some quirks. Eg in one-line mode, %(depth_spacer) has no
- effect, instead %(account) has indentation built in. Experimentation
+ There are some quirks. Eg in one-line mode, %(depth_spacer) has no
+ effect, instead %(account) has indentation built in. Experimentation
may be needed to get pleasing results.
Some example formats:
o %(total) - the account's total
- o %-20.20(account) - the account's name, left justified, padded to 20
+ o %-20.20(account) - the account's name, left justified, padded to 20
characters and clipped at 20 characters
- o %,%-50(account) %25(total) - account name padded to 50 characters,
- total padded to 20 characters, with multiple commodities rendered on
+ o %,%-50(account) %25(total) - account name padded to 50 characters,
+ total padded to 20 characters, with multiple commodities rendered on
one line
- o %20(total) %2(depth_spacer)%-(account) - the default format for the
+ o %20(total) %2(depth_spacer)%-(account) - the default format for the
single-column balance report
balancesheet
balancesheet, bs
- This command displays a balance sheet, showing historical ending bal-
+ This command displays a balance sheet, showing historical ending bal-
ances of asset and liability accounts. (To see equity as well, use the
- balancesheetequity command.) Amounts are shown with normal positive
+ balancesheetequity command.) Amounts are shown with normal positive
sign, as in conventional financial statements.
The asset and liability accounts shown are those accounts declared with
- the Asset or Cash or Liability type, or otherwise all accounts under a
- top-level asset or liability account (case insensitive, plurals
+ the Asset or Cash or Liability type, or otherwise all accounts under a
+ top-level asset or liability account (case insensitive, plurals
allowed).
Example:
@@ -2535,23 +2527,23 @@ COMMANDS
0
This command is a higher-level variant of the balance command, and sup-
- ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
- It is similar to hledger balance -H assets liabilities, but with
- smarter account detection, and liabilities displayed with their sign
+ ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
+ It is similar to hledger balance -H assets liabilities, but with
+ smarter account detection, and liabilities displayed with their sign
flipped.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
mental) json.
balancesheetequity
balancesheetequity, bse
- This command displays a balance sheet, showing historical ending bal-
- ances of asset, liability and equity accounts. Amounts are shown with
+ This command displays a balance sheet, showing historical ending bal-
+ ances of asset, liability and equity accounts. Amounts are shown with
normal positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
- The asset, liability and equity accounts shown are those accounts
- declared with the Asset, Cash, Liability or Equity type, or otherwise
+ The asset, liability and equity accounts shown are those accounts
+ declared with the Asset, Cash, Liability or Equity type, or otherwise
all accounts under a top-level asset, liability or equity account (case
insensitive, plurals allowed).
@@ -2582,24 +2574,24 @@ COMMANDS
0
This command is a higher-level variant of the balance command, and sup-
- ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
+ ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
It is similar to hledger balance -H assets liabilities equity, but with
- smarter account detection, and liabilities/equity displayed with their
+ smarter account detection, and liabilities/equity displayed with their
sign flipped.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
mental) json.
cashflow
cashflow, cf
- This command displays a cashflow statement, showing the inflows and
- outflows affecting "cash" (ie, liquid) assets. Amounts are shown with
+ This command displays a cashflow statement, showing the inflows and
+ outflows affecting "cash" (ie, liquid) assets. Amounts are shown with
normal positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
- The "cash" accounts shown are those accounts declared with the Cash
- type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-level asset account (case
- insensitive, plural allowed) which do not have fixed, investment,
+ The "cash" accounts shown are those accounts declared with the Cash
+ type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-level asset account (case
+ insensitive, plural allowed) which do not have fixed, investment,
receivable or A/R in their name.
Example:
@@ -2619,22 +2611,22 @@ COMMANDS
$-1
This command is a higher-level variant of the balance command, and sup-
- ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
- It is similar to hledger balance assets not:fixed not:investment
+ ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
+ It is similar to hledger balance assets not:fixed not:investment
not:receivable, but with smarter account detection.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
mental) json.
check
check
Check for various kinds of errors in your data.
- hledger provides a number of built-in error checks to help prevent
- problems in your data. Some of these are run automatically; or, you
- can use this check command to run them on demand, with no output and a
- zero exit code if all is well. Specify their names (or a prefix) as
+ hledger provides a number of built-in error checks to help prevent
+ problems in your data. Some of these are run automatically; or, you
+ can use this check command to run them on demand, with no output and a
+ zero exit code if all is well. Specify their names (or a prefix) as
argument(s).
Some examples:
@@ -2652,27 +2644,27 @@ COMMANDS
o parseable - data files are well-formed and can be successfully parsed
o balancedwithautoconversion - all transactions are balanced, inferring
- missing amounts where necessary, and possibly converting commodities
+ missing amounts where necessary, and possibly converting commodities
using transaction prices or automatically-inferred transaction prices
- o assertions - all balance assertions in the journal are passing.
+ o assertions - all balance assertions in the journal are passing.
(This check can be disabled with -I/--ignore-assertions.)
Strict checks
These additional checks are run when the -s/--strict (strict mode) flag
- is used. Or, they can be run by giving their names as arguments to
+ is used. Or, they can be run by giving their names as arguments to
check:
o accounts - all account names used by transactions have been declared
o commodities - all commodity symbols used have been declared
- o balancednoautoconversion - transactions are balanced, possibly using
+ o balancednoautoconversion - transactions are balanced, possibly using
explicit transaction prices but not inferred ones
Other checks
- These checks can be run only by giving their names as arguments to
- check. They are more specialised and not desirable for everyone,
+ These checks can be run only by giving their names as arguments to
+ check. They are more specialised and not desirable for everyone,
therefore optional:
o ordereddates - transactions are ordered by date within each file
@@ -2682,13 +2674,13 @@ COMMANDS
o uniqueleafnames - all account leaf names are unique
Custom checks
- A few more checks are are available as separate add-on commands, in
+ A few more checks are are available as separate add-on commands, in
https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/tree/master/bin:
- o hledger-check-tagfiles - all tag values containing / (a forward
+ o hledger-check-tagfiles - all tag values containing / (a forward
slash) exist as file paths
- o hledger-check-fancyassertions - more complex balance assertions are
+ o hledger-check-fancyassertions - more complex balance assertions are
passing
You could make similar scripts to perform your own custom checks. See:
@@ -2696,64 +2688,64 @@ COMMANDS
close
close, equity
- Prints a "closing balances" transaction and an "opening balances"
+ Prints a "closing balances" transaction and an "opening balances"
transaction that bring account balances to and from zero, respectively.
These can be added to your journal file(s), eg to bring asset/liability
- balances forward into a new journal file, or to close out rev-
+ balances forward into a new journal file, or to close out rev-
enues/expenses to retained earnings at the end of a period.
- You can print just one of these transactions by using the --close or
- --open flag. You can customise their descriptions with the --close-
+ You can print just one of these transactions by using the --close or
+ --open flag. You can customise their descriptions with the --close-
desc and --open-desc options.
One amountless posting to "equity:opening/closing balances" is added to
- balance the transactions, by default. You can customise this account
- name with --close-acct and --open-acct; if you specify only one of
+ balance the transactions, by default. You can customise this account
+ name with --close-acct and --open-acct; if you specify only one of
these, it will be used for both.
With --x/--explicit, the equity posting's amount will be shown. And if
- it involves multiple commodities, a posting for each commodity will be
+ it involves multiple commodities, a posting for each commodity will be
shown, as with the print command.
- With --interleaved, the equity postings are shown next to the postings
+ With --interleaved, the equity postings are shown next to the postings
they balance, which makes troubleshooting easier.
By default, transaction prices in the journal are ignored when generat-
- ing the closing/opening transactions. With --show-costs, this cost
- information is preserved (balance -B reports will be unchanged after
+ ing the closing/opening transactions. With --show-costs, this cost
+ information is preserved (balance -B reports will be unchanged after
the transition). Separate postings are generated for each cost in each
- commodity. Note this can generate very large journal entries, if you
+ commodity. Note this can generate very large journal entries, if you
have many foreign currency or investment transactions.
close usage
If you split your journal files by time (eg yearly), you will typically
- run this command at the end of the year, and save the closing transac-
- tion as last entry of the old file, and the opening transaction as the
- first entry of the new file. This makes the files self contained, so
- that correct balances are reported no matter which of them are loaded.
- Ie, if you load just one file, the balances are initialised correctly;
- or if you load several files, the redundant closing/opening transac-
- tions cancel each other out. (They will show up in print or register
- reports; you can exclude them with a query like not:desc:'(open-
+ run this command at the end of the year, and save the closing transac-
+ tion as last entry of the old file, and the opening transaction as the
+ first entry of the new file. This makes the files self contained, so
+ that correct balances are reported no matter which of them are loaded.
+ Ie, if you load just one file, the balances are initialised correctly;
+ or if you load several files, the redundant closing/opening transac-
+ tions cancel each other out. (They will show up in print or register
+ reports; you can exclude them with a query like not:desc:'(open-
ing|closing) balances'.)
If you're running a business, you might also use this command to "close
- the books" at the end of an accounting period, transferring income
- statement account balances to retained earnings. (You may want to
+ the books" at the end of an accounting period, transferring income
+ statement account balances to retained earnings. (You may want to
change the equity account name to something like "equity:retained earn-
ings".)
- By default, the closing transaction is dated yesterday, the balances
- are calculated as of end of yesterday, and the opening transaction is
- dated today. To close on some other date, use: hledger close -e OPEN-
- INGDATE. Eg, to close/open on the 2018/2019 boundary, use -e 2019.
+ By default, the closing transaction is dated yesterday, the balances
+ are calculated as of end of yesterday, and the opening transaction is
+ dated today. To close on some other date, use: hledger close -e OPEN-
+ INGDATE. Eg, to close/open on the 2018/2019 boundary, use -e 2019.
You can also use -p or date:PERIOD (any starting date is ignored).
Both transactions will include balance assertions for the
- closed/reopened accounts. You probably shouldn't use status or real-
- ness filters (like -C or -R or status:) with this command, or the gen-
+ closed/reopened accounts. You probably shouldn't use status or real-
+ ness filters (like -C or -R or status:) with this command, or the gen-
erated balance assertions will depend on these flags. Likewise, if you
- run this command with --auto, the balance assertions will probably
+ run this command with --auto, the balance assertions will probably
always require --auto.
Examples:
@@ -2794,13 +2786,13 @@ COMMANDS
codes
List the codes seen in transactions, in the order parsed.
- This command prints the value of each transaction's code field, in the
- order transactions were parsed. The transaction code is an optional
- value written in parentheses between the date and description, often
+ This command prints the value of each transaction's code field, in the
+ order transactions were parsed. The transaction code is an optional
+ value written in parentheses between the date and description, often
used to store a cheque number, order number or similar.
Transactions aren't required to have a code, and missing or empty codes
- will not be shown by default. With the -E/--empty flag, they will be
+ will not be shown by default. With the -E/--empty flag, they will be
printed as blank lines.
You can add a query to select a subset of transactions.
@@ -2840,7 +2832,7 @@ COMMANDS
List the unique descriptions that appear in transactions.
This command lists the unique descriptions that appear in transactions,
- in alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of trans-
+ in alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of trans-
actions.
Example:
@@ -2852,18 +2844,18 @@ COMMANDS
diff
diff
- Compares a particular account's transactions in two input files. It
+ Compares a particular account's transactions in two input files. It
shows any transactions to this account which are in one file but not in
the other.
More precisely, for each posting affecting this account in either file,
- it looks for a corresponding posting in the other file which posts the
- same amount to the same account (ignoring date, description, etc.)
+ it looks for a corresponding posting in the other file which posts the
+ same amount to the same account (ignoring date, description, etc.)
Since postings not transactions are compared, this also works when mul-
tiple bank transactions have been combined into a single journal entry.
This is useful eg if you have downloaded an account's transactions from
- your bank (eg as CSV data). When hledger and your bank disagree about
+ your bank (eg as CSV data). When hledger and your bank disagree about
the account balance, you can compare the bank data with your journal to
find out the cause.
@@ -2881,18 +2873,18 @@ COMMANDS
files
files
- List all files included in the journal. With a REGEX argument, only
- file names matching the regular expression (case sensitive) are shown.
+ List all files included in the journal. With a REGEX argument, only
+ file names matching the regular expression (case sensitive) are shown.
help
help
- Show the hledger user manual in one of several formats, optionally
- positioned at a given TOPIC (if possible). TOPIC is any heading, or
- heading prefix, in the manual. Some examples: commands, print, 'auto
+ Show the hledger user manual in one of several formats, optionally
+ positioned at a given TOPIC (if possible). TOPIC is any heading, or
+ heading prefix, in the manual. Some examples: commands, print, 'auto
postings', periodic.
- This command shows the user manual built in to this hledger version.
- It can be useful if the correct version of the hledger manual, or the
+ This command shows the user manual built in to this hledger version.
+ It can be useful if the correct version of the hledger manual, or the
usual viewing tools, are not installed on your system.
By default it uses the best viewer it can find in $PATH, in this order:
@@ -2902,66 +2894,66 @@ COMMANDS
import
import
- Read new transactions added to each FILE since last run, and add them
- to the main journal file. Or with --dry-run, just print the transac-
- tions that would be added. Or with --catchup, just mark all of the
+ Read new transactions added to each FILE since last run, and add them
+ to the main journal file. Or with --dry-run, just print the transac-
+ tions that would be added. Or with --catchup, just mark all of the
FILEs' transactions as imported, without actually importing any.
- Unlike other hledger commands, with import the journal file is an out-
+ Unlike other hledger commands, with import the journal file is an out-
put file, and will be modified, though only by appending (existing data
- will not be changed). The input files are specified as arguments, so
- to import one or more CSV files to your main journal, you will run
+ will not be changed). The input files are specified as arguments, so
+ to import one or more CSV files to your main journal, you will run
hledger import bank.csv or perhaps hledger import *.csv.
Note you can import from any file format, though CSV files are the most
common import source, and these docs focus on that case.
Deduplication
- As a convenience import does deduplication while reading transactions.
+ As a convenience import does deduplication while reading transactions.
This does not mean "ignore transactions that look the same", but rather
"ignore transactions that have been seen before". This is intended for
- when you are periodically importing foreign data which may contain
- already-imported transactions. So eg, if every day you download bank
- CSV files containing redundant data, you can safely run hledger import
- bank.csv and only new transactions will be imported. (import is idem-
+ when you are periodically importing foreign data which may contain
+ already-imported transactions. So eg, if every day you download bank
+ CSV files containing redundant data, you can safely run hledger import
+ bank.csv and only new transactions will be imported. (import is idem-
potent.)
- Since the items being read (CSV records, eg) often do not come with
- unique identifiers, hledger detects new transactions by date, assuming
+ Since the items being read (CSV records, eg) often do not come with
+ unique identifiers, hledger detects new transactions by date, assuming
that:
1. new items always have the newest dates
2. item dates do not change across reads
- 3. and items with the same date remain in the same relative order
+ 3. and items with the same date remain in the same relative order
across reads.
- These are often true of CSV files representing transactions, or true
- enough so that it works pretty well in practice. 1 is important, but
+ These are often true of CSV files representing transactions, or true
+ enough so that it works pretty well in practice. 1 is important, but
violations of 2 and 3 amongst the old transactions won't matter (and if
- you import often, the new transactions will be few, so less likely to
+ you import often, the new transactions will be few, so less likely to
be the ones affected).
- hledger remembers the latest date processed in each input file by sav-
+ hledger remembers the latest date processed in each input file by sav-
ing a hidden ".latest" state file in the same directory. Eg when read-
- ing finance/bank.csv, it will look for and update the finance/.lat-
- est.bank.csv state file. The format is simple: one or more lines con-
- taining the same ISO-format date (YYYY-MM-DD), meaning "I have pro-
- cessed transactions up to this date, and this many of them on that
+ ing finance/bank.csv, it will look for and update the finance/.lat-
+ est.bank.csv state file. The format is simple: one or more lines con-
+ taining the same ISO-format date (YYYY-MM-DD), meaning "I have pro-
+ cessed transactions up to this date, and this many of them on that
date." Normally you won't see or manipulate these state files yourself.
- But if needed, you can delete them to reset the state (making all
- transactions "new"), or you can construct them to "catch up" to a cer-
+ But if needed, you can delete them to reset the state (making all
+ transactions "new"), or you can construct them to "catch up" to a cer-
tain date.
- Note deduplication (and updating of state files) can also be done by
+ Note deduplication (and updating of state files) can also be done by
print --new, but this is less often used.
Import testing
- With --dry-run, the transactions that will be imported are printed to
+ With --dry-run, the transactions that will be imported are printed to
the terminal, without updating your journal or state files. The output
- is valid journal format, like the print command, so you can re-parse
- it. Eg, to see any importable transactions which CSV rules have not
+ is valid journal format, like the print command, so you can re-parse
+ it. Eg, to see any importable transactions which CSV rules have not
categorised:
$ hledger import --dry bank.csv | hledger -f- -I print unknown
@@ -2971,17 +2963,17 @@ COMMANDS
$ ls bank.csv* | entr bash -c 'echo ====; hledger import --dry bank.csv | hledger -f- -I print unknown'
Importing balance assignments
- Entries added by import will have their posting amounts made explicit
- (like hledger print -x). This means that any balance assignments in
- imported files must be evaluated; but, imported files don't get to see
- the main file's account balances. As a result, importing entries with
+ Entries added by import will have their posting amounts made explicit
+ (like hledger print -x). This means that any balance assignments in
+ imported files must be evaluated; but, imported files don't get to see
+ the main file's account balances. As a result, importing entries with
balance assignments (eg from an institution that provides only balances
- and not posting amounts) will probably generate incorrect posting
+ and not posting amounts) will probably generate incorrect posting
amounts. To avoid this problem, use print instead of import:
$ hledger print IMPORTFILE [--new] >> $LEDGER_FILE
- (If you think import should leave amounts implicit like print does,
+ (If you think import should leave amounts implicit like print does,
please test it and send a pull request.)
Commodity display styles
@@ -2992,12 +2984,12 @@ COMMANDS
incomestatement, is
This command displays an income statement, showing revenues and
- expenses during one or more periods. Amounts are shown with normal
+ expenses during one or more periods. Amounts are shown with normal
positive sign, as in conventional financial statements.
The revenue and expense accounts shown are those accounts declared with
- the Revenue or Expense type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-
- level revenue or income or expense account (case insensitive, plurals
+ the Revenue or Expense type, or otherwise all accounts under a top-
+ level revenue or income or expense account (case insensitive, plurals
allowed).
Example:
@@ -3024,22 +3016,22 @@ COMMANDS
0
This command is a higher-level variant of the balance command, and sup-
- ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
+ ports many of that command's features, such as multi-period reports.
It is similar to hledger balance '(revenues|income)' expenses, but with
- smarter account detection, and revenues/income displayed with their
+ smarter account detection, and revenues/income displayed with their
sign flipped.
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, html, and (experi-
mental) json.
notes
notes
List the unique notes that appear in transactions.
- This command lists the unique notes that appear in transactions, in
- alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of transac-
- tions. The note is the part of the transaction description after a |
+ This command lists the unique notes that appear in transactions, in
+ alphabetic order. You can add a query to select a subset of transac-
+ tions. The note is the part of the transaction description after a |
character (or if there is no |, the whole description).
Example:
@@ -3052,14 +3044,14 @@ COMMANDS
payees
List the unique payee/payer names that appear in transactions.
- This command lists unique payee/payer names which have been declared
- with payee directives (--declared), used in transaction descriptions
+ This command lists unique payee/payer names which have been declared
+ with payee directives (--declared), used in transaction descriptions
(--used), or both (the default).
- The payee/payer is the part of the transaction description before a |
+ The payee/payer is the part of the transaction description before a |
character (or if there is no |, the whole description).
- You can add query arguments to select a subset of transactions. This
+ You can add query arguments to select a subset of transactions. This
implies --used.
Example:
@@ -3071,10 +3063,10 @@ COMMANDS
prices
prices
- Print market price directives from the journal. With --costs, also
- print synthetic market prices based on transaction prices. With
+ Print market price directives from the journal. With --costs, also
+ print synthetic market prices based on transaction prices. With
--inverted-costs, also print inverse prices based on transaction
- prices. Prices (and postings providing prices) can be filtered by a
+ prices. Prices (and postings providing prices) can be filtered by a
query. Price amounts are always displayed with their full precision.
print
@@ -3084,17 +3076,17 @@ COMMANDS
The print command displays full journal entries (transactions) from the
journal file, sorted by date (or with --date2, by secondary date).
- Amounts are shown mostly normalised to commodity display style, eg the
- placement of commodity symbols will be consistent. All of their deci-
+ Amounts are shown mostly normalised to commodity display style, eg the
+ placement of commodity symbols will be consistent. All of their deci-
mal places are shown, as in the original journal entry (with one alter-
ation: in some cases trailing zeroes are added.)
Amounts are shown right-aligned within each transaction (but not across
all transactions).
- Directives and inter-transaction comments are not shown, currently.
+ Directives and inter-transaction comments are not shown, currently.
This means the print command is somewhat lossy, and if you are using it
- to reformat your journal you should take care to also copy over the
+ to reformat your journal you should take care to also copy over the
directives and file-level comments.
Eg:
@@ -3121,7 +3113,7 @@ COMMANDS
liabilities:debts $1
assets:bank:checking $-1
- print's output is usually a valid hledger journal, and you can process
+ print's output is usually a valid hledger journal, and you can process
it again with a second hledger command. This can be useful for certain
kinds of search, eg:
@@ -3131,39 +3123,39 @@ COMMANDS
There are some situations where print's output can become unparseable:
- o Valuation affects posting amounts but not balance assertion or bal-
+ o Valuation affects posting amounts but not balance assertion or bal-
ance assignment amounts, potentially causing those to fail.
o Auto postings can generate postings with too many missing amounts.
Normally, the journal entry's explicit or implicit amount style is pre-
served. For example, when an amount is omitted in the journal, it will
- not appear in the output. Similarly, when a transaction price is
+ not appear in the output. Similarly, when a transaction price is
implied but not written, it will not appear in the output. You can use
- the -x/--explicit flag to make all amounts and transaction prices
- explicit, which can be useful for troubleshooting or for making your
+ the -x/--explicit flag to make all amounts and transaction prices
+ explicit, which can be useful for troubleshooting or for making your
journal more readable and robust against data entry errors. -x is also
implied by using any of -B,-V,-X,--value.
- Note, -x/--explicit will cause postings with a multi-commodity amount
- (these can arise when a multi-commodity transaction has an implicit
- amount) to be split into multiple single-commodity postings, keeping
+ Note, -x/--explicit will cause postings with a multi-commodity amount
+ (these can arise when a multi-commodity transaction has an implicit
+ amount) to be split into multiple single-commodity postings, keeping
the output parseable.
- With -B/--cost, amounts with transaction prices are converted to cost
+ With -B/--cost, amounts with transaction prices are converted to cost
using that price. This can be used for troubleshooting.
- With -m/--match and a STR argument, print will show at most one trans-
- action: the one one whose description is most similar to STR, and is
- most recent. STR should contain at least two characters. If there is
+ With -m/--match and a STR argument, print will show at most one trans-
+ action: the one one whose description is most similar to STR, and is
+ most recent. STR should contain at least two characters. If there is
no similar-enough match, no transaction will be shown.
- With --new, hledger prints only transactions it has not seen on a pre-
- vious run. This uses the same deduplication system as the import com-
+ With --new, hledger prints only transactions it has not seen on a pre-
+ vious run. This uses the same deduplication system as the import com-
mand. (See import's docs for details.)
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and (experimental)
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and (experimental)
json and sql.
Here's an example of print's CSV output:
@@ -3182,20 +3174,20 @@ COMMANDS
"5","2008/12/31","","*","","pay off","","liabilities:debts","1","$","","1","",""
"5","2008/12/31","","*","","pay off","","assets:bank:checking","-1","$","1","","",""
- o There is one CSV record per posting, with the parent transaction's
+ o There is one CSV record per posting, with the parent transaction's
fields repeated.
o The "txnidx" (transaction index) field shows which postings belong to
- the same transaction. (This number might change if transactions are
- reordered within the file, files are parsed/included in a different
+ the same transaction. (This number might change if transactions are
+ reordered within the file, files are parsed/included in a different
order, etc.)
- o The amount is separated into "commodity" (the symbol) and "amount"
+ o The amount is separated into "commodity" (the symbol) and "amount"
(numeric quantity) fields.
o The numeric amount is repeated in either the "credit" or "debit" col-
- umn, for convenience. (Those names are not accurate in the account-
- ing sense; it just puts negative amounts under credit and zero or
+ umn, for convenience. (Those names are not accurate in the account-
+ ing sense; it just puts negative amounts under credit and zero or
greater amounts under debit.)
print-unique
@@ -3219,14 +3211,14 @@ COMMANDS
Show postings and their running total.
The register command displays matched postings, across all accounts, in
- date order, with their running total or running historical balance.
- (See also the aregister command, which shows matched transactions in a
+ date order, with their running total or running historical balance.
+ (See also the aregister command, which shows matched transactions in a
specific account.)
register normally shows line per posting, but note that multi-commodity
amounts will occupy multiple lines (one line per commodity).
- It is typically used with a query selecting a particular account, to
+ It is typically used with a query selecting a particular account, to
see that account's activity:
$ hledger register checking
@@ -3237,8 +3229,8 @@ COMMANDS
With --date2, it shows and sorts by secondary date instead.
- The --historical/-H flag adds the balance from any undisplayed prior
- postings to the running total. This is useful when you want to see
+ The --historical/-H flag adds the balance from any undisplayed prior
+ postings to the running total. This is useful when you want to see
only recent activity, with a historically accurate running balance:
$ hledger register checking -b 2008/6 --historical
@@ -3248,30 +3240,30 @@ COMMANDS
The --depth option limits the amount of sub-account detail displayed.
- The --average/-A flag shows the running average posting amount instead
+ The --average/-A flag shows the running average posting amount instead
of the running total (so, the final number displayed is the average for
- the whole report period). This flag implies --empty (see below). It
- is affected by --historical. It works best when showing just one
+ the whole report period). This flag implies --empty (see below). It
+ is affected by --historical. It works best when showing just one
account and one commodity.
- The --related/-r flag shows the other postings in the transactions of
+ The --related/-r flag shows the other postings in the transactions of
the postings which would normally be shown.
- The --invert flag negates all amounts. For example, it can be used on
+ The --invert flag negates all amounts. For example, it can be used on
an income account where amounts are normally displayed as negative num-
- bers. It's also useful to show postings on the checking account
+ bers. It's also useful to show postings on the checking account
together with the related account:
$ hledger register --related --invert assets:checking
- With a reporting interval, register shows summary postings, one per
+ With a reporting interval, register shows summary postings, one per
interval, aggregating the postings to each account:
$ hledger register --monthly income
2008/01 income:salary $-1 $-1
2008/06 income:gifts $-1 $-2
- Periods with no activity, and summary postings with a zero amount, are
+ Periods with no activity, and summary postings with a zero amount, are
not shown by default; use the --empty/-E flag to see them:
$ hledger register --monthly income -E
@@ -3288,7 +3280,7 @@ COMMANDS
2008/11 0 $-2
2008/12 0 $-2
- Often, you'll want to see just one line per interval. The --depth
+ Often, you'll want to see just one line per interval. The --depth
option helps with this, causing subaccounts to be aggregated:
$ hledger register --monthly assets --depth 1h
@@ -3296,19 +3288,19 @@ COMMANDS
2008/06 assets $-1 0
2008/12 assets $-1 $-1
- Note when using report intervals, if you specify start/end dates these
- will be adjusted outward if necessary to contain a whole number of
- intervals. This ensures that the first and last intervals are full
+ Note when using report intervals, if you specify start/end dates these
+ will be adjusted outward if necessary to contain a whole number of
+ intervals. This ensures that the first and last intervals are full
length and comparable to the others in the report.
Custom register output
- register uses the full terminal width by default, except on windows.
- You can override this by setting the COLUMNS environment variable (not
+ register uses the full terminal width by default, except on windows.
+ You can override this by setting the COLUMNS environment variable (not
a bash shell variable) or by using the --width/-w option.
- The description and account columns normally share the space equally
- (about half of (width - 40) each). You can adjust this by adding a
- description width as part of --width's argument, comma-separated:
+ The description and account columns normally share the space equally
+ (about half of (width - 40) each). You can adjust this by adding a
+ description width as part of --width's argument, comma-separated:
--width W,D . Here's a diagram (won't display correctly in --help):
<--------------------------------- width (W) ---------------------------------->
@@ -3324,28 +3316,28 @@ COMMANDS
$ hledger reg -w 100,40 # set overall width 100, description width 40
$ hledger reg -w $COLUMNS,40 # use terminal width, & description width 40
- This command also supports the output destination and output format
- options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and (experimental)
+ This command also supports the output destination and output format
+ options The output formats supported are txt, csv, and (experimental)
json.
register-match
register-match
Print the one posting whose transaction description is closest to DESC,
- in the style of the register command. If there are multiple equally
- good matches, it shows the most recent. Query options (options, not
- arguments) can be used to restrict the search space. Helps ledger-
+ in the style of the register command. If there are multiple equally
+ good matches, it shows the most recent. Query options (options, not
+ arguments) can be used to restrict the search space. Helps ledger-
autosync detect already-seen transactions when importing.
rewrite
rewrite
Print all transactions, rewriting the postings of matched transactions.
- For now the only rewrite available is adding new postings, like print
+ For now the only rewrite available is adding new postings, like print
--auto.
This is a start at a generic rewriter of transaction entries. It reads
- the default journal and prints the transactions, like print, but adds
+ the default journal and prints the transactions, like print, but adds
one or more specified postings to any transactions matching QUERY. The
- posting amounts can be fixed, or a multiplier of the existing transac-
+ posting amounts can be fixed, or a multiplier of the existing transac-
tion's first posting amount.
Examples:
@@ -3361,7 +3353,7 @@ COMMANDS
(reserve:grocery) *0.25 ; reserve 25% for grocery
(reserve:) *0.25 ; reserve 25% for grocery
- Note the single quotes to protect the dollar sign from bash, and the
+ Note the single quotes to protect the dollar sign from bash, and the
two spaces between account and amount.
More:
@@ -3371,16 +3363,16 @@ COMMANDS
$ hledger rewrite -- expenses:gifts --add-posting '(budget:gifts) *-1"'
$ hledger rewrite -- ^income --add-posting '(budget:foreign currency) *0.25 JPY; diversify'
- Argument for --add-posting option is a usual posting of transaction
- with an exception for amount specification. More precisely, you can
+ Argument for --add-posting option is a usual posting of transaction
+ with an exception for amount specification. More precisely, you can
use '*' (star symbol) before the amount to indicate that that this is a
- factor for an amount of original matched posting. If the amount
- includes a commodity name, the new posting amount will be in the new
- commodity; otherwise, it will be in the matched posting amount's com-
+ factor for an amount of original matched posting. If the amount
+ includes a commodity name, the new posting amount will be in the new
+ commodity; otherwise, it will be in the matched posting amount's com-
modity.
Re-write rules in a file
- During the run this tool will execute so called "Automated Transac-
+ During the run this tool will execute so called "Automated Transac-
tions" found in any journal it process. I.e instead of specifying this
operations in command line you can put them in a journal file.
@@ -3395,7 +3387,7 @@ COMMANDS
budget:gifts *-1
assets:budget *1
- Note that '=' (equality symbol) that is used instead of date in trans-
+ Note that '=' (equality symbol) that is used instead of date in trans-
actions you usually write. It indicates the query by which you want to
match the posting to add new ones.
@@ -3408,12 +3400,12 @@ COMMANDS
--add-posting 'assets:budget *1' \
> rewritten-tidy-output.journal
- It is important to understand that relative order of such entries in
- journal is important. You can re-use result of previously added post-
+ It is important to understand that relative order of such entries in
+ journal is important. You can re-use result of previously added post-
ings.
Diff output format
- To use this tool for batch modification of your journal files you may
+ To use this tool for batch modification of your journal files you may
find useful output in form of unified diff.
$ hledger rewrite -- --diff -f examples/sample.journal '^income' --add-posting '(liabilities:tax) *.33'
@@ -3437,10 +3429,10 @@ COMMANDS
If you'll pass this through patch tool you'll get transactions contain-
ing the posting that matches your query be updated. Note that multiple
- files might be update according to list of input files specified via
+ files might be update according to list of input files specified via
--file options and include directives inside of these files.
- Be careful. Whole transaction being re-formatted in a style of output
+ Be careful. Whole transaction being re-formatted in a style of output
from hledger print.
See also:
@@ -3448,54 +3440,54 @@ COMMANDS
https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/issues/99
rewrite vs. print --auto
- This command predates print --auto, and currently does much the same
+ This command predates print --auto, and currently does much the same
thing, but with these differences:
- o with multiple files, rewrite lets rules in any file affect all other
- files. print --auto uses standard directive scoping; rules affect
+ o with multiple files, rewrite lets rules in any file affect all other
+ files. print --auto uses standard directive scoping; rules affect
only child files.
- o rewrite's query limits which transactions can be rewritten; all are
+ o rewrite's query limits which transactions can be rewritten; all are
printed. print --auto's query limits which transactions are printed.
- o rewrite applies rules specified on command line or in the journal.
+ o rewrite applies rules specified on command line or in the journal.
print --auto applies rules specified in the journal.
roi
roi
- Shows the time-weighted (TWR) and money-weighted (IRR) rate of return
+ Shows the time-weighted (TWR) and money-weighted (IRR) rate of return
on your investments.
- At a minimum, you need to supply a query (which could be just an
- account name) to select your investment(s) with --inv, and another
+ At a minimum, you need to supply a query (which could be just an
+ account name) to select your investment(s) with --inv, and another
query to identify your profit and loss transactions with --pnl.
- If you do not record changes in the value of your investment manually,
- or do not require computation of time-weighted return (TWR), --pnl
+ If you do not record changes in the value of your investment manually,
+ or do not require computation of time-weighted return (TWR), --pnl
could be an empty query (--pnl "" or --pnl STR where STR does not match
any of your accounts).
- This command will compute and display the internalized rate of return
- (IRR) and time-weighted rate of return (TWR) for your investments for
- the time period requested. Both rates of return are annualized before
+ This command will compute and display the internalized rate of return
+ (IRR) and time-weighted rate of return (TWR) for your investments for
+ the time period requested. Both rates of return are annualized before
display, regardless of the length of reporting interval.
- Price directives will be taken into account if you supply appropriate
+ Price directives will be taken into account if you supply appropriate
--cost or --value flags (see VALUATION).
Note, in some cases this report can fail, for these reasons:
- o Error (NotBracketed): No solution for Internal Rate of Return (IRR).
- Possible causes: IRR is huge (>1000000%), balance of investment
+ o Error (NotBracketed): No solution for Internal Rate of Return (IRR).
+ Possible causes: IRR is huge (>1000000%), balance of investment
becomes negative at some point in time.
- o Error (SearchFailed): Failed to find solution for Internal Rate of
+ o Error (SearchFailed): Failed to find solution for Internal Rate of
Return (IRR). Either search does not converge to a solution, or con-
verges too slowly.
Examples:
- o Using roi to compute total return of investment in stocks:
+ o Using roi to compute total return of investment in stocks:
https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/blob/master/examples/roi-
unrealised.ledger
@@ -3505,27 +3497,27 @@ COMMANDS
Note that --inv and --pnl's argument is a query, and queries could have
several space-separated terms (see QUERIES).
- To indicate that all search terms form single command-line argument,
+ To indicate that all search terms form single command-line argument,
you will need to put them in quotes (see Special characters):
$ hledger roi --inv 'term1 term2 term3 ...'
- If any query terms contain spaces themselves, you will need an extra
+ If any query terms contain spaces themselves, you will need an extra
level of nested quoting, eg:
$ hledger roi --inv="'Assets:Test 1'" --pnl="'Equity:Unrealized Profit and Loss'"
Semantics of --inv and --pnl
- Query supplied to --inv has to match all transactions that are related
+ Query supplied to --inv has to match all transactions that are related
to your investment. Transactions not matching --inv will be ignored.
In these transactions, ROI will conside postings that match --inv to be
- "investment postings" and other postings (not matching --inv) will be
- sorted into two categories: "cash flow" and "profit and loss", as ROI
- needs to know which part of the investment value is your contributions
+ "investment postings" and other postings (not matching --inv) will be
+ sorted into two categories: "cash flow" and "profit and loss", as ROI
+ needs to know which part of the investment value is your contributions
and which is due to the return on investment.
- o "Cash flow" is depositing or withdrawing money, buying or selling
+ o "Cash flow" is depositing or withdrawing money, buying or selling
assets, or otherwise converting between your investment commodity and
any other commodity. Example:
@@ -3543,12 +3535,12 @@ COMMANDS
investment:snake oil = $57
equity:unrealized profit or loss
- All non-investment postings are assumed to be "cash flow", unless they
- match --pnl query. Changes in value of your investment due to "profit
- and loss" postings will be considered as part of your investment
+ All non-investment postings are assumed to be "cash flow", unless they
+ match --pnl query. Changes in value of your investment due to "profit
+ and loss" postings will be considered as part of your investment
return.
- Example: if you use --inv snake --pnl equity:unrealized, then postings
+ Example: if you use --inv snake --pnl equity:unrealized, then postings
in the example below would be classifed as:
2019-01-01 Snake Oil #1
@@ -3565,69 +3557,69 @@ COMMANDS
snake oil $50 ; investment posting
IRR and TWR explained
- "ROI" stands for "return on investment". Traditionally this was com-
- puted as a difference between current value of investment and its ini-
+ "ROI" stands for "return on investment". Traditionally this was com-
+ puted as a difference between current value of investment and its ini-
tial value, expressed in percentage of the initial value.
However, this approach is only practical in simple cases, where invest-
- ments receives no in-flows or out-flows of money, and where rate of
+ ments receives no in-flows or out-flows of money, and where rate of
growth is fixed over time. For more complex scenarios you need differ-
- ent ways to compute rate of return, and this command implements two of
+ ent ways to compute rate of return, and this command implements two of
them: IRR and TWR.
- Internal rate of return, or "IRR" (also called "money-weighted rate of
- return") takes into account effects of in-flows and out-flows.
+ Internal rate of return, or "IRR" (also called "money-weighted rate of
+ return") takes into account effects of in-flows and out-flows.
Naively, if you are withdrawing from your investment, your future gains
- would be smaller (in absolute numbers), and will be a smaller percent-
- age of your initial investment, and if you are adding to your invest-
- ment, you will receive bigger absolute gains (but probably at the same
- rate of return). IRR is a way to compute rate of return for each
+ would be smaller (in absolute numbers), and will be a smaller percent-
+ age of your initial investment, and if you are adding to your invest-
+ ment, you will receive bigger absolute gains (but probably at the same
+ rate of return). IRR is a way to compute rate of return for each
period between in-flow or out-flow of money, and then combine them in a
- way that gives you a compound annual rate of return that investment is
+ way that gives you a compound annual rate of return that investment is
expected to generate.
- As mentioned before, in-flows and out-flows would be any cash that you
+ As mentioned before, in-flows and out-flows would be any cash that you
personally put in or withdraw, and for the "roi" command, these are the
- postings that match the query in the--inv argument and NOT match the
+ postings that match the query in the--inv argument and NOT match the
query in the--pnl argument.
- If you manually record changes in the value of your investment as
- transactions that balance them against "profit and loss" (or "unreal-
- ized gains") account or use price directives, then in order for IRR to
- compute the precise effect of your in-flows and out-flows on the rate
- of return, you will need to record the value of your investement on or
+ If you manually record changes in the value of your investment as
+ transactions that balance them against "profit and loss" (or "unreal-
+ ized gains") account or use price directives, then in order for IRR to
+ compute the precise effect of your in-flows and out-flows on the rate
+ of return, you will need to record the value of your investement on or
close to the days when in- or out-flows occur.
- In technical terms, IRR uses the same approach as computation of net
+ In technical terms, IRR uses the same approach as computation of net
present value, and tries to find a discount rate that makes net present
value of all the cash flows of your investment to add up to zero. This
- could be hard to wrap your head around, especially if you haven't done
+ could be hard to wrap your head around, especially if you haven't done
discounted cash flow analysis before. Implementation of IRR in hledger
should produce results that match the XIRR formula in Excel.
- Second way to compute rate of return that roi command implements is
+ Second way to compute rate of return that roi command implements is
called "time-weighted rate of return" or "TWR". Like IRR, it will also
- break the history of your investment into periods between in-flows,
- out-flows and value changes, to compute rate of return per each period
- and then a compound rate of return. However, internal workings of TWR
+ break the history of your investment into periods between in-flows,
+ out-flows and value changes, to compute rate of return per each period
+ and then a compound rate of return. However, internal workings of TWR
are quite different.
- TWR represents your investment as an imaginary "unit fund" where in-
- flows/ out-flows lead to buying or selling "units" of your investment
+ TWR represents your investment as an imaginary "unit fund" where in-
+ flows/ out-flows lead to buying or selling "units" of your investment
and changes in its value change the value of "investment unit". Change
- in "unit price" over the reporting period gives you rate of return of
+ in "unit price" over the reporting period gives you rate of return of
your investment.
- References: * Explanation of rate of return * Explanation of IRR *
- Explanation of TWR * Examples of computing IRR and TWR and discussion
+ References: * Explanation of rate of return * Explanation of IRR *
+ Explanation of TWR * Examples of computing IRR and TWR and discussion
of the limitations of both metrics
stats
stats
Show some journal statistics.
- The stats command displays summary information for the whole journal,
- or a matched part of it. With a reporting interval, it shows a report
+ The stats command displays summary information for the whole journal,
+ or a matched part of it. With a reporting interval, it shows a report
for each report period.
Example:
@@ -3645,35 +3637,35 @@ COMMANDS
Commodities : 1 ($)
Market prices : 12 ($)
- This command also supports output destination and output format selec-
+ This command also supports output destination and output format selec-
tion.
tags
tags
- List the unique tag names used in the journal. With a TAGREGEX argu-
+ List the unique tag names used in the journal. With a TAGREGEX argu-
ment, only tag names matching the regular expression (case insensitive)
- are shown. With QUERY arguments, only transactions matching the query
+ are shown. With QUERY arguments, only transactions matching the query
are considered.
With the --values flag, the tags' unique values are listed instead.
- With --parsed flag, all tags or values are shown in the order they are
+ With --parsed flag, all tags or values are shown in the order they are
parsed from the input data, including duplicates.
- With -E/--empty, any blank/empty values will also be shown, otherwise
+ With -E/--empty, any blank/empty values will also be shown, otherwise
they are omitted.
test
test
Run built-in unit tests.
- This command runs the unit tests built in to hledger and hledger-lib,
- printing the results on stdout. If any test fails, the exit code will
+ This command runs the unit tests built in to hledger and hledger-lib,
+ printing the results on stdout. If any test fails, the exit code will
be non-zero.
- This is mainly used by hledger developers, but you can also use it to
- sanity-check the installed hledger executable on your platform. All
- tests are expected to pass - if you ever see a failure, please report
+ This is mainly used by hledger developers, but you can also use it to
+ sanity-check the installed hledger executable on your platform. All
+ tests are expected to pass - if you ever see a failure, please report
as a bug!
This command also accepts tasty test runner options, written after a --
@@ -3682,7 +3674,7 @@ COMMANDS
$ hledger test -- -pData.Amount --color=never
- For help on these, see https://github.com/feuerbach/tasty#options (--
+ For help on these, see https://github.com/feuerbach/tasty#options (--
--help currently doesn't show them).
About add-on commands
@@ -3690,16 +3682,16 @@ COMMANDS
o whose name starts with hledger-
- o whose name ends with a recognised file extension: .bat,.com,.exe,
+ o whose name ends with a recognised file extension: .bat,.com,.exe,
.hs,.lhs,.pl,.py,.rb,.rkt,.sh or none
o and (on unix, mac) which are executable by the current user.
- Add-ons are a relatively easy way to add local features or experiment
- with new ideas. They can be written in any language, but haskell
- scripts have a big advantage: they can use the same hledger library
- functions that built-in commands use for command-line options, parsing
- and reporting. Some experimental/example add-on scripts can be found
+ Add-ons are a relatively easy way to add local features or experiment
+ with new ideas. They can be written in any language, but haskell
+ scripts have a big advantage: they can use the same hledger library
+ functions that built-in commands use for command-line options, parsing
+ and reporting. Some experimental/example add-on scripts can be found
in the hledger repo's bin/ directory.
Note in a hledger command line, add-on command flags must have a double
@@ -3723,17 +3715,17 @@ COMMANDS
JOURNAL FORMAT
hledger's default file format, representing a General Journal.
- hledger's usual data source is a plain text file containing journal
- entries in hledger journal format. This file represents a standard
- accounting general journal. I use file names ending in .journal, but
+ hledger's usual data source is a plain text file containing journal
+ entries in hledger journal format. This file represents a standard
+ accounting general journal. I use file names ending in .journal, but
that's not required. The journal file contains a number of transaction
entries, each describing a transfer of money (or any commodity) between
two or more named accounts, in a simple format readable by both hledger
and humans.
- hledger's journal format is a compatible subset, mostly, of ledger's
- journal format, so hledger can work with compatible ledger journal
- files as well. It's safe, and encouraged, to run both hledger and
+ hledger's journal format is a compatible subset, mostly, of ledger's
+ journal format, so hledger can work with compatible ledger journal
+ files as well. It's safe, and encouraged, to run both hledger and
ledger on the same journal file, eg to validate the results you're get-
ting.
@@ -3741,25 +3733,25 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
the add or web or import commands to create and update it.
Many users, though, edit the journal file with a text editor, and track
- changes with a version control system such as git. Editor addons such
- as ledger-mode or hledger-mode for Emacs, vim-ledger for Vim, and
+ changes with a version control system such as git. Editor addons such
+ as ledger-mode or hledger-mode for Emacs, vim-ledger for Vim, and
hledger-vscode for Visual Studio Code, make this easier, adding colour,
formatting, tab completion, and useful commands. See Editor configura-
tion at hledger.org for the full list.
- Here's a description of each part of the file format (and hledger's
- data model). These are mostly in the order you'll use them, but in
- some cases related concepts have been grouped together for easy refer-
- ence, or linked before they are introduced, so feel free to skip over
+ Here's a description of each part of the file format (and hledger's
+ data model). These are mostly in the order you'll use them, but in
+ some cases related concepts have been grouped together for easy refer-
+ ence, or linked before they are introduced, so feel free to skip over
anything that looks unnecessary right now.
Transactions
- Transactions are the main unit of information in a journal file. They
- represent events, typically a movement of some quantity of commodities
+ Transactions are the main unit of information in a journal file. They
+ represent events, typically a movement of some quantity of commodities
between two or more named accounts.
- Each transaction is recorded as a journal entry, beginning with a sim-
- ple date in column 0. This can be followed by any of the following
+ Each transaction is recorded as a journal entry, beginning with a sim-
+ ple date in column 0. This can be followed by any of the following
optional fields, separated by spaces:
o a status character (empty, !, or *)
@@ -3768,11 +3760,11 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
o a description (any remaining text until end of line or a semicolon)
- o a comment (any remaining text following a semicolon until end of
+ o a comment (any remaining text following a semicolon until end of
line, and any following indented lines beginning with a semicolon)
o 0 or more indented posting lines, describing what was transferred and
- the accounts involved (indented comment lines are also allowed, but
+ the accounts involved (indented comment lines are also allowed, but
not blank lines or non-indented lines).
Here's a simple journal file containing one transaction:
@@ -3783,35 +3775,35 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Dates
Simple dates
- Dates in the journal file use simple dates format: YYYY-MM-DD or
+ Dates in the journal file use simple dates format: YYYY-MM-DD or
YYYY/MM/DD or YYYY.MM.DD, with leading zeros optional. The year may be
- omitted, in which case it will be inferred from the context: the cur-
- rent transaction, the default year set with a default year directive,
- or the current date when the command is run. Some examples:
+ omitted, in which case it will be inferred from the context: the cur-
+ rent transaction, the default year set with a default year directive,
+ or the current date when the command is run. Some examples:
2010-01-31, 2010/01/31, 2010.1.31, 1/31.
- (The UI also accepts simple dates, as well as the more flexible smart
+ (The UI also accepts simple dates, as well as the more flexible smart
dates documented in the hledger manual.)
Secondary dates
- Real-life transactions sometimes involve more than one date - eg the
+ Real-life transactions sometimes involve more than one date - eg the
date you write a cheque, and the date it clears in your bank. When you
- want to model this, for more accurate daily balances, you can specify
+ want to model this, for more accurate daily balances, you can specify
individual posting dates.
- Or, you can use the older secondary date feature (Ledger calls it aux-
- iliary date or effective date). Note: we support this for compatibil-
- ity, but I usually recommend avoiding this feature; posting dates are
+ Or, you can use the older secondary date feature (Ledger calls it aux-
+ iliary date or effective date). Note: we support this for compatibil-
+ ity, but I usually recommend avoiding this feature; posting dates are
almost always clearer and simpler.
A secondary date is written after the primary date, following an equals
- sign. If the year is omitted, the primary date's year is assumed.
- When running reports, the primary (left) date is used by default, but
- with the --date2 flag (or --aux-date or --effective), the secondary
+ sign. If the year is omitted, the primary date's year is assumed.
+ When running reports, the primary (left) date is used by default, but
+ with the --date2 flag (or --aux-date or --effective), the secondary
(right) date will be used instead.
- The meaning of secondary dates is up to you, but it's best to follow a
- consistent rule. Eg "primary = the bank's clearing date, secondary =
+ The meaning of secondary dates is up to you, but it's best to follow a
+ consistent rule. Eg "primary = the bank's clearing date, secondary =
date the transaction was initiated, if different", as shown here:
2010/2/23=2/19 movie ticket
@@ -3825,11 +3817,11 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
2010-02-19 movie ticket assets:checking $-10 $-10
Posting dates
- You can give individual postings a different date from their parent
- transaction, by adding a posting comment containing a tag (see below)
+ You can give individual postings a different date from their parent
+ transaction, by adding a posting comment containing a tag (see below)
like date:DATE. This is probably the best way to control posting dates
- precisely. Eg in this example the expense should appear in May
- reports, and the deduction from checking should be reported on 6/1 for
+ precisely. Eg in this example the expense should appear in May
+ reports, and the deduction from checking should be reported on 6/1 for
easy bank reconciliation:
2015/5/30
@@ -3842,22 +3834,22 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
$ hledger -f t.j register checking
2015-06-01 assets:checking $-10 $-10
- DATE should be a simple date; if the year is not specified it will use
- the year of the transaction's date. You can set the secondary date
- similarly, with date2:DATE2. The date: or date2: tags must have a
- valid simple date value if they are present, eg a date: tag with no
+ DATE should be a simple date; if the year is not specified it will use
+ the year of the transaction's date. You can set the secondary date
+ similarly, with date2:DATE2. The date: or date2: tags must have a
+ valid simple date value if they are present, eg a date: tag with no
value is not allowed.
Ledger's earlier, more compact bracketed date syntax is also supported:
- [DATE], [DATE=DATE2] or [=DATE2]. hledger will attempt to parse any
+ [DATE], [DATE=DATE2] or [=DATE2]. hledger will attempt to parse any
square-bracketed sequence of the 0123456789/-.= characters in this way.
- With this syntax, DATE infers its year from the transaction and DATE2
+ With this syntax, DATE infers its year from the transaction and DATE2
infers its year from DATE.
Status
- Transactions, or individual postings within a transaction, can have a
- status mark, which is a single character before the transaction
- description or posting account name, separated from it by a space,
+ Transactions, or individual postings within a transaction, can have a
+ status mark, which is a single character before the transaction
+ description or posting account name, separated from it by a space,
indicating one of three statuses:
@@ -3867,23 +3859,23 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
! pending
* cleared
- When reporting, you can filter by status with the -U/--unmarked,
- -P/--pending, and -C/--cleared flags; or the status:, status:!, and
+ When reporting, you can filter by status with the -U/--unmarked,
+ -P/--pending, and -C/--cleared flags; or the status:, status:!, and
status:* queries; or the U, P, C keys in hledger-ui.
- Note, in Ledger and in older versions of hledger, the "unmarked" state
- is called "uncleared". As of hledger 1.3 we have renamed it to
+ Note, in Ledger and in older versions of hledger, the "unmarked" state
+ is called "uncleared". As of hledger 1.3 we have renamed it to
unmarked for clarity.
- To replicate Ledger and old hledger's behaviour of also matching pend-
+ To replicate Ledger and old hledger's behaviour of also matching pend-
ing, combine -U and -P.
- Status marks are optional, but can be helpful eg for reconciling with
+ Status marks are optional, but can be helpful eg for reconciling with
real-world accounts. Some editor modes provide highlighting and short-
- cuts for working with status. Eg in Emacs ledger-mode, you can toggle
+ cuts for working with status. Eg in Emacs ledger-mode, you can toggle
transaction status with C-c C-e, or posting status with C-c C-c.
- What "uncleared", "pending", and "cleared" actually mean is up to you.
+ What "uncleared", "pending", and "cleared" actually mean is up to you.
Here's one suggestion:
@@ -3895,41 +3887,41 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
cleared complete, reconciled as far as possible, and considered cor-
rect
- With this scheme, you would use -PC to see the current balance at your
- bank, -U to see things which will probably hit your bank soon (like
+ With this scheme, you would use -PC to see the current balance at your
+ bank, -U to see things which will probably hit your bank soon (like
uncashed checks), and no flags to see the most up-to-date state of your
finances.
Code
- After the status mark, but before the description, you can optionally
- write a transaction "code", enclosed in parentheses. This is a good
- place to record a check number, or some other important transaction id
+ After the status mark, but before the description, you can optionally
+ write a transaction "code", enclosed in parentheses. This is a good
+ place to record a check number, or some other important transaction id
or reference number.
Description
- A transaction's description is the rest of the line following the date
- and status mark (or until a comment begins). Sometimes called the
+ A transaction's description is the rest of the line following the date
+ and status mark (or until a comment begins). Sometimes called the
"narration" in traditional bookkeeping, it can be used for whatever you
- wish, or left blank. Transaction descriptions can be queried, unlike
+ wish, or left blank. Transaction descriptions can be queried, unlike
comments.
Payee and note
You can optionally include a | (pipe) character in descriptions to sub-
divide the description into separate fields for payee/payer name on the
- left (up to the first |) and an additional note field on the right
- (after the first |). This may be worthwhile if you need to do more
+ left (up to the first |) and an additional note field on the right
+ (after the first |). This may be worthwhile if you need to do more
precise querying and pivoting by payee or by note.
Comments
Lines in the journal beginning with a semicolon (;) or hash (#) or star
- (*) are comments, and will be ignored. (Star comments cause org-mode
- nodes to be ignored, allowing emacs users to fold and navigate their
+ (*) are comments, and will be ignored. (Star comments cause org-mode
+ nodes to be ignored, allowing emacs users to fold and navigate their
journals with org-mode or orgstruct-mode.)
- You can attach comments to a transaction by writing them after the
- description and/or indented on the following lines (before the post-
- ings). Similarly, you can attach comments to an individual posting by
- writing them after the amount and/or indented on the following lines.
+ You can attach comments to a transaction by writing them after the
+ description and/or indented on the following lines (before the post-
+ ings). Similarly, you can attach comments to an individual posting by
+ writing them after the amount and/or indented on the following lines.
Transaction and posting comments must begin with a semicolon (;).
Some examples:
@@ -3952,24 +3944,24 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
; another comment line for posting 2
; a file comment (because not indented)
- You can also comment larger regions of a file using comment and end
+ You can also comment larger regions of a file using comment and end
comment directives.
Tags
- Tags are a way to add extra labels or labelled data to postings and
+ Tags are a way to add extra labels or labelled data to postings and
transactions, which you can then search or pivot on.
- A simple tag is a word (which may contain hyphens) followed by a full
+ A simple tag is a word (which may contain hyphens) followed by a full
colon, written inside a transaction or posting comment line:
2017/1/16 bought groceries ; sometag:
- Tags can have a value, which is the text after the colon, up to the
+ Tags can have a value, which is the text after the colon, up to the
next comma or end of line, with leading/trailing whitespace removed:
expenses:food $10 ; a-posting-tag: the tag value
- Note this means hledger's tag values can not contain commas or new-
+ Note this means hledger's tag values can not contain commas or new-
lines. Ending at commas means you can write multiple short tags on one
line, comma separated:
@@ -3983,57 +3975,57 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
o "tag2" is another tag, whose value is "some value ..."
- Tags in a transaction comment affect the transaction and all of its
- postings, while tags in a posting comment affect only that posting.
- For example, the following transaction has three tags (A, TAG2, third-
+ Tags in a transaction comment affect the transaction and all of its
+ postings, while tags in a posting comment affect only that posting.
+ For example, the following transaction has three tags (A, TAG2, third-
tag) and the posting has four (those plus posting-tag):
1/1 a transaction ; A:, TAG2:
; third-tag: a third transaction tag, <- with a value
(a) $1 ; posting-tag:
- Tags are like Ledger's metadata feature, except hledger's tag values
+ Tags are like Ledger's metadata feature, except hledger's tag values
are simple strings.
Postings
- A posting is an addition of some amount to, or removal of some amount
- from, an account. Each posting line begins with at least one space or
+ A posting is an addition of some amount to, or removal of some amount
+ from, an account. Each posting line begins with at least one space or
tab (2 or 4 spaces is common), followed by:
o (optional) a status character (empty, !, or *), followed by a space
- o (required) an account name (any text, optionally containing single
+ o (required) an account name (any text, optionally containing single
spaces, until end of line or a double space)
o (optional) two or more spaces or tabs followed by an amount.
- Positive amounts are being added to the account, negative amounts are
+ Positive amounts are being added to the account, negative amounts are
being removed.
The amounts within a transaction must always sum up to zero. As a con-
- venience, one amount may be left blank; it will be inferred so as to
+ venience, one amount may be left blank; it will be inferred so as to
balance the transaction.
- Be sure to note the unusual two-space delimiter between account name
- and amount. This makes it easy to write account names containing spa-
- ces. But if you accidentally leave only one space (or tab) before the
+ Be sure to note the unusual two-space delimiter between account name
+ and amount. This makes it easy to write account names containing spa-
+ ces. But if you accidentally leave only one space (or tab) before the
amount, the amount will be considered part of the account name.
Virtual postings
A posting with a parenthesised account name is called a virtual posting
- or unbalanced posting, which means it is exempt from the usual rule
+ or unbalanced posting, which means it is exempt from the usual rule
that a transaction's postings must balance add up to zero.
- This is not part of double entry accounting, so you might choose to
- avoid this feature. Or you can use it sparingly for certain special
- cases where it can be convenient. Eg, you could set opening balances
+ This is not part of double entry accounting, so you might choose to
+ avoid this feature. Or you can use it sparingly for certain special
+ cases where it can be convenient. Eg, you could set opening balances
without using a balancing equity account:
1/1 opening balances
(assets:checking) $1000
(assets:savings) $2000
- A posting with a bracketed account name is called a balanced virtual
+ A posting with a bracketed account name is called a balanced virtual
posting. The balanced virtual postings in a transaction must add up to
zero (separately from other postings). Eg:
@@ -4045,34 +4037,34 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
[assets:checking:available] $10 ; <-
(something:else) $5 ; <- not required to balance
- Ordinary non-parenthesised, non-bracketed postings are called real
- postings. You can exclude virtual postings from reports with the
+ Ordinary non-parenthesised, non-bracketed postings are called real
+ postings. You can exclude virtual postings from reports with the
-R/--real flag or real:1 query.
Account names
- Account names typically have several parts separated by a full colon,
- from which hledger derives a hierarchical chart of accounts. They can
- be anything you like, but in finance there are traditionally five top-
+ Account names typically have several parts separated by a full colon,
+ from which hledger derives a hierarchical chart of accounts. They can
+ be anything you like, but in finance there are traditionally five top-
level accounts: assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses, and equity.
- Account names may contain single spaces, eg: assets:accounts receiv-
- able. Because of this, they must always be followed by two or more
+ Account names may contain single spaces, eg: assets:accounts receiv-
+ able. Because of this, they must always be followed by two or more
spaces (or newline).
Account names can be aliased.
Amounts
- After the account name, there is usually an amount. (Important:
+ After the account name, there is usually an amount. (Important:
between account name and amount, there must be two or more spaces.)
- hledger's amount format is flexible, supporting several international
- formats. Here are some examples. Amounts have a number (the "quan-
+ hledger's amount format is flexible, supporting several international
+ formats. Here are some examples. Amounts have a number (the "quan-
tity"):
1
..and usually a currency symbol or commodity name (more on this below),
- to the left or right of the quantity, with or without a separating
+ to the left or right of the quantity, with or without a separating
space:
$1
@@ -4080,13 +4072,13 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
3 "green apples"
Amounts can be preceded by a minus sign (or a plus sign, though plus is
- the default), The sign can be written before or after a left-side com-
+ the default), The sign can be written before or after a left-side com-
modity symbol:
-$1
$-1
- One or more spaces between the sign and the number are acceptable when
+ One or more spaces between the sign and the number are acceptable when
parsing (but they won't be displayed in output):
+ $1
@@ -4103,8 +4095,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
1.23
1,23456780000009
- In the integer part of the quantity (left of the decimal mark), groups
- of digits can optionally be separated by a "digit group mark" - a
+ In the integer part of the quantity (left of the decimal mark), groups
+ of digits can optionally be separated by a "digit group mark" - a
space, comma, or period (different from the decimal mark):
$1,000,000.00
@@ -4118,39 +4110,39 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
1,000
1.000
- If you don't tell it otherwise, hledger will assume both of the above
+ If you don't tell it otherwise, hledger will assume both of the above
are decimal marks, parsing both numbers as 1. To prevent confusion and
- undetected typos, we recommend adding commodity directives at the top
- of your journal file to explicitly declare the decimal mark (and
- optionally a digit group mark) for each commodity. Read on for more
+ undetected typos, we recommend adding commodity directives at the top
+ of your journal file to explicitly declare the decimal mark (and
+ optionally a digit group mark) for each commodity. Read on for more
about this.
Commodity
- Amounts in hledger have both a "quantity", which is a signed decimal
+ Amounts in hledger have both a "quantity", which is a signed decimal
number, and a "commodity", which is a currency symbol, stock ticker, or
any word or phrase describing something you are tracking.
If the commodity name contains non-letters (spaces, numbers, or punctu-
- ation), you must always write it inside double quotes ("green apples",
+ ation), you must always write it inside double quotes ("green apples",
"ABC123").
- If you write just a bare number, that too will have a commodity, with
+ If you write just a bare number, that too will have a commodity, with
name ""; we call that the "no-symbol commodity".
- Actually, hledger combines these single-commodity amounts into more
- powerful multi-commodity amounts, which are what it works with most of
- the time. A multi-commodity amount could be, eg: 1 USD, 2 EUR, 3.456
- TSLA. In practice, you will only see multi-commodity amounts in
+ Actually, hledger combines these single-commodity amounts into more
+ powerful multi-commodity amounts, which are what it works with most of
+ the time. A multi-commodity amount could be, eg: 1 USD, 2 EUR, 3.456
+ TSLA. In practice, you will only see multi-commodity amounts in
hledger's output; you can't write them directly in the journal file.
- (If you are writing scripts or working with hledger's internals, these
+ (If you are writing scripts or working with hledger's internals, these
are the Amount and MixedAmount types.)
Commodity directives
You can add commodity directives to the journal, preferably at the top,
- to declare your commodities and help with number parsing (see above)
- and display (see below). These are optional, but recommended. They
- are described in more detail in JOURNAL FORMAT -> Declaring commodi-
+ to declare your commodities and help with number parsing (see above)
+ and display (see below). These are optional, but recommended. They
+ are described in more detail in JOURNAL FORMAT -> Declaring commodi-
ties. Here's a quick example:
# number format and display style for $, EUR, INR and the no-symbol commodity:
@@ -4162,48 +4154,48 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Commodity display style
For the amounts in each commodity, hledger chooses a consistent display
- style to use in most reports. (Exceptions: price amounts, and all
+ style to use in most reports. (Exceptions: price amounts, and all
amounts displayed by the print command, are displayed with all of their
decimal digits visible.)
A commodity's display style is inferred as follows.
- First, if a default commodity is declared with D, this commodity and
+ First, if a default commodity is declared with D, this commodity and
its style is applied to any no-symbol amounts in the journal.
- Then each commodity's style is inferred from one of the following, in
+ Then each commodity's style is inferred from one of the following, in
order of preference:
- o The commodity directive for that commodity (including the no-symbol
+ o The commodity directive for that commodity (including the no-symbol
commodity), if any.
- o The amounts in that commodity seen in the journal's transactions.
+ o The amounts in that commodity seen in the journal's transactions.
(Posting amounts only; prices and periodic or auto rules are ignored,
currently.)
- o The built-in fallback style, which looks like this: $1000.00. (Sym-
+ o The built-in fallback style, which looks like this: $1000.00. (Sym-
bol on the left, period decimal mark, two decimal places.)
A style is inferred from journal amounts as follows:
- o Use the general style (decimal mark, symbol placement) of the first
+ o Use the general style (decimal mark, symbol placement) of the first
amount
- o Use the first-seen digit group style (digit group mark, digit group
+ o Use the first-seen digit group style (digit group mark, digit group
sizes), if any
o Use the maximum number of decimal places of all.
- Transaction price amounts don't affect the commodity display style
- directly, but occasionally they can do so indirectly (eg when a post-
- ing's amount is inferred using a transaction price). If you find this
+ Transaction price amounts don't affect the commodity display style
+ directly, but occasionally they can do so indirectly (eg when a post-
+ ing's amount is inferred using a transaction price). If you find this
causing problems, use a commodity directive to fix the display style.
- To summarise: each commodity's amounts will be normalised to (a) the
- style declared by a commodity directive, or (b) the style of the first
- posting amount in the journal, with the first-seen digit group style
- and the maximum-seen number of decimal places. So if your reports are
- showing amounts in a way you don't like, eg with too many decimal
+ To summarise: each commodity's amounts will be normalised to (a) the
+ style declared by a commodity directive, or (b) the style of the first
+ posting amount in the journal, with the first-seen digit group style
+ and the maximum-seen number of decimal places. So if your reports are
+ showing amounts in a way you don't like, eg with too many decimal
places, use a commodity directive. Some examples:
# declare euro, dollar, bitcoin and no-symbol commodities and set their
@@ -4215,17 +4207,17 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Rounding
Amounts are stored internally as decimal numbers with up to 255 decimal
- places, and displayed with the number of decimal places specified by
- the commodity display style. Note, hledger uses banker's rounding: it
- rounds to the nearest even number, eg 0.5 displayed with zero decimal
- places is "0"). (Guaranteed since hledger 1.17.1; in older versions
+ places, and displayed with the number of decimal places specified by
+ the commodity display style. Note, hledger uses banker's rounding: it
+ rounds to the nearest even number, eg 0.5 displayed with zero decimal
+ places is "0"). (Guaranteed since hledger 1.17.1; in older versions
this could vary if hledger was built with Decimal < 0.5.1.)
Transaction prices
Within a transaction, you can note an amount's price in another commod-
- ity. This can be used to document the cost (in a purchase) or selling
- price (in a sale). For example, transaction prices are useful to
- record purchases of a foreign currency. Note transaction prices are
+ ity. This can be used to document the cost (in a purchase) or selling
+ price (in a sale). For example, transaction prices are useful to
+ record purchases of a foreign currency. Note transaction prices are
fixed at the time of the transaction, and do not change over time. See
also market prices, which represent prevailing exchange rates on a cer-
tain date.
@@ -4251,14 +4243,14 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
assets:euros EUR100 ; one hundred euros purchased
assets:dollars $-135 ; for $135
- 4. Like 1, but the @ is parenthesised, i.e. (@); this is for compati-
- bility with Ledger journals (Virtual posting costs), and is equiva-
+ 4. Like 1, but the @ is parenthesised, i.e. (@); this is for compati-
+ bility with Ledger journals (Virtual posting costs), and is equiva-
lent to 1 in hledger.
5. Like 2, but as in 4 the @@ is parenthesised, i.e. (@@); in hledger,
this is equivalent to 2.
- Use the -B/--cost flag to convert amounts to their transaction price's
+ Use the -B/--cost flag to convert amounts to their transaction price's
commodity, if any. (mnemonic: "B" is from "cost Basis", as in Ledger).
Eg here is how -B affects the balance report for the example above:
@@ -4269,8 +4261,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
$-135 assets:dollars
$135 assets:euros # <- the euros' cost
- Note -B is sensitive to the order of postings when a transaction price
- is inferred: the inferred price will be in the commodity of the last
+ Note -B is sensitive to the order of postings when a transaction price
+ is inferred: the inferred price will be in the commodity of the last
amount. So if example 3's postings are reversed, while the transaction
is equivalent, -B shows something different:
@@ -4283,18 +4275,18 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
EUR100 assets:euros
Lot prices, lot dates
- Ledger allows another kind of price, lot price (four variants: {UNIT-
+ Ledger allows another kind of price, lot price (four variants: {UNIT-
PRICE}, {{TOTALPRICE}}, {=FIXEDUNITPRICE}, {{=FIXEDTOTALPRICE}}),
and/or a lot date ([DATE]) to be specified. These are normally used to
- select a lot when selling investments. hledger will parse these, for
- compatibility with Ledger journals, but currently ignores them. A
- transaction price, lot price and/or lot date may appear in any order,
+ select a lot when selling investments. hledger will parse these, for
+ compatibility with Ledger journals, but currently ignores them. A
+ transaction price, lot price and/or lot date may appear in any order,
after the posting amount and before the balance assertion if any.
Balance assertions
- hledger supports Ledger-style balance assertions in journal files.
- These look like, for example, = EXPECTEDBALANCE following a posting's
- amount. Eg here we assert the expected dollar balance in accounts a
+ hledger supports Ledger-style balance assertions in journal files.
+ These look like, for example, = EXPECTEDBALANCE following a posting's
+ amount. Eg here we assert the expected dollar balance in accounts a
and b after each posting:
2013/1/1
@@ -4306,32 +4298,32 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
b $-1 =$-2
After reading a journal file, hledger will check all balance assertions
- and report an error if any of them fail. Balance assertions can pro-
- tect you from, eg, inadvertently disrupting reconciled balances while
- cleaning up old entries. You can disable them temporarily with the
+ and report an error if any of them fail. Balance assertions can pro-
+ tect you from, eg, inadvertently disrupting reconciled balances while
+ cleaning up old entries. You can disable them temporarily with the
-I/--ignore-assertions flag, which can be useful for troubleshooting or
- for reading Ledger files. (Note: this flag currently does not disable
+ for reading Ledger files. (Note: this flag currently does not disable
balance assignments, below).
Assertions and ordering
- hledger sorts an account's postings and assertions first by date and
- then (for postings on the same day) by parse order. Note this is dif-
+ hledger sorts an account's postings and assertions first by date and
+ then (for postings on the same day) by parse order. Note this is dif-
ferent from Ledger, which sorts assertions only by parse order. (Also,
- Ledger assertions do not see the accumulated effect of repeated post-
+ Ledger assertions do not see the accumulated effect of repeated post-
ings to the same account within a transaction.)
So, hledger balance assertions keep working if you reorder differently-
- dated transactions within the journal. But if you reorder same-dated
- transactions or postings, assertions might break and require updating.
+ dated transactions within the journal. But if you reorder same-dated
+ transactions or postings, assertions might break and require updating.
This order dependence does bring an advantage: precise control over the
order of postings and assertions within a day, so you can assert intra-
day balances.
Assertions and included files
- With included files, things are a little more complicated. Including
- preserves the ordering of postings and assertions. If you have multi-
- ple postings to an account on the same day, split across different
- files, and you also want to assert the account's balance on the same
+ With included files, things are a little more complicated. Including
+ preserves the ordering of postings and assertions. If you have multi-
+ ple postings to an account on the same day, split across different
+ files, and you also want to assert the account's balance on the same
day, you'll have to put the assertion in the right file.
Assertions and multiple -f options
@@ -4339,15 +4331,15 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
-f options. Use include or concatenate the files instead.
Assertions and commodities
- The asserted balance must be a simple single-commodity amount, and in
- fact the assertion checks only this commodity's balance within the
- (possibly multi-commodity) account balance. This is how assertions
+ The asserted balance must be a simple single-commodity amount, and in
+ fact the assertion checks only this commodity's balance within the
+ (possibly multi-commodity) account balance. This is how assertions
work in Ledger also. We could call this a "partial" balance assertion.
To assert the balance of more than one commodity in an account, you can
write multiple postings, each asserting one commodity's balance.
- You can make a stronger "total" balance assertion by writing a double
+ You can make a stronger "total" balance assertion by writing a double
equals sign (== EXPECTEDBALANCE). This asserts that there are no other
unasserted commodities in the account (or, that their balance is 0).
@@ -4367,7 +4359,7 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
a 0 == $1
It's not yet possible to make a complete assertion about a balance that
- has multiple commodities. One workaround is to isolate each commodity
+ has multiple commodities. One workaround is to isolate each commodity
into its own subaccount:
2013/1/1
@@ -4381,21 +4373,21 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
a:euro 0 == 1EUR
Assertions and prices
- Balance assertions ignore transaction prices, and should normally be
+ Balance assertions ignore transaction prices, and should normally be
written without one:
2019/1/1
(a) $1 @ EUR1 = $1
- We do allow prices to be written there, however, and print shows them,
- even though they don't affect whether the assertion passes or fails.
- This is for backward compatibility (hledger's close command used to
- generate balance assertions with prices), and because balance assign-
+ We do allow prices to be written there, however, and print shows them,
+ even though they don't affect whether the assertion passes or fails.
+ This is for backward compatibility (hledger's close command used to
+ generate balance assertions with prices), and because balance assign-
ments do use them (see below).
Assertions and subaccounts
- The balance assertions above (= and ==) do not count the balance from
- subaccounts; they check the account's exclusive balance only. You can
+ The balance assertions above (= and ==) do not count the balance from
+ subaccounts; they check the account's exclusive balance only. You can
assert the balance including subaccounts by writing =* or ==*, eg:
2019/1/1
@@ -4409,16 +4401,16 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
tual. They are not affected by the --real/-R flag or real: query.
Assertions and precision
- Balance assertions compare the exactly calculated amounts, which are
- not always what is shown by reports. Eg a commodity directive may
- limit the display precision, but this will not affect balance asser-
+ Balance assertions compare the exactly calculated amounts, which are
+ not always what is shown by reports. Eg a commodity directive may
+ limit the display precision, but this will not affect balance asser-
tions. Balance assertion failure messages show exact amounts.
Balance assignments
- Ledger-style balance assignments are also supported. These are like
- balance assertions, but with no posting amount on the left side of the
- equals sign; instead it is calculated automatically so as to satisfy
- the assertion. This can be a convenience during data entry, eg when
+ Ledger-style balance assignments are also supported. These are like
+ balance assertions, but with no posting amount on the left side of the
+ equals sign; instead it is calculated automatically so as to satisfy
+ the assertion. This can be a convenience during data entry, eg when
setting opening balances:
; starting a new journal, set asset account balances
@@ -4436,14 +4428,14 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
expenses:misc
The calculated amount depends on the account's balance in the commodity
- at that point (which depends on the previously-dated postings of the
- commodity to that account since the last balance assertion or assign-
+ at that point (which depends on the previously-dated postings of the
+ commodity to that account since the last balance assertion or assign-
ment). Note that using balance assignments makes your journal a little
less explicit; to know the exact amount posted, you have to run hledger
or do the calculations yourself, instead of just reading it.
Balance assignments and prices
- A transaction price in a balance assignment will cause the calculated
+ A transaction price in a balance assignment will cause the calculated
amount to have that price attached:
2019/1/1
@@ -4454,51 +4446,55 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
(a) $1 @ EUR2 = $1 @ EUR2
Directives
- A directive is a line in the journal beginning with a special keyword,
+ A directive is a line in the journal beginning with a special keyword,
that influences how the journal is processed. hledger's directives are
based on a subset of Ledger's, but there are many differences (and also
some differences between hledger versions).
Directives' behaviour and interactions can get a little bit complex, so
- here is a table summarising the directives and their effects, with
+ here is a table summarising the directives and their effects, with
links to more detailed docs.
- direc- end subdi- purpose can affect (as of
+ direc- end subdi- purpose can affect (as of
tive directive rec- 2018/06)
tives
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- account any document account names, all entries in all
- text declare account types & dis- files, before or
+ account any document account names, all entries in all
+ text declare account types & dis- files, before or
play order after
+
+
+
+
alias end rewrite account names following entries
- aliases until end of cur-
+ aliases until end of cur-
rent file or end
directive
- apply end apply prepend a common parent to following entries
- account account account names until end of cur-
+ apply end apply prepend a common parent to following entries
+ account account account names until end of cur-
rent file or end
directive
comment end com- ignore part of journal following entries
- ment until end of cur-
+ ment until end of cur-
rent file or end
directive
- commod- format declare a commodity and its number notation:
+ commod- format declare a commodity and its number notation:
ity number notation & display following entries
- style until end of cur-
- rent file; display
+ style until end of cur-
+ rent file; display
style: amounts of
that commodity in
reports
- D declare a commodity to be default commodity:
+ D declare a commodity to be default commodity:
used for commodityless following commod-
- amounts, and its number ityless entries
- notation & display style until end of cur-
+ amounts, and its number ityless entries
+ notation & display style until end of cur-
rent file; number
notation: following
entries in that
commodity until end
- of current file;
+ of current file;
display style:
amounts of that
commodity in
@@ -4506,17 +4502,17 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
include include entries/directives what the included
from another file directives affect
payee declare a payee name following entries
- until end of cur-
+ until end of cur-
rent file
P declare a market price for a amounts of that
commodity commodity in
reports, when -V is
used
- Y declare a year for yearless following entries
- dates until end of cur-
+ Y declare a year for yearless following entries
+ dates until end of cur-
rent file
- = declare an auto posting all entries in par-
- rule, adding postings to ent/current/child
+ = declare an auto posting all entries in par-
+ rule, adding postings to ent/current/child
other transactions files (but not sib-
ling files, see
#1212)
@@ -4524,55 +4520,53 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
And some definitions:
- subdi- optional indented directive line immediately following a parent
+ subdi- optional indented directive line immediately following a parent
rec- directive
tive
number how to interpret numbers when parsing journal entries (the iden-
- nota- tity of the decimal separator character). (Currently each com-
+ nota- tity of the decimal separator character). (Currently each com-
tion modity can have its own notation, even in the same file.)
-
-
- dis- how to display amounts of a commodity in reports (symbol side
+ dis- how to display amounts of a commodity in reports (symbol side
play and spacing, digit groups, decimal separator, decimal places)
style
- direc- which entries and (when there are multiple files) which files
+ direc- which entries and (when there are multiple files) which files
tive are affected by a directive
scope
As you can see, directives vary in which journal entries and files they
- affect, and whether they are focussed on input (parsing) or output
+ affect, and whether they are focussed on input (parsing) or output
(reports). Some directives have multiple effects.
Directives and multiple files
- If you use multiple -f/--file options, or the include directive,
- hledger will process multiple input files. But note that directives
+ If you use multiple -f/--file options, or the include directive,
+ hledger will process multiple input files. But note that directives
which affect input (see above) typically last only until the end of the
file in which they occur.
This may seem inconvenient, but it's intentional; it makes reports sta-
- ble and deterministic, independent of the order of input. Otherwise
- you could see different numbers if you happened to write -f options in
- a different order, or if you moved includes around while cleaning up
+ ble and deterministic, independent of the order of input. Otherwise
+ you could see different numbers if you happened to write -f options in
+ a different order, or if you moved includes around while cleaning up
your files.
- It can be surprising though; for example, it means that alias direc-
+ It can be surprising though; for example, it means that alias direc-
tives do not affect parent or sibling files (see below).
Comment blocks
- A line containing just comment starts a commented region of the file,
+ A line containing just comment starts a commented region of the file,
and a line containing just end comment (or the end of the current file)
ends it. See also comments.
Including other files
- You can pull in the content of additional files by writing an include
+ You can pull in the content of additional files by writing an include
directive, like this:
include FILEPATH
- Only journal files can include, and only journal, timeclock or timedot
+ Only journal files can include, and only journal, timeclock or timedot
files can be included (not CSV files, currently).
- If the file path does not begin with a slash, it is relative to the
+ If the file path does not begin with a slash, it is relative to the
current file's folder.
A tilde means home directory, eg: include ~/main.journal.
@@ -4580,18 +4574,18 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
The path may contain glob patterns to match multiple files, eg: include
*.journal.
- There is limited support for recursive wildcards: **/ (the slash is
- required) matches 0 or more subdirectories. It's not super convenient
- since you have to avoid include cycles and including directories, but
+ There is limited support for recursive wildcards: **/ (the slash is
+ required) matches 0 or more subdirectories. It's not super convenient
+ since you have to avoid include cycles and including directories, but
this can be done, eg: include */**/*.journal.
The path may also be prefixed to force a specific file format, overrid-
- ing the file extension (as described in hledger.1 -> Input files):
+ ing the file extension (as described in hledger.1 -> Input files):
include timedot:~/notes/2020*.md.
Default year
- You can set a default year to be used for subsequent dates which don't
- specify a year. This is a line beginning with Y followed by the year.
+ You can set a default year to be used for subsequent dates which don't
+ specify a year. This is a line beginning with Y followed by the year.
Eg:
Y2009 ; set default year to 2009
@@ -4611,39 +4605,39 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
assets
Declaring payees
- The payee directive can be used to declare a limited set of payees
- which may appear in transaction descriptions. The "payees" check will
- report an error if any transaction refers to a payee that has not been
+ The payee directive can be used to declare a limited set of payees
+ which may appear in transaction descriptions. The "payees" check will
+ report an error if any transaction refers to a payee that has not been
declared. Eg:
payee Whole Foods
Declaring commodities
- You can use commodity directives to declare your commodities. In fact
+ You can use commodity directives to declare your commodities. In fact
the commodity directive performs several functions at once:
- 1. It declares commodities which may be used in the journal. This can
- optionally be enforced, providing useful error checking. (Cf Com-
+ 1. It declares commodities which may be used in the journal. This can
+ optionally be enforced, providing useful error checking. (Cf Com-
modity error checking)
- 2. It declares which decimal mark character (period or comma), to
- expect when parsing input - useful to disambiguate international
- number formats in your data. Without this, hledger will parse both
+ 2. It declares which decimal mark character (period or comma), to
+ expect when parsing input - useful to disambiguate international
+ number formats in your data. Without this, hledger will parse both
1,000 and 1.000 as 1. (Cf Amounts)
- 3. It declares how to render the commodity's amounts when displaying
+ 3. It declares how to render the commodity's amounts when displaying
output - the decimal mark, any digit group marks, the number of dec-
- imal places, symbol placement and so on. (Cf Commodity display
+ imal places, symbol placement and so on. (Cf Commodity display
style)
- You will run into one of the problems solved by commodity directives
+ You will run into one of the problems solved by commodity directives
sooner or later, so we recommend using them, for robust and predictable
parsing and display.
- Generally you should put them at the top of your journal file (since
+ Generally you should put them at the top of your journal file (since
for function 2, they affect only following amounts, cf #793).
- A commodity directive is just the word commodity followed by a sample
+ A commodity directive is just the word commodity followed by a sample
amount, like this:
;commodity SAMPLEAMOUNT
@@ -4651,8 +4645,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
commodity $1000.00
commodity 1,000.0000 AAAA ; optional same-line comment
- It may also be written on multiple lines, and use the format subdirec-
- tive, as in Ledger. Note in this case the commodity symbol appears
+ It may also be written on multiple lines, and use the format subdirec-
+ tive, as in Ledger. Note in this case the commodity symbol appears
twice; it must be the same in both places:
;commodity SYMBOL
@@ -4664,11 +4658,11 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
commodity INR
format INR 1,00,00,000.00
- Remember that if the commodity symbol contains spaces, numbers, or
+ Remember that if the commodity symbol contains spaces, numbers, or
punctuation, it must be enclosed in double quotes (cf Commodity).
- The amount's quantity does not matter; only the format is significant.
- It must include a decimal mark - either a period or a comma - followed
+ The amount's quantity does not matter; only the format is significant.
+ It must include a decimal mark - either a period or a comma - followed
by 0 or more decimal digits.
A few more examples:
@@ -4679,27 +4673,27 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
commodity INR 9,99,99,999.0
commodity 1 000 000.
- Note hledger normally uses banker's rounding, so 0.5 displayed with
+ Note hledger normally uses banker's rounding, so 0.5 displayed with
zero decimal digits is "0". (More at Commodity display style.)
Commodity error checking
- In strict mode, enabled with the -s/--strict flag, hledger will report
- an error if a commodity symbol is used that has not been declared by a
- commodity directive. This works similarly to account error checking,
+ In strict mode, enabled with the -s/--strict flag, hledger will report
+ an error if a commodity symbol is used that has not been declared by a
+ commodity directive. This works similarly to account error checking,
see the notes there for more details.
Default commodity
The D directive sets a default commodity, to be used for any subsequent
- commodityless amounts (ie, plain numbers) seen while parsing the jour-
- nal. This effect lasts until the next D directive, or the end of the
+ commodityless amounts (ie, plain numbers) seen while parsing the jour-
+ nal. This effect lasts until the next D directive, or the end of the
journal.
- For compatibility/historical reasons, D also acts like a commodity
+ For compatibility/historical reasons, D also acts like a commodity
directive (setting the commodity's decimal mark for parsing and display
style for output).
- As with commodity, the amount must include a decimal mark (either
- period or comma). If both commodity and D directives are used for the
+ As with commodity, the amount must include a decimal mark (either
+ period or comma). If both commodity and D directives are used for the
same commodity, the commodity style takes precedence.
The syntax is D AMOUNT. Eg:
@@ -4713,18 +4707,18 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
b
Declaring market prices
- The P directive declares a market price, which is an exchange rate
+ The P directive declares a market price, which is an exchange rate
between two commodities on a certain date. (In Ledger, they are called
- "historical prices".) These are often obtained from a stock exchange,
+ "historical prices".) These are often obtained from a stock exchange,
cryptocurrency exchange, or the foreign exchange market.
The format is:
P DATE COMMODITY1SYMBOL COMMODITY2AMOUNT
- DATE is a simple date, COMMODITY1SYMBOL is the symbol of the commodity
- being priced, and COMMODITY2AMOUNT is the amount (symbol and quantity)
- of commodity 2 that one unit of commodity 1 is worth on this date.
+ DATE is a simple date, COMMODITY1SYMBOL is the symbol of the commodity
+ being priced, and COMMODITY2AMOUNT is the amount (symbol and quantity)
+ of commodity 2 that one unit of commodity 1 is worth on this date.
Examples:
# one euro was worth $1.35 from 2009-01-01 onward:
@@ -4733,69 +4727,69 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
# and $1.40 from 2010-01-01 onward:
P 2010-01-01 EUR $1.40
- The -V, -X and --value flags use these market prices to show amount
+ The -V, -X and --value flags use these market prices to show amount
values in another commodity. See Valuation.
Declaring accounts
account directives can be used to declare accounts (ie, the places that
- amounts are transferred from and to). Though not required, these dec-
+ amounts are transferred from and to). Though not required, these dec-
larations can provide several benefits:
o They can document your intended chart of accounts, providing a refer-
ence.
- o They can help hledger know your accounts' types (asset, liability,
- equity, revenue, expense), useful for reports like balancesheet and
+ o They can help hledger know your accounts' types (asset, liability,
+ equity, revenue, expense), useful for reports like balancesheet and
incomestatement.
- o They control account display order in reports, allowing non-alpha-
+ o They control account display order in reports, allowing non-alpha-
betic sorting (eg Revenues to appear above Expenses).
- o They can store extra information about accounts (account numbers,
+ o They can store extra information about accounts (account numbers,
notes, etc.)
- o They help with account name completion in the add command, hledger-
+ o They help with account name completion in the add command, hledger-
iadd, hledger-web, ledger-mode etc.
- o In strict mode, they restrict which accounts may be posted to by
+ o In strict mode, they restrict which accounts may be posted to by
transactions, which helps detect typos.
- The simplest form is just the word account followed by a hledger-style
+ The simplest form is just the word account followed by a hledger-style
account name, eg this account directive declares the assets:bank:check-
ing account:
account assets:bank:checking
Account error checking
- By default, accounts come into existence when a transaction references
- them by name. This is convenient, but it means hledger can't warn you
+ By default, accounts come into existence when a transaction references
+ them by name. This is convenient, but it means hledger can't warn you
when you mis-spell an account name in the journal. Usually you'll find
- the error later, as an extra account in balance reports, or an incor-
+ the error later, as an extra account in balance reports, or an incor-
rect balance when reconciling.
- In strict mode, enabled with the -s/--strict flag, hledger will report
- an error if any transaction uses an account name that has not been
+ In strict mode, enabled with the -s/--strict flag, hledger will report
+ an error if any transaction uses an account name that has not been
declared by an account directive. Some notes:
- o The declaration is case-sensitive; transactions must use the correct
+ o The declaration is case-sensitive; transactions must use the correct
account name capitalisation.
- o The account directive's scope is "whole file and below" (see direc-
+ o The account directive's scope is "whole file and below" (see direc-
tives). This means it affects all of the current file, and any files
- it includes, but not parent or sibling files. The position of
+ it includes, but not parent or sibling files. The position of
account directives within the file does not matter, though it's usual
to put them at the top.
- o Accounts can only be declared in journal files (but will affect
+ o Accounts can only be declared in journal files (but will affect
included files in other formats).
- o It's currently not possible to declare "all possible subaccounts"
+ o It's currently not possible to declare "all possible subaccounts"
with a wildcard; every account posted to must be declared.
Account comments
Comments, beginning with a semicolon, can be added:
- o on the same line, after two or more spaces (because ; is allowed in
+ o on the same line, after two or more spaces (because ; is allowed in
account names)
o on the next lines, indented
@@ -4809,7 +4803,7 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Same-line comments are not supported by Ledger, or hledger <1.13.
Account subdirectives
- We also allow (and ignore) Ledger-style indented subdirectives, just
+ We also allow (and ignore) Ledger-style indented subdirectives, just
for compatibility.:
account assets:bank:checking
@@ -4822,27 +4816,27 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
[LEDGER-STYLE SUBDIRECTIVES, IGNORED]
Account types
- hledger recognises five main types of account, corresponding to the
+ hledger recognises five main types of account, corresponding to the
account classes in the accounting equation:
Asset, Liability, Equity, Revenue, Expense.
These account types are important for controlling which accounts appear
- in the balancesheet, balancesheetequity, incomestatement reports (and
+ in the balancesheet, balancesheetequity, incomestatement reports (and
probably for other things in future).
- Additionally, we recognise the Cash type, which is also an Asset, and
- which causes accounts to appear in the cashflow report. ("Cash" here
- means liquid assets, eg bank balances but typically not investments or
+ Additionally, we recognise the Cash type, which is also an Asset, and
+ which causes accounts to appear in the cashflow report. ("Cash" here
+ means liquid assets, eg bank balances but typically not investments or
receivables.)
Declaring account types
Generally, to make these reports work you should declare your top-level
accounts and their types, using account directives with type: tags.
- The tag's value should be one of: Asset, Liability, Equity, Revenue,
- Expense, Cash, A, L, E, R, X, C (all case insensitive). The type is
- inherited by all subaccounts except where they override it. Here's a
+ The tag's value should be one of: Asset, Liability, Equity, Revenue,
+ Expense, Cash, A, L, E, R, X, C (all case insensitive). The type is
+ inherited by all subaccounts except where they override it. Here's a
complete example:
account assets ; type: Asset
@@ -4854,8 +4848,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
account expenses ; type: Expense
Auto-detected account types
- If you happen to use common english top-level account names, you may
- not need to declare account types, as they will be detected automati-
+ If you happen to use common english top-level account names, you may
+ not need to declare account types, as they will be detected automati-
cally using the following rules:
If account's name matches this regular expression: | its type is:
@@ -4873,10 +4867,10 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Interference from auto-detected account types
If you assign any account type, it's a good idea to assign all of them,
- to prevent any confusion from mixing declared and auto-detected types.
- Although it's unlikely to happen in real life, here's an example: with
- the following journal, balancesheetequity shows "liabilities" in both
- Liabilities and Equity sections. Declaring another account as
+ to prevent any confusion from mixing declared and auto-detected types.
+ Although it's unlikely to happen in real life, here's an example: with
+ the following journal, balancesheetequity shows "liabilities" in both
+ Liabilities and Equity sections. Declaring another account as
type:Liability would fix it:
account liabilities ; type:Equity
@@ -4887,8 +4881,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
equity -2
Old account type syntax
- In some hledger journals you might instead see this old syntax (the
- letters ALERX, separated from the account name by two or more spaces);
+ In some hledger journals you might instead see this old syntax (the
+ letters ALERX, separated from the account name by two or more spaces);
this is deprecated and may be removed soon:
account assets A
@@ -4898,8 +4892,8 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
account expenses X
Account display order
- Account directives also set the order in which accounts are displayed,
- eg in reports, the hledger-ui accounts screen, and the hledger-web
+ Account directives also set the order in which accounts are displayed,
+ eg in reports, the hledger-ui accounts screen, and the hledger-web
sidebar. By default accounts are listed in alphabetical order. But if
you have these account directives in the journal:
@@ -4921,20 +4915,20 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Undeclared accounts, if any, are displayed last, in alphabetical order.
- Note that sorting is done at each level of the account tree (within
- each group of sibling accounts under the same parent). And currently,
+ Note that sorting is done at each level of the account tree (within
+ each group of sibling accounts under the same parent). And currently,
this directive:
account other:zoo
- would influence the position of zoo among other's subaccounts, but not
+ would influence the position of zoo among other's subaccounts, but not
the position of other among the top-level accounts. This means:
- o you will sometimes declare parent accounts (eg account other above)
- that you don't intend to post to, just to customize their display
+ o you will sometimes declare parent accounts (eg account other above)
+ that you don't intend to post to, just to customize their display
order
- o sibling accounts stay together (you couldn't display x:y in between
+ o sibling accounts stay together (you couldn't display x:y in between
a:b and a:c).
Rewriting accounts
@@ -4952,15 +4946,15 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
o customising reports
Account aliases also rewrite account names in account directives. They
- do not affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-
+ do not affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-
web.
See also Rewrite account names.
Basic aliases
- To set an account alias, use the alias directive in your journal file.
- This affects all subsequent journal entries in the current file or its
- included files (but note: not sibling or parent files). The spaces
+ To set an account alias, use the alias directive in your journal file.
+ This affects all subsequent journal entries in the current file or its
+ included files (but note: not sibling or parent files). The spaces
around the = are optional:
alias OLD = NEW
@@ -4968,49 +4962,49 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Or, you can use the --alias 'OLD=NEW' option on the command line. This
affects all entries. It's useful for trying out aliases interactively.
- OLD and NEW are case sensitive full account names. hledger will
- replace any occurrence of the old account name with the new one. Sub-
+ OLD and NEW are case sensitive full account names. hledger will
+ replace any occurrence of the old account name with the new one. Sub-
accounts are also affected. Eg:
alias checking = assets:bank:wells fargo:checking
; rewrites "checking" to "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking", or "checking:a" to "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking:a"
Regex aliases
- There is also a more powerful variant that uses a regular expression,
+ There is also a more powerful variant that uses a regular expression,
indicated by the forward slashes:
alias /REGEX/ = REPLACEMENT
or --alias '/REGEX/=REPLACEMENT'.
- REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression. Anywhere it matches
- inside an account name, the matched part will be replaced by REPLACE-
- MENT. If REGEX contains parenthesised match groups, these can be ref-
+ REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression. Anywhere it matches
+ inside an account name, the matched part will be replaced by REPLACE-
+ MENT. If REGEX contains parenthesised match groups, these can be ref-
erenced by the usual numeric backreferences in REPLACEMENT. Eg:
alias /^(.+):bank:([^:]+):(.*)/ = \1:\2 \3
; rewrites "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking" to "assets:wells fargo checking"
- Also note that REPLACEMENT continues to the end of line (or on command
- line, to end of option argument), so it can contain trailing white-
+ Also note that REPLACEMENT continues to the end of line (or on command
+ line, to end of option argument), so it can contain trailing white-
space.
Combining aliases
- You can define as many aliases as you like, using journal directives
+ You can define as many aliases as you like, using journal directives
and/or command line options.
- Recursive aliases - where an account name is rewritten by one alias,
- then by another alias, and so on - are allowed. Each alias sees the
+ Recursive aliases - where an account name is rewritten by one alias,
+ then by another alias, and so on - are allowed. Each alias sees the
effect of previously applied aliases.
- In such cases it can be important to understand which aliases will be
- applied and in which order. For (each account name in) each journal
+ In such cases it can be important to understand which aliases will be
+ applied and in which order. For (each account name in) each journal
entry, we apply:
- 1. alias directives preceding the journal entry, most recently parsed
+ 1. alias directives preceding the journal entry, most recently parsed
first (ie, reading upward from the journal entry, bottom to top)
- 2. --alias options, in the order they appeared on the command line
+ 2. --alias options, in the order they appeared on the command line
(left to right).
In other words, for (an account name in) a given journal entry:
@@ -5021,15 +5015,15 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
o aliases defined after/below the entry do not affect it.
- This gives nearby aliases precedence over distant ones, and helps pro-
- vide semantic stability - aliases will keep working the same way inde-
+ This gives nearby aliases precedence over distant ones, and helps pro-
+ vide semantic stability - aliases will keep working the same way inde-
pendent of which files are being read and in which order.
- In case of trouble, adding --debug=6 to the command line will show
+ In case of trouble, adding --debug=6 to the command line will show
which aliases are being applied when.
Aliases and multiple files
- As explained at Directives and multiple files, alias directives do not
+ As explained at Directives and multiple files, alias directives do not
affect parent or sibling files. Eg in this command,
hledger -f a.aliases -f b.journal
@@ -5056,14 +5050,14 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
include c.journal ; also affected
end aliases
- You can clear (forget) all currently defined aliases with the end
+ You can clear (forget) all currently defined aliases with the end
aliases directive:
end aliases
Default parent account
- You can specify a parent account which will be prepended to all
- accounts within a section of the journal. Use the apply account and
+ You can specify a parent account which will be prepended to all
+ accounts within a section of the journal. Use the apply account and
end apply account directives like so:
apply account home
@@ -5080,7 +5074,7 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
home:food $10
home:cash $-10
- If end apply account is omitted, the effect lasts to the end of the
+ If end apply account is omitted, the effect lasts to the end of the
file. Included files are also affected, eg:
apply account business
@@ -5089,49 +5083,49 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
apply account personal
include personal.journal
- Prior to hledger 1.0, legacy account and end spellings were also sup-
+ Prior to hledger 1.0, legacy account and end spellings were also sup-
ported.
- A default parent account also affects account directives. It does not
- affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-web. If
- account aliases are present, they are applied after the default parent
+ A default parent account also affects account directives. It does not
+ affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-web. If
+ account aliases are present, they are applied after the default parent
account.
Periodic transactions
- Periodic transaction rules describe transactions that recur. They
- allow hledger to generate temporary future transactions to help with
- forecasting, so you don't have to write out each one in the journal,
+ Periodic transaction rules describe transactions that recur. They
+ allow hledger to generate temporary future transactions to help with
+ forecasting, so you don't have to write out each one in the journal,
and it's easy to try out different forecasts.
- Periodic transactions can be a little tricky, so before you use them,
+ Periodic transactions can be a little tricky, so before you use them,
read this whole section - or at least these tips:
- 1. Two spaces accidentally added or omitted will cause you trouble -
+ 1. Two spaces accidentally added or omitted will cause you trouble -
read about this below.
- 2. For troubleshooting, show the generated transactions with hledger
- print --forecast tag:generated or hledger register --forecast
+ 2. For troubleshooting, show the generated transactions with hledger
+ print --forecast tag:generated or hledger register --forecast
tag:generated.
- 3. Forecasted transactions will begin only after the last non-fore-
+ 3. Forecasted transactions will begin only after the last non-fore-
casted transaction's date.
- 4. Forecasted transactions will end 6 months from today, by default.
+ 4. Forecasted transactions will end 6 months from today, by default.
See below for the exact start/end rules.
- 5. period expressions can be tricky. Their documentation needs
+ 5. period expressions can be tricky. Their documentation needs
improvement, but is worth studying.
- 6. Some period expressions with a repeating interval must begin on a
- natural boundary of that interval. Eg in weekly from DATE, DATE
- must be a monday. ~ weekly from 2019/10/1 (a tuesday) will give an
+ 6. Some period expressions with a repeating interval must begin on a
+ natural boundary of that interval. Eg in weekly from DATE, DATE
+ must be a monday. ~ weekly from 2019/10/1 (a tuesday) will give an
error.
7. Other period expressions with an interval are automatically expanded
- to cover a whole number of that interval. (This is done to improve
+ to cover a whole number of that interval. (This is done to improve
reports, but it also affects periodic transactions. Yes, it's a bit
- inconsistent with the above.) Eg: ~ every 10th day of month from
- 2020/01, which is equivalent to ~ every 10th day of month from
+ inconsistent with the above.) Eg: ~ every 10th day of month from
+ 2020/01, which is equivalent to ~ every 10th day of month from
2020/01/01, will be adjusted to start on 2019/12/10.
Periodic transaction rules also have a second meaning: they are used to
@@ -5146,17 +5140,17 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
expenses:rent $2000
assets:bank:checking
- There is an additional constraint on the period expression: the start
- date must fall on a natural boundary of the interval. Eg monthly from
+ There is an additional constraint on the period expression: the start
+ date must fall on a natural boundary of the interval. Eg monthly from
2018/1/1 is valid, but monthly from 2018/1/15 is not.
- Partial or relative dates (M/D, D, tomorrow, last week) in the period
- expression can work (useful or not). They will be relative to today's
- date, unless a Y default year directive is in effect, in which case
+ Partial or relative dates (M/D, D, tomorrow, last week) in the period
+ expression can work (useful or not). They will be relative to today's
+ date, unless a Y default year directive is in effect, in which case
they will be relative to Y/1/1.
Two spaces between period expression and description!
- If the period expression is followed by a transaction description,
+ If the period expression is followed by a transaction description,
these must be separated by two or more spaces. This helps hledger know
where the period expression ends, so that descriptions can not acciden-
tally alter their meaning, as in this example:
@@ -5170,67 +5164,67 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
So,
- o Do write two spaces between your period expression and your transac-
+ o Do write two spaces between your period expression and your transac-
tion description, if any.
- o Don't accidentally write two spaces in the middle of your period
+ o Don't accidentally write two spaces in the middle of your period
expression.
Forecasting with periodic transactions
- The --forecast flag activates any periodic transaction rules in the
- journal. They will generate temporary recurring transactions, which
- are not saved in the journal, but will appear in all reports (eg
+ The --forecast flag activates any periodic transaction rules in the
+ journal. They will generate temporary recurring transactions, which
+ are not saved in the journal, but will appear in all reports (eg
print). This can be useful for estimating balances into the future, or
- experimenting with different scenarios. Or, it can be used as a data
+ experimenting with different scenarios. Or, it can be used as a data
entry aid: describe recurring transactions, and every so often copy the
output of print --forecast into the journal.
- These transactions will have an extra tag indicating which periodic
+ These transactions will have an extra tag indicating which periodic
rule generated them: generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR. And a simi-
- lar, hidden tag (beginning with an underscore) which, because it's
- never displayed by print, can be used to match transactions generated
+ lar, hidden tag (beginning with an underscore) which, because it's
+ never displayed by print, can be used to match transactions generated
"just now": _generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR.
- Periodic transactions are generated within some forecast period. By
+ Periodic transactions are generated within some forecast period. By
default, this
o begins on the later of
o the report start date if specified with -b/-p/date:
- o the day after the latest normal (non-periodic) transaction in the
+ o the day after the latest normal (non-periodic) transaction in the
journal, or today if there are no normal transactions.
- o ends on the report end date if specified with -e/-p/date:, or 6
+ o ends on the report end date if specified with -e/-p/date:, or 6
months (180 days) from today.
- This means that periodic transactions will begin only after the latest
- recorded transaction. And a recorded transaction dated in the future
- can prevent generation of periodic transactions. (You can avoid that
+ This means that periodic transactions will begin only after the latest
+ recorded transaction. And a recorded transaction dated in the future
+ can prevent generation of periodic transactions. (You can avoid that
by writing the future transaction as a one-time periodic rule instead -
put tilde before the date, eg ~ YYYY-MM-DD ...).
Or, you can set your own arbitrary "forecast period", which can overlap
- recorded transactions, and need not be in the future, by providing an
- option argument, like --forecast=PERIODEXPR. Note the equals sign is
+ recorded transactions, and need not be in the future, by providing an
+ option argument, like --forecast=PERIODEXPR. Note the equals sign is
required, a space won't work. PERIODEXPR is a period expression, which
- can specify the start date, end date, or both, like in a date: query.
- (See also hledger.1 -> Report start & end date). Some examples:
+ can specify the start date, end date, or both, like in a date: query.
+ (See also hledger.1 -> Report start & end date). Some examples:
--forecast=202001-202004, --forecast=jan-, --forecast=2020.
Budgeting with periodic transactions
- With the --budget flag, currently supported by the balance command,
- each periodic transaction rule declares recurring budget goals for the
- specified accounts. Eg the first example above declares a goal of
- spending $2000 on rent (and also, a goal of depositing $2000 into
- checking) every month. Goals and actual performance can then be com-
+ With the --budget flag, currently supported by the balance command,
+ each periodic transaction rule declares recurring budget goals for the
+ specified accounts. Eg the first example above declares a goal of
+ spending $2000 on rent (and also, a goal of depositing $2000 into
+ checking) every month. Goals and actual performance can then be com-
pared in budget reports.
See also: Budgeting and Forecasting.
Auto postings
- "Automated postings" or "auto postings" are extra postings which get
+ "Automated postings" or "auto postings" are extra postings which get
added automatically to transactions which match certain queries,
defined by "auto posting rules", when you use the --auto flag.
@@ -5241,27 +5235,27 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
...
ACCOUNT [AMOUNT]
- except the first line is an equals sign (mnemonic: = suggests match-
- ing), followed by a query (which matches existing postings), and each
- "posting" line describes a posting to be generated, and the posting
+ except the first line is an equals sign (mnemonic: = suggests match-
+ ing), followed by a query (which matches existing postings), and each
+ "posting" line describes a posting to be generated, and the posting
amounts can be:
- o a normal amount with a commodity symbol, eg $2. This will be used
+ o a normal amount with a commodity symbol, eg $2. This will be used
as-is.
o a number, eg 2. The commodity symbol (if any) from the matched post-
ing will be added to this.
- o a numeric multiplier, eg *2 (a star followed by a number N). The
+ o a numeric multiplier, eg *2 (a star followed by a number N). The
matched posting's amount (and total price, if any) will be multiplied
by N.
- o a multiplier with a commodity symbol, eg *$2 (a star, number N, and
+ o a multiplier with a commodity symbol, eg *$2 (a star, number N, and
symbol S). The matched posting's amount will be multiplied by N, and
its commodity symbol will be replaced with S.
- Any query term containing spaces must be enclosed in single or double
- quotes, as on the command line. Eg, note the quotes around the second
+ Any query term containing spaces must be enclosed in single or double
+ quotes, as on the command line. Eg, note the quotes around the second
query term below:
= expenses:groceries 'expenses:dining out'
@@ -5300,24 +5294,24 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
Auto postings and multiple files
An auto posting rule can affect any transaction in the current file, or
- in any parent file or child file. Note, currently it will not affect
+ in any parent file or child file. Note, currently it will not affect
sibling files (when multiple -f/--file are used - see #1212).
Auto postings and dates
- A posting date (or secondary date) in the matched posting, or (taking
- precedence) a posting date in the auto posting rule itself, will also
+ A posting date (or secondary date) in the matched posting, or (taking
+ precedence) a posting date in the auto posting rule itself, will also
be used in the generated posting.
Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance asser-
tions
Currently, auto postings are added:
- o after missing amounts are inferred, and transactions are checked for
+ o after missing amounts are inferred, and transactions are checked for
balancedness,
o but before balance assertions are checked.
- Note this means that journal entries must be balanced both before and
+ Note this means that journal entries must be balanced both before and
after auto postings are added. This changed in hledger 1.12+; see #893
for background.
@@ -5327,11 +5321,11 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
o generated-posting:= QUERY - shows this was generated by an auto post-
ing rule, and the query
- o _generated-posting:= QUERY - a hidden tag, which does not appear in
+ o _generated-posting:= QUERY - a hidden tag, which does not appear in
hledger's output. This can be used to match postings generated "just
now", rather than generated in the past and saved to the journal.
- Also, any transaction that has been changed by auto posting rules will
+ Also, any transaction that has been changed by auto posting rules will
have these tags added:
o modified: - this transaction was modified
@@ -5342,65 +5336,64 @@ JOURNAL FORMAT
CSV FORMAT
How hledger reads CSV data, and the CSV rules file format.
- hledger can read CSV files (Character Separated Value - usually comma,
- semicolon, or tab) containing dated records as if they were journal
+ hledger can read CSV files (Character Separated Value - usually comma,
+ semicolon, or tab) containing dated records as if they were journal
files, automatically converting each CSV record into a transaction.
(To learn about writing CSV, see CSV output.)
We describe each CSV file's format with a corresponding rules file. By
- default this is named like the CSV file with a .rules extension added.
- Eg when reading FILE.csv, hledger also looks for FILE.csv.rules in the
- same directory as FILE.csv. You can specify a different rules file
- with the --rules-file option. If a rules file is not found, hledger
+ default this is named like the CSV file with a .rules extension added.
+ Eg when reading FILE.csv, hledger also looks for FILE.csv.rules in the
+ same directory as FILE.csv. You can specify a different rules file
+ with the --rules-file option. If a rules file is not found, hledger
will create a sample rules file, which you'll need to adjust.
- This file contains rules describing the CSV data (header line, fields
+ This file contains rules describing the CSV data (header line, fields
layout, date format etc.), and how to construct hledger journal entries
(transactions) from it. Often there will also be a list of conditional
rules for categorising transactions based on their descriptions.
- Here's an overview of the CSV rules; these are described more fully
+ Here's an overview of the CSV rules; these are described more fully
below, after the examples:
skip skip one or more header lines or matched CSV
records
-
-
- fields list name CSV fields, assign them to hledger
+ fields list name CSV fields, assign them to hledger
fields
- field assignment assign a value to one hledger field, with
+ field assignment assign a value to one hledger field, with
interpolation
Field names hledger field names, used in the fields list
and field assignments
separator a custom field separator
- if block apply some rules to CSV records matched by
+
+ if block apply some rules to CSV records matched by
patterns
- if table apply some rules to CSV records matched by
+ if table apply some rules to CSV records matched by
patterns, alternate syntax
end skip the remaining CSV records
date-format how to parse dates in CSV records
- decimal-mark the decimal mark used in CSV amounts, if
+ decimal-mark the decimal mark used in CSV amounts, if
ambiguous
- newest-first disambiguate record order when there's only
+ newest-first disambiguate record order when there's only
one date
include inline another CSV rules file
- balance-type choose which type of balance assignments to
+ balance-type choose which type of balance assignments to
use
- Note, for best error messages when reading CSV files, use a .csv, .tsv
+ Note, for best error messages when reading CSV files, use a .csv, .tsv
or .ssv file extension or file prefix - see File Extension below.
There's an introductory Convert CSV files tutorial on hledger.org.
Examples
- Here are some sample hledger CSV rules files. See also the full col-
+ Here are some sample hledger CSV rules files. See also the full col-
lection at:
https://github.com/simonmichael/hledger/tree/master/examples/csv
Basic
- At minimum, the rules file must identify the date and amount fields,
- and often it also specifies the date format and how many header lines
+ At minimum, the rules file must identify the date and amount fields,
+ and often it also specifies the date format and how many header lines
there are. Here's a simple CSV file and a rules file for it:
Date, Description, Id, Amount
@@ -5419,8 +5412,8 @@ CSV FORMAT
Default account names are chosen, since we didn't set them.
Bank of Ireland
- Here's a CSV with two amount fields (Debit and Credit), and a balance
- field, which we can use to add balance assertions, which is not neces-
+ Here's a CSV with two amount fields (Debit and Credit), and a balance
+ field, which we can use to add balance assertions, which is not neces-
sary but provides extra error checking:
Date,Details,Debit,Credit,Balance
@@ -5462,13 +5455,13 @@ CSV FORMAT
assets:bank:boi:checking EUR-5.0 = EUR126.0
expenses:unknown EUR5.0
- The balance assertions don't raise an error above, because we're read-
- ing directly from CSV, but they will be checked if these entries are
+ The balance assertions don't raise an error above, because we're read-
+ ing directly from CSV, but they will be checked if these entries are
imported into a journal file.
Amazon
Here we convert amazon.com order history, and use an if block to gener-
- ate a third posting if there's a fee. (In practice you'd probably get
+ ate a third posting if there's a fee. (In practice you'd probably get
this data from your bank instead, but it's an example.)
"Date","Type","To/From","Name","Status","Amount","Fees","Transaction ID"
@@ -5520,7 +5513,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
expenses:fees $1.00
Paypal
- Here's a real-world rules file for (customised) Paypal CSV, with some
+ Here's a real-world rules file for (customised) Paypal CSV, with some
Paypal-specific rules, and a second rules file included:
"Date","Time","TimeZone","Name","Type","Status","Currency","Gross","Fee","Net","From Email Address","To Email Address","Transaction ID","Item Title","Item ID","Reference Txn ID","Receipt ID","Balance","Note"
@@ -5675,9 +5668,9 @@ CSV FORMAT
skip
skip N
- The word "skip" followed by a number (or no number, meaning 1) tells
- hledger to ignore this many non-empty lines preceding the CSV data.
- (Empty/blank lines are skipped automatically.) You'll need this when-
+ The word "skip" followed by a number (or no number, meaning 1) tells
+ hledger to ignore this many non-empty lines preceding the CSV data.
+ (Empty/blank lines are skipped automatically.) You'll need this when-
ever your CSV data contains header lines.
It also has a second purpose: it can be used inside if blocks to ignore
@@ -5686,19 +5679,19 @@ CSV FORMAT
fields list
fields FIELDNAME1, FIELDNAME2, ...
- A fields list (the word "fields" followed by comma-separated field
- names) is the quick way to assign CSV field values to hledger fields.
- (The other way is field assignments, see below.) A fields list does
+ A fields list (the word "fields" followed by comma-separated field
+ names) is the quick way to assign CSV field values to hledger fields.
+ (The other way is field assignments, see below.) A fields list does
does two things:
- 1. It names the CSV fields. This is optional, but can be convenient
+ 1. It names the CSV fields. This is optional, but can be convenient
later for interpolating them.
- 2. Whenever you use a standard hledger field name (defined below), the
+ 2. Whenever you use a standard hledger field name (defined below), the
CSV value is assigned to that part of the hledger transaction.
- Here's an example that says "use the 1st, 2nd and 4th fields as the
- transaction's date, description and amount; name the last two fields
+ Here's an example that says "use the 1st, 2nd and 4th fields as the
+ transaction's date, description and amount; name the last two fields
for later reference; and ignore the others":
fields date, description, , amount, , , somefield, anotherfield
@@ -5708,18 +5701,18 @@ CSV FORMAT
o The fields list always use commas, even if your CSV data uses another
separator character.
- o Currently there must be least two items in the list (at least one
+ o Currently there must be least two items in the list (at least one
comma).
- o Field names may not contain spaces. Spaces before/after field names
+ o Field names may not contain spaces. Spaces before/after field names
are optional.
- o If the CSV contains column headings, it's a good idea to use these,
+ o If the CSV contains column headings, it's a good idea to use these,
suitably modified, as the basis for your field names (eg lower-cased,
with underscores instead of spaces).
- o If some heading names match standard hledger fields, but you don't
- want to set the hledger fields directly, alter those names, eg by
+ o If some heading names match standard hledger fields, but you don't
+ want to set the hledger fields directly, alter those names, eg by
appending an underscore.
o Fields you don't care about can be given a dummy name (eg: _ ), or no
@@ -5728,15 +5721,15 @@ CSV FORMAT
field assignment
HLEDGERFIELDNAME FIELDVALUE
- Field assignments are the more flexible way to assign CSV values to
+ Field assignments are the more flexible way to assign CSV values to
hledger fields. They can be used instead of or in addition to a fields
list (see above).
- To assign a value to a hledger field, write the field name (any of the
- standard hledger field/pseudo-field names, defined below), a space,
- followed by a text value on the same line. This text value may inter-
- polate CSV fields, referenced by their 1-based position in the CSV
- record (%N), or by the name they were given in the fields list (%CSV-
+ To assign a value to a hledger field, write the field name (any of the
+ standard hledger field/pseudo-field names, defined below), a space,
+ followed by a text value on the same line. This text value may inter-
+ polate CSV fields, referenced by their 1-based position in the CSV
+ record (%N), or by the name they were given in the fields list (%CSV-
FIELDNAME).
Some examples:
@@ -5749,14 +5742,14 @@ CSV FORMAT
Tips:
- o Interpolation strips outer whitespace (so a CSV value like " 1 "
+ o Interpolation strips outer whitespace (so a CSV value like " 1 "
becomes 1 when interpolated) (#1051).
o See also Tips below.
Field names
Here are the standard hledger field (and pseudo-field) names, which you
- can use in a fields list and in field assignments. For more about the
+ can use in a fields list and in field assignments. For more about the
transaction parts they refer to, see Transactions.
date field
@@ -5786,63 +5779,63 @@ CSV FORMAT
Assigning to accountN, where N is 1 to 99, sets the account name of the
Nth posting, and causes that posting to be generated.
- Most often there are two postings, so you'll want to set account1 and
- account2. Typically account1 is associated with the CSV file, and is
- set once with a top-level assignment, while account2 is set based on
+ Most often there are two postings, so you'll want to set account1 and
+ account2. Typically account1 is associated with the CSV file, and is
+ set once with a top-level assignment, while account2 is set based on
each transaction's description, and in conditional blocks.
- If a posting's account name is left unset but its amount is set (see
- below), a default account name will be chosen (like "expenses:unknown"
+ If a posting's account name is left unset but its amount is set (see
+ below), a default account name will be chosen (like "expenses:unknown"
or "income:unknown").
amount field
- amountN sets the amount of the Nth posting, and causes that posting to
- be generated. By assigning to amount1, amount2, ... etc. you can
+ amountN sets the amount of the Nth posting, and causes that posting to
+ be generated. By assigning to amount1, amount2, ... etc. you can
generate up to 99 postings.
- amountN-in and amountN-out can be used instead, if the CSV uses sepa-
- rate fields for debits and credits (inflows and outflows). hledger
- assumes both of these CSV fields are unsigned, and will automatically
- negate the "-out" value. If they are signed, see "Setting amounts"
+ amountN-in and amountN-out can be used instead, if the CSV uses sepa-
+ rate fields for debits and credits (inflows and outflows). hledger
+ assumes both of these CSV fields are unsigned, and will automatically
+ negate the "-out" value. If they are signed, see "Setting amounts"
below.
- amount, or amount-in and amount-out are a legacy mode, to keep pre-
- hledger-1.17 CSV rules files working (and for occasional convenience).
- They are suitable only for two-posting transactions; they set both
- posting 1's and posting 2's amount. Posting 2's amount will be
+ amount, or amount-in and amount-out are a legacy mode, to keep pre-
+ hledger-1.17 CSV rules files working (and for occasional convenience).
+ They are suitable only for two-posting transactions; they set both
+ posting 1's and posting 2's amount. Posting 2's amount will be
negated, and also converted to cost if there's a transaction price.
If you have an existing rules file using the unnumbered form, you might
- want to use the numbered form in certain conditional blocks, without
- having to update and retest all the old rules. To facilitate this,
- posting 1 ignores amount/amount-in/amount-out if any of
+ want to use the numbered form in certain conditional blocks, without
+ having to update and retest all the old rules. To facilitate this,
+ posting 1 ignores amount/amount-in/amount-out if any of
amount1/amount1-in/amount1-out are assigned, and posting 2 ignores them
- if any of amount2/amount2-in/amount2-out are assigned, avoiding con-
+ if any of amount2/amount2-in/amount2-out are assigned, avoiding con-
flicts.
currency field
- currency sets a currency symbol, to be prepended to all postings'
- amounts. You can use this if the CSV amounts do not have a currency
+ currency sets a currency symbol, to be prepended to all postings'
+ amounts. You can use this if the CSV amounts do not have a currency
symbol, eg if it is in a separate column.
- currencyN prepends a currency symbol to just the Nth posting's amount.
+ currencyN prepends a currency symbol to just the Nth posting's amount.
balance field
- balanceN sets a balance assertion amount (or if the posting amount is
+ balanceN sets a balance assertion amount (or if the posting amount is
left empty, a balance assignment) on posting N.
balance is a compatibility spelling for hledger <1.17; it is equivalent
to balance1.
- You can adjust the type of assertion/assignment with the balance-type
+ You can adjust the type of assertion/assignment with the balance-type
rule (see below).
See Tips below for more about setting amounts and currency.
separator
- You can use the separator rule to read other kinds of character-sepa-
- rated data. The argument is any single separator character, or the
- words tab or space (case insensitive). Eg, for comma-separated values
+ You can use the separator rule to read other kinds of character-sepa-
+ rated data. The argument is any single separator character, or the
+ words tab or space (case insensitive). Eg, for comma-separated values
(CSV):
separator ,
@@ -5855,7 +5848,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
separator TAB
- If the input file has a .csv, .ssv or .tsv file extension (or a csv:,
+ If the input file has a .csv, .ssv or .tsv file extension (or a csv:,
ssv:, tsv: prefix), the appropriate separator will be inferred automat-
ically, and you won't need this rule.
@@ -5870,8 +5863,8 @@ CSV FORMAT
RULE
RULE
- Conditional blocks ("if blocks") are a block of rules that are applied
- only to CSV records which match certain patterns. They are often used
+ Conditional blocks ("if blocks") are a block of rules that are applied
+ only to CSV records which match certain patterns. They are often used
for customising account names based on transaction descriptions.
Matching the whole record
@@ -5880,16 +5873,16 @@ CSV FORMAT
REGEX
REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression that tries to match any-
- where within the CSV record. It is a POSIX ERE (extended regular
- expression) that also supports GNU word boundaries (\b, \B, \<, \>),
- and nothing else. If you have trouble, be sure to check our doc:
+ where within the CSV record. It is a POSIX ERE (extended regular
+ expression) that also supports GNU word boundaries (\b, \B, \<, \>),
+ and nothing else. If you have trouble, be sure to check our doc:
https://hledger.org/hledger.html#regular-expressions
- Important note: the record that is matched is not the original record,
- but a synthetic one, with any enclosing double quotes (but not enclos-
+ Important note: the record that is matched is not the original record,
+ but a synthetic one, with any enclosing double quotes (but not enclos-
ing whitespace) removed, and always comma-separated (which means that a
- field containing a comma will appear like two fields). Eg, if the
- original record is 2020-01-01; "Acme, Inc."; 1,000, the REGEX will
+ field containing a comma will appear like two fields). Eg, if the
+ original record is 2020-01-01; "Acme, Inc."; 1,000, the REGEX will
actually see 2020-01-01,Acme, Inc., 1,000).
Matching individual fields
@@ -5897,14 +5890,14 @@ CSV FORMAT
%CSVFIELD REGEX
- which matches just the content of a particular CSV field. CSVFIELD is
- a percent sign followed by the field's name or column number, like
+ which matches just the content of a particular CSV field. CSVFIELD is
+ a percent sign followed by the field's name or column number, like
%date or %1.
Combining matchers
A single matcher can be written on the same line as the "if"; or multi-
ple matchers can be written on the following lines, non-indented. Mul-
- tiple matchers are OR'd (any one of them can match), unless one begins
+ tiple matchers are OR'd (any one of them can match), unless one begins
with an & symbol, in which case it is AND'ed with the previous matcher.
if
@@ -5913,8 +5906,8 @@ CSV FORMAT
RULE
Rules applied on successful match
- After the patterns there should be one or more rules to apply, all
- indented by at least one space. Three kinds of rule are allowed in
+ After the patterns there should be one or more rules to apply, all
+ indented by at least one space. Three kinds of rule are allowed in
conditional blocks:
o field assignments (to set a hledger field)
@@ -5944,11 +5937,11 @@ CSV FORMAT
MATCHER3,VALUE31,VALUE32,...,VALUE3n
<empty line>
- Conditional tables ("if tables") are a different syntax to specify
- field assignments that will be applied only to CSV records which match
+ Conditional tables ("if tables") are a different syntax to specify
+ field assignments that will be applied only to CSV records which match
certain patterns.
- MATCHER could be either field or record matcher, as described above.
+ MATCHER could be either field or record matcher, as described above.
When MATCHER matches, values from that row would be assigned to the CSV
fields named on the if line, in the same order.
@@ -5972,17 +5965,17 @@ CSV FORMAT
...
CSVFIELDNAMEn VALUE3n
- Each line starting with MATCHER should contain enough (possibly empty)
+ Each line starting with MATCHER should contain enough (possibly empty)
values for all the listed fields.
- Rules would be checked and applied in the order they are listed in the
+ Rules would be checked and applied in the order they are listed in the
table and, like with if blocks, later rules (in the same or another ta-
ble) or if blocks could override the effect of any rule.
- Instead of ',' you can use a variety of other non-alphanumeric charac-
+ Instead of ',' you can use a variety of other non-alphanumeric charac-
ters as a separator. First character after if is taken to be the sepa-
- rator for the rest of the table. It is the responsibility of the user
- to ensure that separator does not occur inside MATCHERs and values -
+ rator for the rest of the table. It is the responsibility of the user
+ to ensure that separator does not occur inside MATCHERs and values -
there is no way to escape separator.
Example:
@@ -5993,7 +5986,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
2020/01/12.*Plumbing LLC,expenses:house:upkeep,emergency plumbing call-out
end
- This rule can be used inside if blocks (only), to make hledger stop
+ This rule can be used inside if blocks (only), to make hledger stop
reading this CSV file and move on to the next input file, or to command
execution. Eg:
@@ -6004,10 +5997,10 @@ CSV FORMAT
date-format
date-format DATEFMT
- This is a helper for the date (and date2) fields. If your CSV dates
- are not formatted like YYYY-MM-DD, YYYY/MM/DD or YYYY.MM.DD, you'll
- need to add a date-format rule describing them with a strptime date
- parsing pattern, which must parse the CSV date value completely. Some
+ This is a helper for the date (and date2) fields. If your CSV dates
+ are not formatted like YYYY-MM-DD, YYYY/MM/DD or YYYY.MM.DD, you'll
+ need to add a date-format rule describing them with a strptime date
+ parsing pattern, which must parse the CSV date value completely. Some
examples:
# MM/DD/YY
@@ -6028,9 +6021,9 @@ CSV FORMAT
https://hackage.haskell.org/package/time/docs/Data-Time-For-
mat.html#v:formatTime
- Note that although you can parse date-times which include a time zone,
- that time zone is ignored; it will not change the date that is parsed.
- This means when reading CSV data with times not in your local time
+ Note that although you can parse date-times which include a time zone,
+ that time zone is ignored; it will not change the date that is parsed.
+ This means when reading CSV data with times not in your local time
zone, dates can be "off by one".
decimal-mark
@@ -6040,22 +6033,22 @@ CSV FORMAT
decimal-mark ,
- hledger automatically accepts either period or comma as a decimal mark
- when parsing numbers (cf Amounts). However if any numbers in the CSV
- contain digit group marks, such as thousand-separating commas, you
- should declare the decimal mark explicitly with this rule, to avoid
+ hledger automatically accepts either period or comma as a decimal mark
+ when parsing numbers (cf Amounts). However if any numbers in the CSV
+ contain digit group marks, such as thousand-separating commas, you
+ should declare the decimal mark explicitly with this rule, to avoid
misparsed numbers.
newest-first
- hledger always sorts the generated transactions by date. Transactions
- on the same date should appear in the same order as their CSV records,
- as hledger can usually auto-detect whether the CSV's normal order is
+ hledger always sorts the generated transactions by date. Transactions
+ on the same date should appear in the same order as their CSV records,
+ as hledger can usually auto-detect whether the CSV's normal order is
oldest first or newest first. But if all of the following are true:
- o the CSV might sometimes contain just one day of data (all records
+ o the CSV might sometimes contain just one day of data (all records
having the same date)
- o the CSV records are normally in reverse chronological order (newest
+ o the CSV records are normally in reverse chronological order (newest
at the top)
o and you care about preserving the order of same-day transactions
@@ -6068,9 +6061,9 @@ CSV FORMAT
include
include RULESFILE
- This includes the contents of another CSV rules file at this point.
- RULESFILE is an absolute file path or a path relative to the current
- file's directory. This can be useful for sharing common rules between
+ This includes the contents of another CSV rules file at this point.
+ RULESFILE is an absolute file path or a path relative to the current
+ file's directory. This can be useful for sharing common rules between
several rules files, eg:
# someaccount.csv.rules
@@ -6085,10 +6078,10 @@ CSV FORMAT
balance-type
Balance assertions generated by assigning to balanceN are of the simple
- = type by default, which is a single-commodity, subaccount-excluding
+ = type by default, which is a single-commodity, subaccount-excluding
assertion. You may find the subaccount-including variants more useful,
- eg if you have created some virtual subaccounts of checking to help
- with budgeting. You can select a different type of assertion with the
+ eg if you have created some virtual subaccounts of checking to help
+ with budgeting. You can select a different type of assertion with the
balance-type rule:
# balance assertions will consider all commodities and all subaccounts
@@ -6103,19 +6096,19 @@ CSV FORMAT
Tips
Rapid feedback
- It's a good idea to get rapid feedback while creating/troubleshooting
+ It's a good idea to get rapid feedback while creating/troubleshooting
CSV rules. Here's a good way, using entr from http://eradman.com/entr-
project :
$ ls foo.csv* | entr bash -c 'echo ----; hledger -f foo.csv print desc:SOMEDESC'
- A desc: query (eg) is used to select just one, or a few, transactions
- of interest. "bash -c" is used to run multiple commands, so we can
- echo a separator each time the command re-runs, making it easier to
+ A desc: query (eg) is used to select just one, or a few, transactions
+ of interest. "bash -c" is used to run multiple commands, so we can
+ echo a separator each time the command re-runs, making it easier to
read the output.
Valid CSV
- hledger accepts CSV conforming to RFC 4180. When CSV values are
+ hledger accepts CSV conforming to RFC 4180. When CSV values are
enclosed in quotes, note:
o they must be double quotes (not single quotes)
@@ -6123,9 +6116,9 @@ CSV FORMAT
o spaces outside the quotes are not allowed
File Extension
- To help hledger identify the format and show the right error messages,
- CSV/SSV/TSV files should normally be named with a .csv, .ssv or .tsv
- filename extension. Or, the file path should be prefixed with csv:,
+ To help hledger identify the format and show the right error messages,
+ CSV/SSV/TSV files should normally be named with a .csv, .ssv or .tsv
+ filename extension. Or, the file path should be prefixed with csv:,
ssv: or tsv:. Eg:
$ hledger -f foo.ssv print
@@ -6134,48 +6127,48 @@ CSV FORMAT
$ cat foo | hledger -f ssv:- foo
- You can override the file extension with a separator rule if needed.
+ You can override the file extension with a separator rule if needed.
See also: Input files in the hledger manual.
Reading multiple CSV files
- If you use multiple -f options to read multiple CSV files at once,
- hledger will look for a correspondingly-named rules file for each CSV
- file. But if you use the --rules-file option, that rules file will be
+ If you use multiple -f options to read multiple CSV files at once,
+ hledger will look for a correspondingly-named rules file for each CSV
+ file. But if you use the --rules-file option, that rules file will be
used for all the CSV files.
Valid transactions
After reading a CSV file, hledger post-processes and validates the gen-
erated journal entries as it would for a journal file - balancing them,
- applying balance assignments, and canonicalising amount styles. Any
- errors at this stage will be reported in the usual way, displaying the
+ applying balance assignments, and canonicalising amount styles. Any
+ errors at this stage will be reported in the usual way, displaying the
problem entry.
There is one exception: balance assertions, if you have generated them,
- will not be checked, since normally these will work only when the CSV
- data is part of the main journal. If you do need to check balance
+ will not be checked, since normally these will work only when the CSV
+ data is part of the main journal. If you do need to check balance
assertions generated from CSV right away, pipe into another hledger:
$ hledger -f file.csv print | hledger -f- print
Deduplicating, importing
- When you download a CSV file periodically, eg to get your latest bank
- transactions, the new file may overlap with the old one, containing
+ When you download a CSV file periodically, eg to get your latest bank
+ transactions, the new file may overlap with the old one, containing
some of the same records.
The import command will (a) detect the new transactions, and (b) append
just those transactions to your main journal. It is idempotent, so you
- don't have to remember how many times you ran it or with which version
- of the CSV. (It keeps state in a hidden .latest.FILE.csv file.) This
+ don't have to remember how many times you ran it or with which version
+ of the CSV. (It keeps state in a hidden .latest.FILE.csv file.) This
is the easiest way to import CSV data. Eg:
# download the latest CSV files, then run this command.
# Note, no -f flags needed here.
$ hledger import *.csv [--dry]
- This method works for most CSV files. (Where records have a stable
+ This method works for most CSV files. (Where records have a stable
chronological order, and new records appear only at the new end.)
- A number of other tools and workflows, hledger-specific and otherwise,
+ A number of other tools and workflows, hledger-specific and otherwise,
exist for converting, deduplicating, classifying and managing CSV data.
See:
@@ -6196,13 +6189,13 @@ CSV FORMAT
a. If both fields are unsigned:
Assign to amountN-in and amountN-out. This sets posting N's amount
- to whichever of these has a non-zero value, and negates the "-out"
+ to whichever of these has a non-zero value, and negates the "-out"
value.
b. If either field is signed (can contain a minus sign):
- Use a conditional rule to flip the sign (of non-empty values).
- Since hledger always negates amountN-out, if it was already nega-
- tive, we must undo that by negating once more (but only if the
+ Use a conditional rule to flip the sign (of non-empty values).
+ Since hledger always negates amountN-out, if it was already nega-
+ tive, we must undo that by negating once more (but only if the
field is non-empty):
fields date, description, amount1-in, amount1-out
@@ -6210,8 +6203,8 @@ CSV FORMAT
amount1-out -%amount1-out
c. If both fields, or neither field, can contain a non-zero value:
- hledger normally expects exactly one of the fields to have a non-
- zero value. Eg, the amountN-in/amountN-out rules would reject
+ hledger normally expects exactly one of the fields to have a non-
+ zero value. Eg, the amountN-in/amountN-out rules would reject
value pairs like these:
"", ""
@@ -6219,7 +6212,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
"1", "none"
So, use smarter conditional rules to set the amount from the appro-
- priate field. Eg, these rules would make it use only the value
+ priate field. Eg, these rules would make it use only the value
containing non-zero digits, handling the above:
fields date, description, in, out
@@ -6228,7 +6221,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
if %out [1-9]
amount1 %out
- 3. If you are stuck with hledger <1.17, or you want posting 2's amount
+ 3. If you are stuck with hledger <1.17, or you want posting 2's amount
converted to cost:
Assign to amount (or to amount-in and amount-out). (The old numberless
syntax, which sets amount1 and amount2.)
@@ -6238,15 +6231,15 @@ CSV FORMAT
ance assignment. (Old syntax: balance, equivalent to balance1.)
o If hledger guesses the wrong default account name:
- When setting the amount via balance assertion, hledger may guess
- the wrong default account name. So, set the account name explic-
+ When setting the amount via balance assertion, hledger may guess
+ the wrong default account name. So, set the account name explic-
itly, eg:
fields date, description, balance1
account1 assets:checking
Amount signs
- There is some special handling for amount signs, to simplify parsing
+ There is some special handling for amount signs, to simplify parsing
and sign-flipping:
o If an amount value begins with a plus sign:
@@ -6255,17 +6248,17 @@ CSV FORMAT
o If an amount value is parenthesised:
it will be de-parenthesised and sign-flipped: (AMT) becomes -AMT
- o If an amount value has two minus signs (or two sets of parentheses,
+ o If an amount value has two minus signs (or two sets of parentheses,
or a minus sign and parentheses):
they cancel out and will be removed: --AMT or -(AMT) becomes AMT
- o If an amount value contains just a sign (or just a set of parenthe-
+ o If an amount value contains just a sign (or just a set of parenthe-
ses):
- that is removed, making it an empty value. "+" or "-" or "()" becomes
+ that is removed, making it an empty value. "+" or "-" or "()" becomes
"".
Setting currency/commodity
- If the currency/commodity symbol is included in the CSV's amount
+ If the currency/commodity symbol is included in the CSV's amount
field(s):
2020-01-01,foo,$123.00
@@ -6284,7 +6277,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
2020-01-01,foo,USD,123.00
You can assign that to the currency pseudo-field, which has the special
- effect of prepending itself to every amount in the transaction (on the
+ effect of prepending itself to every amount in the transaction (on the
left, with no separating space):
fields date,description,currency,amount
@@ -6293,7 +6286,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
expenses:unknown USD123.00
income:unknown USD-123.00
- Or, you can use a field assignment to construct the amount yourself,
+ Or, you can use a field assignment to construct the amount yourself,
with more control. Eg to put the symbol on the right, and separated by
a space:
@@ -6304,7 +6297,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
expenses:unknown 123.00 USD
income:unknown -123.00 USD
- Note we used a temporary field name (cur) that is not currency - that
+ Note we used a temporary field name (cur) that is not currency - that
would trigger the prepending effect, which we don't want here.
Amount decimal places
@@ -6312,13 +6305,13 @@ CSV FORMAT
amount1 influence commodity display styles, such as the number of deci-
mal places displayed in reports.
- The original amounts as written in the CSV file do not affect display
+ The original amounts as written in the CSV file do not affect display
style (because we don't yet reliably know their commodity).
Referencing other fields
- In field assignments, you can interpolate only CSV fields, not hledger
- fields. In the example below, there's both a CSV field and a hledger
- field named amount1, but %amount1 always means the CSV field, not the
+ In field assignments, you can interpolate only CSV fields, not hledger
+ fields. In the example below, there's both a CSV field and a hledger
+ field named amount1, but %amount1 always means the CSV field, not the
hledger field:
# Name the third CSV field "amount1"
@@ -6330,7 +6323,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
# Set comment to the CSV amount1 (not the amount1 assigned above)
comment %amount1
- Here, since there's no CSV amount1 field, %amount1 will produce a lit-
+ Here, since there's no CSV amount1 field, %amount1 will produce a lit-
eral "amount1":
fields date,description,csvamount
@@ -6338,7 +6331,7 @@ CSV FORMAT
# Can't interpolate amount1 here
comment %amount1
- When there are multiple field assignments to the same hledger field,
+ When there are multiple field assignments to the same hledger field,
only the last one takes effect. Here, comment's value will be be B, or
C if "something" is matched, but never A:
@@ -6348,14 +6341,14 @@ CSV FORMAT
comment C
How CSV rules are evaluated
- Here's how to think of CSV rules being evaluated (if you really need
+ Here's how to think of CSV rules being evaluated (if you really need
to). First,
- o include - all includes are inlined, from top to bottom, depth first.
- (At each include point the file is inlined and scanned for further
+ o include - all includes are inlined, from top to bottom, depth first.
+ (At each include point the file is inlined and scanned for further
includes, recursively, before proceeding.)
- Then "global" rules are evaluated, top to bottom. If a rule is
+ Then "global" rules are evaluated, top to bottom. If a rule is
repeated, the last one wins:
o skip (at top level)
@@ -6369,33 +6362,33 @@ CSV FORMAT
Then for each CSV record in turn:
- o test all if blocks. If any of them contain a end rule, skip all
+ o test all if blocks. If any of them contain a end rule, skip all
remaining CSV records. Otherwise if any of them contain a skip rule,
- skip that many CSV records. If there are multiple matched skip
+ skip that many CSV records. If there are multiple matched skip
rules, the first one wins.
- o collect all field assignments at top level and in matched if blocks.
- When there are multiple assignments for a field, keep only the last
+ o collect all field assignments at top level and in matched if blocks.
+ When there are multiple assignments for a field, keep only the last
one.
- o compute a value for each hledger field - either the one that was
- assigned to it (and interpolate the %CSVFIELDNAME references), or a
+ o compute a value for each hledger field - either the one that was
+ assigned to it (and interpolate the %CSVFIELDNAME references), or a
default
o generate a synthetic hledger transaction from these values.
- This is all part of the CSV reader, one of several readers hledger can
- use to parse input files. When all files have been read successfully,
- the transactions are passed as input to whichever hledger command the
+ This is all part of the CSV reader, one of several readers hledger can
+ use to parse input files. When all files have been read successfully,
+ the transactions are passed as input to whichever hledger command the
user specified.
TIMECLOCK FORMAT
The time logging format of timeclock.el, as read by hledger.
- hledger can read time logs in timeclock format. As with Ledger, these
+ hledger can read time logs in timeclock format. As with Ledger, these
are (a subset of) timeclock.el's format, containing clock-in and clock-
- out entries as in the example below. The date is a simple date. The
- time format is HH:MM[:SS][+-ZZZZ]. Seconds and timezone are optional.
+ out entries as in the example below. The date is a simple date. The
+ time format is HH:MM[:SS][+-ZZZZ]. Seconds and timezone are optional.
The timezone, if present, must be four digits and is ignored (currently
the time is always interpreted as a local time).
@@ -6404,9 +6397,9 @@ TIMECLOCK FORMAT
i 2015/03/31 22:21:45 another account
o 2015/04/01 02:00:34
- hledger treats each clock-in/clock-out pair as a transaction posting
- some number of hours to an account. Or if the session spans more than
- one day, it is split into several transactions, one for each day. For
+ hledger treats each clock-in/clock-out pair as a transaction posting
+ some number of hours to an account. Or if the session spans more than
+ one day, it is split into several transactions, one for each day. For
the above time log, hledger print generates these journal entries:
$ hledger -f t.timeclock print
@@ -6427,72 +6420,100 @@ TIMECLOCK FORMAT
To generate time logs, ie to clock in and clock out, you could:
- o use emacs and the built-in timeclock.el, or the extended timeclock-
+ o use emacs and the built-in timeclock.el, or the extended timeclock-
x.el and perhaps the extras in ledgerutils.el
o at the command line, use these bash aliases: shell alias ti="echo
- i `date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` \$* >>$TIMELOG" alias to="echo o
+ i `date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` \$* >>$TIMELOG" alias to="echo o
`date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` >>$TIMELOG"
o or use the old ti and to scripts in the ledger 2.x repository. These
- rely on a "timeclock" executable which I think is just the ledger 2
+ rely on a "timeclock" executable which I think is just the ledger 2
executable renamed.
TIMEDOT FORMAT
- hledger's human-friendly time logging format.
+ timedot format is hledger's human-friendly time logging format. Com-
+ pared to timeclock format, it is
- Timedot is a plain text format for logging dated, categorised quanti-
- ties (of time, usually), supported by hledger. It is convenient for
- approximate and retroactive time logging, eg when the real-time clock-
- in/out required with a timeclock file is too precise or too interrup-
- tive. It can be formatted like a bar chart, making clear at a glance
- where time was spent.
+ o convenient for quick, approximate, and retroactive time logging
- Though called "timedot", this format is read by hledger as commodity-
- less quantities, so it could be used to represent dated quantities
- other than time. In the docs below we'll assume it's time.
+ o readable: you can see at a glance where time was spent.
- A timedot file contains a series of day entries. A day entry begins
- with a non-indented hledger-style simple date (Y-M-D, Y/M/D, Y.M.D..)
- Any additional text on the same line is used as a transaction descrip-
- tion for this day.
+ A timedot file contains a series of day entries, which might look like
+ this:
- This is followed by optionally-indented timelog items for that day, one
- per line. Each timelog item is a note, usually a
- hledger:style:account:name representing a time category, followed by
- two or more spaces, and a quantity. Each timelog item generates a
- hledger transaction.
+ 2021-08-04
+ hom:errands .... ....
+ fos:hledger:timedot .. ; docs
+ per:admin:finance
- Quantities can be written as:
+ hledger reads this as three time transactions on this day, with each
+ dot representing a quarter-hour spent:
- o dots: a sequence of dots (.) representing quarter hours. Spaces may
- optionally be used for grouping. Eg: .... ..
+ $ hledger -f a.timedot print # .timedot file extension activates the timedot reader
+ 2021-08-04 *
+ (hom:errands) 2.00
- o an integral or decimal number, representing hours. Eg: 1.5
+ 2021-08-04 *
+ (fos:hledger:timedot) 0.50
- o an integral or decimal number immediately followed by a unit symbol
- s, m, h, d, w, mo, or y, representing seconds, minutes, hours, days
- weeks, months or years respectively. Eg: 90m. The following equiva-
- lencies are assumed, currently: 1m = 60s, 1h = 60m, 1d = 24h, 1w =
- 7d, 1mo = 30d, 1y=365d.
+ 2021-08-04 *
+ (per:admin:finance) 0
- There is some flexibility allowing notes and todo lists to be kept
- right in the time log, if needed:
+ A day entry begins with a date line:
- o Blank lines and lines beginning with # or ; are ignored.
+ o a non-indented simple date (Y-M-D, Y/M/D, or Y.M.D).
- o Lines not ending with a double-space and quantity are parsed as items
- taking no time, which will not appear in balance reports by default.
- (Add -E to see them.)
+ Optionally this can be followed on the same line by
- o Org mode headlines (lines beginning with one or more * followed by a
- space) can be used as date lines or timelog items (the stars are
- ignored). Also all org headlines before the first date line are
- ignored. This means org users can manage their timelog as an org
- outline (eg using org-mode/orgstruct-mode in Emacs), for organisa-
- tion, faster navigation, controlling visibility etc.
+ o a common transaction description for this day
- Examples:
+ o a common transaction comment for this day, after a semicolon (;).
+
+ After the date line are zero or more optionally-indented time transac-
+ tion lines, consisting of:
+
+ o an account name - any word or phrase, usually a hledger-style account
+ name.
+
+ o two or more spaces - a field separator, required if there is an
+ amount (as in journal format).
+
+ o a timedot amount - dots representing quarter hours, or a number rep-
+ resenting hours.
+
+ o an optional comment beginning with semicolon. This is ignored.
+
+ In more detail, timedot amounts can be:
+
+ o dots: zero or more period characters, each representing one quarter-
+ hour. Spaces are ignored and can be used for grouping. Eg: .... ..
+
+ o a number, representing hours. Eg: 1.5
+
+ o a number immediately followed by a unit symbol s, m, h, d, w, mo, or
+ y, representing seconds, minutes, hours, days weeks, months or years.
+ Eg 1.5h or 90m. The following equivalencies are assumed:
+ 60s = 1m, 60m = 1h, 24h = 1d, 7d = 1w, 30d = 1mo, 365d = 1y. (This
+ unit will not be visible in the generated transaction amount, which is
+ always in hours.)
+
+ There is some added flexibility to help with keeping time log data in
+ the same file as your notes, todo lists, etc.:
+
+ o Lines beginning with # or ;, and blank lines, are ignored.
+
+ o Lines not ending with a double-space and amount are parsed as trans-
+ actions with zero amount. (Most hledger reports hide these by
+ default; add -E to see them.)
+
+ o One or more stars (*) followed by a space, at the start of a line, is
+ ignored. So date lines or time transaction lines can also be Org-
+ mode headlines.
+
+ o All Org-mode headlines before the first date line are ignored.
+
+ More examples:
# on this day, 6h was spent on client work, 1.5h on haskell FOSS work, etc.
2016/2/1
@@ -6532,14 +6553,14 @@ TIMEDOT FORMAT
Reporting:
- $ hledger -f t.timedot print date:2016/2/2
+ $ hledger -f a.timedot print date:2016/2/2
2016-02-02 *
(inc:client1) 2.00
2016-02-02 *
(biz:research) 0.25
- $ hledger -f t.timedot bal --daily --tree
+ $ hledger -f a.timedot bal --daily --tree
Balance changes in 2016-02-01-2016-02-03:
|| 2016-02-01d 2016-02-02d 2016-02-03d
@@ -6554,26 +6575,25 @@ TIMEDOT FORMAT
------------++----------------------------------------
|| 7.75 2.25 8.00
- I prefer to use period for separating account components. We can make
- this work with an account alias:
+ Using period instead of colon as account name separator:
2016/2/4
fos.hledger.timedot 4
fos.ledger ..
- $ hledger -f t.timedot --alias /\\./=: bal date:2016/2/4 --tree
+ $ hledger -f a.timedot --alias /\\./=: bal --tree
4.50 fos
4.00 hledger:timedot
0.50 ledger
--------------------
4.50
- Here is a sample.timedot.
+ A sample.timedot file.
COMMON TASKS
- Here are some quick examples of how to do some basic tasks with
- hledger. For more details, see the reference section below, the
- hledger_journal(5) manual, or the more extensive docs at
+ Here are some quick examples of how to do some basic tasks with
+ hledger. For more details, see the reference section below, the
+ hledger_journal(5) manual, or the more extensive docs at
https://hledger.org.
Getting help
@@ -6589,26 +6609,26 @@ COMMON TASKS
https://hledger.org#help-feedback
Constructing command lines
- hledger has an extensive and powerful command line interface. We
+ hledger has an extensive and powerful command line interface. We
strive to keep it simple and ergonomic, but you may run into one of the
confusing real world details described in OPTIONS, below. If that hap-
pens, here are some tips that may help:
- o command-specific options must go after the command (it's fine to put
+ o command-specific options must go after the command (it's fine to put
all options there) (hledger CMD OPTS ARGS)
- o running add-on executables directly simplifies command line parsing
+ o running add-on executables directly simplifies command line parsing
(hledger-ui OPTS ARGS)
o enclose "problematic" args in single quotes
- o if needed, also add a backslash to hide regular expression metachar-
+ o if needed, also add a backslash to hide regular expression metachar-
acters from the shell
o to see how a misbehaving command is being parsed, add --debug=2.
Starting a journal file
- hledger looks for your accounting data in a journal file,
+ hledger looks for your accounting data in a journal file,
$HOME/.hledger.journal by default:
$ hledger stats
@@ -6616,9 +6636,9 @@ COMMON TASKS
Please create it first, eg with "hledger add" or a text editor.
Or, specify an existing journal file with -f or LEDGER_FILE.
- You can override this by setting the LEDGER_FILE environment variable.
+ You can override this by setting the LEDGER_FILE environment variable.
It's a good practice to keep this important file under version control,
- and to start a new file each year. So you could do something like
+ and to start a new file each year. So you could do something like
this:
$ mkdir ~/finance
@@ -6642,20 +6662,20 @@ COMMON TASKS
Market prices : 0 ()
Setting opening balances
- Pick a starting date for which you can look up the balances of some
- real-world assets (bank accounts, wallet..) and liabilities (credit
+ Pick a starting date for which you can look up the balances of some
+ real-world assets (bank accounts, wallet..) and liabilities (credit
cards..).
- To avoid a lot of data entry, you may want to start with just one or
- two accounts, like your checking account or cash wallet; and pick a
- recent starting date, like today or the start of the week. You can
+ To avoid a lot of data entry, you may want to start with just one or
+ two accounts, like your checking account or cash wallet; and pick a
+ recent starting date, like today or the start of the week. You can
always come back later and add more accounts and older transactions, eg
going back to january 1st.
- Add an opening balances transaction to the journal, declaring the bal-
+ Add an opening balances transaction to the journal, declaring the bal-
ances on this date. Here are two ways to do it:
- o The first way: open the journal in any text editor and save an entry
+ o The first way: open the journal in any text editor and save an entry
like this:
2020-01-01 * opening balances
@@ -6665,19 +6685,19 @@ COMMON TASKS
liabilities:creditcard $-50 = $-50
equity:opening/closing balances
- These are start-of-day balances, ie whatever was in the account at
+ These are start-of-day balances, ie whatever was in the account at
the end of the previous day.
- The * after the date is an optional status flag. Here it means
+ The * after the date is an optional status flag. Here it means
"cleared & confirmed".
- The currency symbols are optional, but usually a good idea as you'll
+ The currency symbols are optional, but usually a good idea as you'll
be dealing with multiple currencies sooner or later.
- The = amounts are optional balance assertions, providing extra error
+ The = amounts are optional balance assertions, providing extra error
checking.
- o The second way: run hledger add and follow the prompts to record a
+ o The second way: run hledger add and follow the prompts to record a
similar transaction:
$ hledger add
@@ -6714,18 +6734,18 @@ COMMON TASKS
Starting the next transaction (. or ctrl-D/ctrl-C to quit)
Date [2020-01-01]: .
- If you're using version control, this could be a good time to commit
+ If you're using version control, this could be a good time to commit
the journal. Eg:
$ git commit -m 'initial balances' 2020.journal
Recording transactions
- As you spend or receive money, you can record these transactions using
- one of the methods above (text editor, hledger add) or by using the
- hledger-iadd or hledger-web add-ons, or by using the import command to
+ As you spend or receive money, you can record these transactions using
+ one of the methods above (text editor, hledger add) or by using the
+ hledger-iadd or hledger-web add-ons, or by using the import command to
convert CSV data downloaded from your bank.
- Here are some simple transactions, see the hledger_journal(5) manual
+ Here are some simple transactions, see the hledger_journal(5) manual
and hledger.org for more ideas:
2020/1/10 * gift received
@@ -6741,22 +6761,22 @@ COMMON TASKS
assets:bank:checking $1000
Reconciling
- Periodically you should reconcile - compare your hledger-reported bal-
- ances against external sources of truth, like bank statements or your
- bank's website - to be sure that your ledger accurately represents the
- real-world balances (and, that the real-world institutions have not
- made a mistake!). This gets easy and fast with (1) practice and (2)
- frequency. If you do it daily, it can take 2-10 minutes. If you let
- it pile up, expect it to take longer as you hunt down errors and dis-
+ Periodically you should reconcile - compare your hledger-reported bal-
+ ances against external sources of truth, like bank statements or your
+ bank's website - to be sure that your ledger accurately represents the
+ real-world balances (and, that the real-world institutions have not
+ made a mistake!). This gets easy and fast with (1) practice and (2)
+ frequency. If you do it daily, it can take 2-10 minutes. If you let
+ it pile up, expect it to take longer as you hunt down errors and dis-
crepancies.
A typical workflow:
- 1. Reconcile cash. Count what's in your wallet. Compare with what
- hledger reports (hledger bal cash). If they are different, try to
- remember the missing transaction, or look for the error in the
- already-recorded transactions. A register report can be helpful
- (hledger reg cash). If you can't find the error, add an adjustment
+ 1. Reconcile cash. Count what's in your wallet. Compare with what
+ hledger reports (hledger bal cash). If they are different, try to
+ remember the missing transaction, or look for the error in the
+ already-recorded transactions. A register report can be helpful
+ (hledger reg cash). If you can't find the error, add an adjustment
transaction. Eg if you have $105 after the above, and can't explain
the missing $2, it could be:
@@ -6766,26 +6786,26 @@ COMMON TASKS
2. Reconcile checking. Log in to your bank's website. Compare today's
(cleared) balance with hledger's cleared balance (hledger bal check-
- ing -C). If they are different, track down the error or record the
- missing transaction(s) or add an adjustment transaction, similar to
+ ing -C). If they are different, track down the error or record the
+ missing transaction(s) or add an adjustment transaction, similar to
the above. Unlike the cash case, you can usually compare the trans-
- action history and running balance from your bank with the one
- reported by hledger reg checking -C. This will be easier if you
- generally record transaction dates quite similar to your bank's
+ action history and running balance from your bank with the one
+ reported by hledger reg checking -C. This will be easier if you
+ generally record transaction dates quite similar to your bank's
clearing dates.
3. Repeat for other asset/liability accounts.
- Tip: instead of the register command, use hledger-ui to see a live-
+ Tip: instead of the register command, use hledger-ui to see a live-
updating register while you edit the journal: hledger-ui --watch --reg-
ister checking -C
- After reconciling, it could be a good time to mark the reconciled
- transactions' status as "cleared and confirmed", if you want to track
- that, by adding the * marker. Eg in the paycheck transaction above,
+ After reconciling, it could be a good time to mark the reconciled
+ transactions' status as "cleared and confirmed", if you want to track
+ that, by adding the * marker. Eg in the paycheck transaction above,
insert * between 2020-01-15 and paycheck
- If you're using version control, this can be another good time to com-
+ If you're using version control, this can be another good time to com-
mit:
$ git commit -m 'txns' 2020.journal
@@ -6857,7 +6877,7 @@ COMMON TASKS
--------------------
0
- Show only asset and liability balances, as a flat list, limited to
+ Show only asset and liability balances, as a flat list, limited to
depth 2:
$ hledger bal assets liabilities --flat -2
@@ -6867,7 +6887,7 @@ COMMON TASKS
--------------------
$4055
- Show the same thing without negative numbers, formatted as a simple
+ Show the same thing without negative numbers, formatted as a simple
balance sheet:
$ hledger bs --flat -2
@@ -6934,15 +6954,15 @@ COMMON TASKS
2020-01-13 ****
Migrating to a new file
- At the end of the year, you may want to continue your journal in a new
+ At the end of the year, you may want to continue your journal in a new
file, so that old transactions don't slow down or clutter your reports,
- and to help ensure the integrity of your accounting history. See the
+ and to help ensure the integrity of your accounting history. See the
close command.
If using version control, don't forget to git add the new file.
LIMITATIONS
- The need to precede add-on command options with -- when invoked from
+ The need to precede add-on command options with -- when invoked from
hledger is awkward.
When input data contains non-ascii characters, a suitable system locale
@@ -6958,36 +6978,36 @@ LIMITATIONS
In a Cygwin/MSYS/Mintty window, the tab key is not supported in hledger
add.
- Not all of Ledger's journal file syntax is supported. See file format
+ Not all of Ledger's journal file syntax is supported. See file format
differences.
- On large data files, hledger is slower and uses more memory than
+ On large data files, hledger is slower and uses more memory than
Ledger.
TROUBLESHOOTING
- Here are some issues you might encounter when you run hledger (and
- remember you can also seek help from the IRC channel, mail list or bug
+ Here are some issues you might encounter when you run hledger (and
+ remember you can also seek help from the IRC channel, mail list or bug
tracker):
Successfully installed, but "No command 'hledger' found"
stack and cabal install binaries into a special directory, which should
- be added to your PATH environment variable. Eg on unix-like systems,
+ be added to your PATH environment variable. Eg on unix-like systems,
that is ~/.local/bin and ~/.cabal/bin respectively.
I set a custom LEDGER_FILE, but hledger is still using the default file
- LEDGER_FILE should be a real environment variable, not just a shell
- variable. The command env | grep LEDGER_FILE should show it. You may
+ LEDGER_FILE should be a real environment variable, not just a shell
+ variable. The command env | grep LEDGER_FILE should show it. You may
need to use export. Here's an explanation.
- Getting errors like "Illegal byte sequence" or "Invalid or incomplete
- multibyte or wide character" or "commitAndReleaseBuffer: invalid argu-
+ Getting errors like "Illegal byte sequence" or "Invalid or incomplete
+ multibyte or wide character" or "commitAndReleaseBuffer: invalid argu-
ment (invalid character)"
Programs compiled with GHC (hledger, haskell build tools, etc.) need to
have a UTF-8-aware locale configured in the environment, otherwise they
- will fail with these kinds of errors when they encounter non-ascii
+ will fail with these kinds of errors when they encounter non-ascii
characters.
- To fix it, set the LANG environment variable to some locale which sup-
+ To fix it, set the LANG environment variable to some locale which sup-
ports UTF-8. The locale you choose must be installed on your system.
Here's an example of setting LANG temporarily, on Ubuntu GNU/Linux:
@@ -7002,8 +7022,8 @@ TROUBLESHOOTING
POSIX
$ LANG=en_US.utf8 hledger -f my.journal print # ensure it is used for this command
- If available, C.UTF-8 will also work. If your preferred locale isn't
- listed by locale -a, you might need to install it. Eg on
+ If available, C.UTF-8 will also work. If your preferred locale isn't
+ listed by locale -a, you might need to install it. Eg on
Ubuntu/Debian:
$ apt-get install language-pack-fr
@@ -7023,8 +7043,8 @@ TROUBLESHOOTING
$ echo "export LANG=en_US.utf8" >>~/.bash_profile
$ bash --login
- Exact spelling and capitalisation may be important. Note the differ-
- ence on MacOS (UTF-8, not utf8). Some platforms (eg ubuntu) allow
+ Exact spelling and capitalisation may be important. Note the differ-
+ ence on MacOS (UTF-8, not utf8). Some platforms (eg ubuntu) allow
variant spellings, but others (eg macos) require it to be exact:
$ locale -a | grep -iE en_us.*utf
@@ -7034,7 +7054,7 @@ TROUBLESHOOTING
REPORTING BUGS
- Report bugs at http://bugs.hledger.org (or on the #hledger IRC channel
+ Report bugs at http://bugs.hledger.org (or on the #hledger IRC channel
or hledger mail list)
@@ -7052,4 +7072,4 @@ SEE ALSO
-hledger-1.22.1 August 2021 HLEDGER(1)
+hledger-1.22.2 August 2021 HLEDGER(1)