summaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/hledger_journal.info
blob: 75a33e160b335338deaefcc5a7aa8d60a14973dd (plain)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
This is hledger_journal.info, produced by makeinfo version 6.7 from
stdin.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Top,  Next: TRANSACTIONS,  Up: (dir)

hledger_journal(5)
******************

hledger's default file format, representing a General Journal.

   hledger's usual data source is a plain text file containing journal
entries in hledger journal format.  This file represents a standard
accounting general journal.  I use file names ending in '.journal', but
that's not required.  The journal file contains a number of transaction
entries, each describing a transfer of money (or any commodity) between
two or more named accounts, in a simple format readable by both hledger
and humans.

   hledger's journal format is a compatible subset, mostly, of ledger's
journal format, so hledger can work with compatible ledger journal files
as well.  It's safe, and encouraged, to run both hledger and ledger on
the same journal file, eg to validate the results you're getting.

   You can use hledger without learning any more about this file; just
use the add or web or import commands to create and update it.

   Many users, though, edit the journal file with a text editor, and
track changes with a version control system such as git.  Editor addons
such as ledger-mode or hledger-mode for Emacs, vim-ledger for Vim, and
hledger-vscode for Visual Studio Code, make this easier, adding colour,
formatting, tab completion, and useful commands.  See Editor
configuration at hledger.org for the full list.

   Here's a description of each part of the file format (and hledger's
data model).  These are mostly in the order you'll use them, but in some
cases related concepts have been grouped together for easy reference, or
linked before they are introduced, so feel free to skip over anything
that looks unnecessary right now.

* Menu:

* TRANSACTIONS::
* DATES::
* STATUS::
* DESCRIPTION::
* COMMENTS::
* TAGS::
* POSTINGS::
* ACCOUNT NAMES::
* AMOUNTS::
* TRANSACTION PRICES::
* LOT PRICES LOT DATES::
* BALANCE ASSERTIONS::
* BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS::
* DIRECTIVES::
* PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS::
* AUTO POSTINGS::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: TRANSACTIONS,  Next: DATES,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 TRANSACTIONS
**************

Transactions are the main unit of information in a journal file.  They
represent events, typically a movement of some quantity of commodities
between two or more named accounts.

   Each transaction is recorded as a journal entry, beginning with a
simple date in column 0.  This can be followed by any of the following
optional fields, separated by spaces:

   * a status character (empty, '!', or '*')
   * a code (any short number or text, enclosed in parentheses)
   * a description (any remaining text until end of line or a semicolon)
   * a comment (any remaining text following a semicolon until end of
     line, and any following indented lines beginning with a semicolon)
   * 0 or more indented _posting_ lines, describing what was transferred
     and the accounts involved (indented comment lines are also allowed,
     but not blank lines or non-indented lines).

   Here's a simple journal file containing one transaction:

2008/01/01 income
  assets:bank:checking   $1
  income:salary         $-1


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: DATES,  Next: STATUS,  Prev: TRANSACTIONS,  Up: Top

2 DATES
*******

* Menu:

* Simple dates::
* Secondary dates::
* Posting dates::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Simple dates,  Next: Secondary dates,  Up: DATES

2.1 Simple dates
================

Dates in the journal file use _simple dates_ format: 'YYYY-MM-DD' or
'YYYY/MM/DD' or 'YYYY.MM.DD', with leading zeros optional.  The year may
be omitted, in which case it will be inferred from the context: the
current transaction, the default year set with a default year directive,
or the current date when the command is run.  Some examples:
'2010-01-31', '2010/01/31', '2010.1.31', '1/31'.

   (The UI also accepts simple dates, as well as the more flexible smart
dates documented in the hledger manual.)


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Secondary dates,  Next: Posting dates,  Prev: Simple dates,  Up: DATES

2.2 Secondary dates
===================

Real-life transactions sometimes involve more than one date - eg the
date you write a cheque, and the date it clears in your bank.  When you
want to model this, for more accurate daily balances, you can specify
individual posting dates.

   Or, you can use the older _secondary date_ feature (Ledger calls it
auxiliary date or effective date).  Note: we support this for
compatibility, but I usually recommend avoiding this feature; posting
dates are almost always clearer and simpler.

   A secondary date is written after the primary date, following an
equals sign.  If the year is omitted, the primary date's year is
assumed.  When running reports, the primary (left) date is used by
default, but with the '--date2' flag (or '--aux-date' or '--effective'),
the secondary (right) date will be used instead.

   The meaning of secondary dates is up to you, but it's best to follow
a consistent rule.  Eg "primary = the bank's clearing date, secondary =
date the transaction was initiated, if different", as shown here:

2010/2/23=2/19 movie ticket
  expenses:cinema                   $10
  assets:checking

$ hledger register checking
2010-02-23 movie ticket         assets:checking                $-10         $-10

$ hledger register checking --date2
2010-02-19 movie ticket         assets:checking                $-10         $-10


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Posting dates,  Prev: Secondary dates,  Up: DATES

2.3 Posting dates
=================

You can give individual postings a different date from their parent
transaction, by adding a posting comment containing a tag (see below)
like 'date:DATE'.  This is probably the best way to control posting
dates precisely.  Eg in this example the expense should appear in May
reports, and the deduction from checking should be reported on 6/1 for
easy bank reconciliation:

2015/5/30
    expenses:food     $10  ; food purchased on saturday 5/30
    assets:checking        ; bank cleared it on monday, date:6/1

$ hledger -f t.j register food
2015-05-30                      expenses:food                  $10           $10

$ hledger -f t.j register checking
2015-06-01                      assets:checking               $-10          $-10

   DATE should be a simple date; if the year is not specified it will
use the year of the transaction's date.  You can set the secondary date
similarly, with 'date2:DATE2'.  The 'date:' or 'date2:' tags must have a
valid simple date value if they are present, eg a 'date:' tag with no
value is not allowed.

   Ledger's earlier, more compact bracketed date syntax is also
supported: '[DATE]', '[DATE=DATE2]' or '[=DATE2]'.  hledger will attempt
to parse any square-bracketed sequence of the '0123456789/-.='
characters in this way.  With this syntax, DATE infers its year from the
transaction and DATE2 infers its year from DATE.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: STATUS,  Next: DESCRIPTION,  Prev: DATES,  Up: Top

3 STATUS
********

Transactions, or individual postings within a transaction, can have a
status mark, which is a single character before the transaction
description or posting account name, separated from it by a space,
indicating one of three statuses:

mark  status
 
-----------------
      unmarked
'!'   pending
'*'   cleared

   When reporting, you can filter by status with the '-U/--unmarked',
'-P/--pending', and '-C/--cleared' flags; or the 'status:', 'status:!',
and 'status:*' queries; or the U, P, C keys in hledger-ui.

   Note, in Ledger and in older versions of hledger, the "unmarked"
state is called "uncleared".  As of hledger 1.3 we have renamed it to
unmarked for clarity.

   To replicate Ledger and old hledger's behaviour of also matching
pending, combine -U and -P.

   Status marks are optional, but can be helpful eg for reconciling with
real-world accounts.  Some editor modes provide highlighting and
shortcuts for working with status.  Eg in Emacs ledger-mode, you can
toggle transaction status with C-c C-e, or posting status with C-c C-c.

   What "uncleared", "pending", and "cleared" actually mean is up to
you.  Here's one suggestion:

status     meaning
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
uncleared  recorded but not yet reconciled; needs review
pending    tentatively reconciled (if needed, eg during a big
           reconciliation)
cleared    complete, reconciled as far as possible, and considered
           correct

   With this scheme, you would use '-PC' to see the current balance at
your bank, '-U' to see things which will probably hit your bank soon
(like uncashed checks), and no flags to see the most up-to-date state of
your finances.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: DESCRIPTION,  Next: COMMENTS,  Prev: STATUS,  Up: Top

4 DESCRIPTION
*************

A transaction's description is the rest of the line following the date
and status mark (or until a comment begins).  Sometimes called the
"narration" in traditional bookkeeping, it can be used for whatever you
wish, or left blank.  Transaction descriptions can be queried, unlike
comments.

* Menu:

* Payee and note::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Payee and note,  Up: DESCRIPTION

4.1 Payee and note
==================

You can optionally include a '|' (pipe) character in descriptions to
subdivide the description into separate fields for payee/payer name on
the left (up to the first '|') and an additional note field on the right
(after the first '|').  This may be worthwhile if you need to do more
precise querying and pivoting by payee or by note.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: COMMENTS,  Next: TAGS,  Prev: DESCRIPTION,  Up: Top

5 COMMENTS
**********

Lines in the journal beginning with a semicolon (';') or hash ('#') or
star ('*') are comments, and will be ignored.  (Star comments cause
org-mode nodes to be ignored, allowing emacs users to fold and navigate
their journals with org-mode or orgstruct-mode.)

   You can attach comments to a transaction by writing them after the
description and/or indented on the following lines (before the
postings).  Similarly, you can attach comments to an individual posting
by writing them after the amount and/or indented on the following lines.
Transaction and posting comments must begin with a semicolon (';').

   Some examples:

# a file comment
; another file comment
* also a file comment, useful in org/orgstruct mode

comment
A multiline file comment, which continues
until a line containing just "end comment"
(or end of file).
end comment

2012/5/14 something  ; a transaction comment
    ; the transaction comment, continued
    posting1  1  ; a comment for posting 1
    posting2
    ; a comment for posting 2
    ; another comment line for posting 2
; a file comment (because not indented)

   You can also comment larger regions of a file using 'comment' and
'end comment' directives.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: TAGS,  Next: POSTINGS,  Prev: COMMENTS,  Up: Top

6 TAGS
******

Tags are a way to add extra labels or labelled data to postings and
transactions, which you can then search or pivot on.

   A simple tag is a word (which may contain hyphens) followed by a full
colon, written inside a transaction or posting comment line:

2017/1/16 bought groceries  ; sometag:

   Tags can have a value, which is the text after the colon, up to the
next comma or end of line, with leading/trailing whitespace removed:

    expenses:food    $10 ; a-posting-tag: the tag value

   Note this means hledger's tag values can not contain commas or
newlines.  Ending at commas means you can write multiple short tags on
one line, comma separated:

    assets:checking  ; a comment containing tag1:, tag2: some value ...

   Here,

   * "'a comment containing'" is just comment text, not a tag
   * "'tag1'" is a tag with no value
   * "'tag2'" is another tag, whose value is "'some value ...'"

   Tags in a transaction comment affect the transaction and all of its
postings, while tags in a posting comment affect only that posting.  For
example, the following transaction has three tags ('A', 'TAG2',
'third-tag') and the posting has four (those plus 'posting-tag'):

1/1 a transaction  ; A:, TAG2:
    ; third-tag: a third transaction tag, <- with a value
    (a)  $1  ; posting-tag:

   Tags are like Ledger's metadata feature, except hledger's tag values
are simple strings.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: POSTINGS,  Next: ACCOUNT NAMES,  Prev: TAGS,  Up: Top

7 POSTINGS
**********

A posting is an addition of some amount to, or removal of some amount
from, an account.  Each posting line begins with at least one space or
tab (2 or 4 spaces is common), followed by:

   * (optional) a status character (empty, '!', or '*'), followed by a
     space
   * (required) an account name (any text, optionally containing *single
     spaces*, until end of line or a double space)
   * (optional) *two or more spaces* or tabs followed by an amount.

   Positive amounts are being added to the account, negative amounts are
being removed.

   The amounts within a transaction must always sum up to zero.  As a
convenience, one amount may be left blank; it will be inferred so as to
balance the transaction.

   Be sure to note the unusual two-space delimiter between account name
and amount.  This makes it easy to write account names containing
spaces.  But if you accidentally leave only one space (or tab) before
the amount, the amount will be considered part of the account name.

* Menu:

* Virtual postings::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Virtual postings,  Up: POSTINGS

7.1 Virtual postings
====================

A posting with a parenthesised account name is called a _virtual
posting_ or _unbalanced posting_, which means it is exempt from the
usual rule that a transaction's postings must balance add up to zero.

   This is not part of double entry accounting, so you might choose to
avoid this feature.  Or you can use it sparingly for certain special
cases where it can be convenient.  Eg, you could set opening balances
without using a balancing equity account:

1/1 opening balances
  (assets:checking)   $1000
  (assets:savings)    $2000

   A posting with a bracketed account name is called a _balanced virtual
posting_.  The balanced virtual postings in a transaction must add up to
zero (separately from other postings).  Eg:

1/1 buy food with cash, update budget envelope subaccounts, & something else
  assets:cash                    $-10 ; <- these balance
  expenses:food                    $7 ; <-
  expenses:food                    $3 ; <-
  [assets:checking:budget:food]  $-10    ; <- and these balance
  [assets:checking:available]     $10    ; <-
  (something:else)                 $5       ; <- not required to balance

   Ordinary non-parenthesised, non-bracketed postings are called _real
postings_.  You can exclude virtual postings from reports with the
'-R/--real' flag or 'real:1' query.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: ACCOUNT NAMES,  Next: AMOUNTS,  Prev: POSTINGS,  Up: Top

8 ACCOUNT NAMES
***************

Account names typically have several parts separated by a full colon,
from which hledger derives a hierarchical chart of accounts.  They can
be anything you like, but in finance there are traditionally five
top-level accounts: 'assets', 'liabilities', 'income', 'expenses', and
'equity'.

   Account names may contain single spaces, eg: 'assets:accounts
receivable'.  Because of this, they must always be followed by *two or
more spaces* (or newline).

   Account names can be aliased.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: AMOUNTS,  Next: TRANSACTION PRICES,  Prev: ACCOUNT NAMES,  Up: Top

9 AMOUNTS
*********

After the account name, there is usually an amount.  (Important: between
account name and amount, there must be *two or more spaces*.)

   hledger's amount format is flexible, supporting several international
formats.  Here are some examples.  Amounts have a number (the
"quantity"):

1

   ..and usually a currency or commodity name (the "commodity").  This
is a symbol, word, or phrase, to the left or right of the quantity, with
or without a separating space:

$1
4000 AAPL

   If the commodity name contains spaces, numbers, or punctuation, it
must be enclosed in double quotes:

3 "no. 42 green apples"

   Amounts can be preceded by a minus sign (or a plus sign, though plus
is the default), The sign can be written before or after a left-side
commodity symbol:

-$1
$-1

   One or more spaces between the sign and the number are acceptable
when parsing (but they won't be displayed in output):

+ $1
$-      1

   Scientific E notation is allowed:

1E-6
EUR 1E3

   A decimal mark can be written as a period or a comma:

1.23
1,23456780000009

* Menu:

* Digit group marks::
* Commodity display style::
* Rounding::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Digit group marks,  Next: Commodity display style,  Up: AMOUNTS

9.1 Digit group marks
=====================

In the integer part of the quantity (left of the decimal mark), groups
of digits can optionally be separated by a "digit group mark" - a space,
comma, or period (different from the decimal mark):

     $1,000,000.00
  EUR 2.000.000,00
INR 9,99,99,999.00
      1 000 000.9455

   Note, a number containing a single group mark and no decimal mark is
ambiguous.  Are these group marks or decimal marks ?

1,000
1.000

   hledger will treat them both as decimal marks by default (cf #793).
If you use digit group marks, to prevent confusion and undetected typos
we recommend you write commodity directives at the top of the file to
explicitly declare the decimal mark (and optionally a digit group mark).
Note, these formats ("amount styles") are specific to each commodity, so
if your data uses multiple formats, hledger can handle it:

commodity $1,000.00
commodity EUR 1.000,00
commodity INR 9,99,99,999.00
commodity       1 000 000.9455


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Commodity display style,  Next: Rounding,  Prev: Digit group marks,  Up: AMOUNTS

9.2 Commodity display style
===========================

For each commodity, hledger chooses a consistent style to use when
displaying amounts.  (Except price amounts, which are always displayed
as written).  The display style is chosen as follows:

   * If there is a commodity directive (or default commodity directive)
     for the commodity, its style is used (see examples above).

   * Otherwise the style is inferred from the amounts in that commodity
     seen in the journal.

   * Or if there are no such amounts in the journal, a default style is
     used (like '$1000.00').

   A style is inferred from the journal amounts in a commodity as
follows:

   * Use the general style (decimal mark, symbol placement) of the first
     amount
   * Use the first-seen digit group style (digit group mark, digit group
     sizes), if any
   * Use the maximum number of decimal places of all.

   Transaction price amounts don't affect the commodity display style
directly, but occasionally they can do so indirectly (eg when a
posting's amount is inferred using a transaction price).  If you find
this causing problems, use a commodity directive to fix the display
style.

   In summary, each commodity's amounts will be normalised to

   * the style declared by a 'commodity' directive
   * or, the style of the first posting amount in the journal, with the
     first-seen digit group style and the maximum-seen number of decimal
     places.

   If reports are showing amounts in a way you don't like (eg, with too
many decimal places), use a commodity directive to set your preferred
style.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Rounding,  Prev: Commodity display style,  Up: AMOUNTS

9.3 Rounding
============

Amounts are stored internally as decimal numbers with up to 255 decimal
places, and displayed with the number of decimal places specified by the
commodity display style.  Note, hledger uses banker's rounding: it
rounds to the nearest even number, eg 0.5 displayed with zero decimal
places is "0").  (Guaranteed since hledger 1.17.1; in older versions
this could vary if hledger was built with Decimal < 0.5.1.)


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: TRANSACTION PRICES,  Next: LOT PRICES LOT DATES,  Prev: AMOUNTS,  Up: Top

10 TRANSACTION PRICES
*********************

Within a transaction, you can note an amount's price in another
commodity.  This can be used to document the cost (in a purchase) or
selling price (in a sale).  For example, transaction prices are useful
to record purchases of a foreign currency.  Note transaction prices are
fixed at the time of the transaction, and do not change over time.  See
also market prices, which represent prevailing exchange rates on a
certain date.

   There are several ways to record a transaction price:

  1. Write the price per unit, as '@ UNITPRICE' after the amount:

     2009/1/1
       assets:euros     €100 @ $1.35  ; one hundred euros purchased at $1.35 each
       assets:dollars                 ; balancing amount is -$135.00

  2. Write the total price, as '@@ TOTALPRICE' after the amount:

     2009/1/1
       assets:euros     €100 @@ $135  ; one hundred euros purchased at $135 for the lot
       assets:dollars

  3. Specify amounts for all postings, using exactly two commodities,
     and let hledger infer the price that balances the transaction:

     2009/1/1
       assets:euros     €100          ; one hundred euros purchased
       assets:dollars  $-135          ; for $135

  4. Like 1, but the '@' is parenthesised, i.e.  '(@)'; this is for
     compatibility with Ledger journals (Virtual posting costs), and is
     equivalent to 1 in hledger.

  5. Like 2, but as in 4 the '@@' is parenthesised, i.e.  '(@@)'; in
     hledger, this is equivalent to 2.

   Use the '-B/--cost' flag to convert amounts to their transaction
price's commodity, if any.  (mnemonic: "B" is from "cost Basis", as in
Ledger).  Eg here is how -B affects the balance report for the example
above:

$ hledger bal -N --flat
               $-135  assets:dollars
                €100  assets:euros
$ hledger bal -N --flat -B
               $-135  assets:dollars
                $135  assets:euros    # <- the euros' cost

   Note -B is sensitive to the order of postings when a transaction
price is inferred: the inferred price will be in the commodity of the
last amount.  So if example 3's postings are reversed, while the
transaction is equivalent, -B shows something different:

2009/1/1
  assets:dollars  $-135              ; 135 dollars sold
  assets:euros     €100              ; for 100 euros

$ hledger bal -N --flat -B
               €-100  assets:dollars  # <- the dollars' selling price
                €100  assets:euros


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: LOT PRICES LOT DATES,  Next: BALANCE ASSERTIONS,  Prev: TRANSACTION PRICES,  Up: Top

11 LOT PRICES, LOT DATES
************************

Ledger allows another kind of price, lot price (four variants:
'{UNITPRICE}', '{{TOTALPRICE}}', '{=FIXEDUNITPRICE}',
'{{=FIXEDTOTALPRICE}}'), and/or a lot date ('[DATE]') to be specified.
These are normally used to select a lot when selling investments.
hledger will parse these, for compatibility with Ledger journals, but
currently ignores them.  A transaction price, lot price and/or lot date
may appear in any order, after the posting amount and before the balance
assertion if any.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: BALANCE ASSERTIONS,  Next: BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS,  Prev: LOT PRICES LOT DATES,  Up: Top

12 BALANCE ASSERTIONS
*********************

hledger supports Ledger-style balance assertions in journal files.
These look like, for example, '= EXPECTEDBALANCE' following a posting's
amount.  Eg here we assert the expected dollar balance in accounts a and
b after each posting:

2013/1/1
  a   $1  =$1
  b       =$-1

2013/1/2
  a   $1  =$2
  b  $-1  =$-2

   After reading a journal file, hledger will check all balance
assertions and report an error if any of them fail.  Balance assertions
can protect you from, eg, inadvertently disrupting reconciled balances
while cleaning up old entries.  You can disable them temporarily with
the '-I/--ignore-assertions' flag, which can be useful for
troubleshooting or for reading Ledger files.  (Note: this flag currently
does not disable balance assignments, below).

* Menu:

* Assertions and ordering::
* Assertions and included files::
* Assertions and multiple -f options::
* Assertions and commodities::
* Assertions and prices::
* Assertions and subaccounts::
* Assertions and virtual postings::
* Assertions and precision::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Assertions and ordering,  Next: Assertions and included files,  Up: BALANCE ASSERTIONS

12.1 Assertions and ordering
============================

hledger sorts an account's postings and assertions first by date and
then (for postings on the same day) by parse order.  Note this is
different from Ledger, which sorts assertions only by parse order.
(Also, Ledger assertions do not see the accumulated effect of repeated
postings to the same account within a transaction.)

   So, hledger balance assertions keep working if you reorder
differently-dated transactions within the journal.  But if you reorder
same-dated transactions or postings, assertions might break and require
updating.  This order dependence does bring an advantage: precise
control over the order of postings and assertions within a day, so you
can assert intra-day balances.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Assertions and included files,  Next: Assertions and multiple -f options,  Prev: Assertions and ordering,  Up: BALANCE ASSERTIONS

12.2 Assertions and included files
==================================

With included files, things are a little more complicated.  Including
preserves the ordering of postings and assertions.  If you have multiple
postings to an account on the same day, split across different files,
and you also want to assert the account's balance on the same day,
you'll have to put the assertion in the right file.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Assertions and multiple -f options,  Next: Assertions and commodities,  Prev: Assertions and included files,  Up: BALANCE ASSERTIONS

12.3 Assertions and multiple -f options
=======================================

Balance assertions don't work well across files specified with multiple
-f options.  Use include or concatenate the files instead.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Assertions and commodities,  Next: Assertions and prices,  Prev: Assertions and multiple -f options,  Up: BALANCE ASSERTIONS

12.4 Assertions and commodities
===============================

The asserted balance must be a simple single-commodity amount, and in
fact the assertion checks only this commodity's balance within the
(possibly multi-commodity) account balance.  This is how assertions work
in Ledger also.  We could call this a "partial" balance assertion.

   To assert the balance of more than one commodity in an account, you
can write multiple postings, each asserting one commodity's balance.

   You can make a stronger "total" balance assertion by writing a double
equals sign ('== EXPECTEDBALANCE').  This asserts that there are no
other unasserted commodities in the account (or, that their balance is
0).

2013/1/1
  a   $1
  a    1€
  b  $-1
  c   -1€

2013/1/2  ; These assertions succeed
  a    0  =  $1
  a    0  =   1€
  b    0 == $-1
  c    0 ==  -1€

2013/1/3  ; This assertion fails as 'a' also contains 1€
  a    0 ==  $1

   It's not yet possible to make a complete assertion about a balance
that has multiple commodities.  One workaround is to isolate each
commodity into its own subaccount:

2013/1/1
  a:usd   $1
  a:euro   1€
  b

2013/1/2
  a        0 ==  0
  a:usd    0 == $1
  a:euro   0 ==  1€


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Assertions and prices,  Next: Assertions and subaccounts,  Prev: Assertions and commodities,  Up: BALANCE ASSERTIONS

12.5 Assertions and prices
==========================

Balance assertions ignore transaction prices, and should normally be
written without one:

2019/1/1
  (a)     $1 @ €1 = $1

   We do allow prices to be written there, however, and print shows
them, even though they don't affect whether the assertion passes or
fails.  This is for backward compatibility (hledger's close command used
to generate balance assertions with prices), and because balance
_assignments_ do use them (see below).


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Assertions and subaccounts,  Next: Assertions and virtual postings,  Prev: Assertions and prices,  Up: BALANCE ASSERTIONS

12.6 Assertions and subaccounts
===============================

The balance assertions above ('=' and '==') do not count the balance
from subaccounts; they check the account's exclusive balance only.  You
can assert the balance including subaccounts by writing '=*' or '==*',
eg:

2019/1/1
  equity:opening balances
  checking:a       5
  checking:b       5
  checking         1  ==* 11


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Assertions and virtual postings,  Next: Assertions and precision,  Prev: Assertions and subaccounts,  Up: BALANCE ASSERTIONS

12.7 Assertions and virtual postings
====================================

Balance assertions are checked against all postings, both real and
virtual.  They are not affected by the '--real/-R' flag or 'real:'
query.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Assertions and precision,  Prev: Assertions and virtual postings,  Up: BALANCE ASSERTIONS

12.8 Assertions and precision
=============================

Balance assertions compare the exactly calculated amounts, which are not
always what is shown by reports.  Eg a commodity directive may limit the
display precision, but this will not affect balance assertions.  Balance
assertion failure messages show exact amounts.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS,  Next: DIRECTIVES,  Prev: BALANCE ASSERTIONS,  Up: Top

13 BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS
**********************

Ledger-style balance assignments are also supported.  These are like
balance assertions, but with no posting amount on the left side of the
equals sign; instead it is calculated automatically so as to satisfy the
assertion.  This can be a convenience during data entry, eg when setting
opening balances:

; starting a new journal, set asset account balances
2016/1/1 opening balances
  assets:checking            = $409.32
  assets:savings             = $735.24
  assets:cash                 = $42
  equity:opening balances

   or when adjusting a balance to reality:

; no cash left; update balance, record any untracked spending as a generic expense
2016/1/15
  assets:cash    = $0
  expenses:misc

   The calculated amount depends on the account's balance in the
commodity at that point (which depends on the previously-dated postings
of the commodity to that account since the last balance assertion or
assignment).  Note that using balance assignments makes your journal a
little less explicit; to know the exact amount posted, you have to run
hledger or do the calculations yourself, instead of just reading it.

* Menu:

* Balance assignments and prices::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Balance assignments and prices,  Up: BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS

13.1 Balance assignments and prices
===================================

A transaction price in a balance assignment will cause the calculated
amount to have that price attached:

2019/1/1
  (a)             = $1 @ €2

$ hledger print --explicit
2019-01-01
    (a)         $1 @ €2 = $1 @ €2


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: DIRECTIVES,  Next: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS,  Prev: BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS,  Up: Top

14 DIRECTIVES
*************

A directive is a line in the journal beginning with a special keyword,
that influences how the journal is processed.  hledger's directives are
based on a subset of Ledger's, but there are many differences (and also
some differences between hledger versions).

   Directives' behaviour and interactions can get a little bit complex,
so here is a table summarising the directives and their effects, with
links to more detailed docs.  Note part of this table is hidden when
viewed in a web browser - scroll it sideways to see more.

directiveend       subdirectivespurpose                  can affect (as of
         directive                                       2018/06)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
'account'          any     document account names,       all entries in
                   text    declare account types &       all files, before
                           display order                 or after
'alias'  'end              rewrite account names         following entries
         aliases'                                        until end of
                                                         current file or
                                                         end directive
'apply   'end              prepend a common parent to    following entries
account' apply             account names                 until end of
         account'                                        current file or
                                                         end directive
'comment''end              ignore part of journal        following entries
         comment'                                        until end of
                                                         current file or
                                                         end directive
'commodity'        'format'declare a commodity and its   number notation:
                           number notation & display     following entries
                           style                         in that commodity
                                                         in all files ;
                                                         display style:
                                                         amounts of that
                                                         commodity in
                                                         reports
'D'                        declare a commodity to be     default
                           used for commodityless        commodity:
                           amounts, and its number       following
                           notation & display style      commodityless
                                                         entries until end
                                                         of current file;
                                                         number notation:
                                                         following entries
                                                         in that commodity
                                                         until end of
                                                         current file;
                                                         display style:
                                                         amounts of that
                                                         commodity in
                                                         reports
'include'                  include entries/directives    what the included
                           from another file             directives affect
'P'                        declare a market price for    amounts of that
                           a commodity                   commodity in
                                                         reports, when -V
                                                         is used
'Y'                        declare a year for yearless   following entries
                           dates                         until end of
                                                         current file
'='                        declare an auto posting       all entries in
                           rule, adding postings to      parent/current/child
                           other transactions            files (but not
                                                         sibling files,
                                                         see #1212)

   And some definitions:

subdirectiveoptional indented directive line immediately following a parent
       directive
number how to interpret numbers when parsing journal entries (the
notationidentity of the decimal separator character).  (Currently each
       commodity can have its own notation, even in the same file.)
displayhow to display amounts of a commodity in reports (symbol side
style  and spacing, digit groups, decimal separator, decimal places)
directivewhich entries and (when there are multiple files) which files
scope  are affected by a directive

   As you can see, directives vary in which journal entries and files
they affect, and whether they are focussed on input (parsing) or output
(reports).  Some directives have multiple effects.

* Menu:

* Directives and multiple files::
* Comment blocks::
* Including other files::
* Default year::
* Declaring commodities::
* Default commodity::
* Declaring market prices::
* Declaring accounts::
* Rewriting accounts::
* Default parent account::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Directives and multiple files,  Next: Comment blocks,  Up: DIRECTIVES

14.1 Directives and multiple files
==================================

If you use multiple '-f'/'--file' options, or the 'include' directive,
hledger will process multiple input files.  But note that directives
which affect input (see above) typically last only until the end of the
file in which they occur.

   This may seem inconvenient, but it's intentional; it makes reports
stable and deterministic, independent of the order of input.  Otherwise
you could see different numbers if you happened to write -f options in a
different order, or if you moved includes around while cleaning up your
files.

   It can be surprising though; for example, it means that 'alias'
directives do not affect parent or sibling files (see below).


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Comment blocks,  Next: Including other files,  Prev: Directives and multiple files,  Up: DIRECTIVES

14.2 Comment blocks
===================

A line containing just 'comment' starts a commented region of the file,
and a line containing just 'end comment' (or the end of the current
file) ends it.  See also comments.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Including other files,  Next: Default year,  Prev: Comment blocks,  Up: DIRECTIVES

14.3 Including other files
==========================

You can pull in the content of additional files by writing an include
directive, like this:

include FILEPATH

   Only journal files can include, and only journal, timeclock or
timedot files can be included (not CSV files, currently).

   If the file path does not begin with a slash, it is relative to the
current file's folder.

   A tilde means home directory, eg: 'include ~/main.journal'.

   The path may contain glob patterns to match multiple files, eg:
'include *.journal'.

   There is limited support for recursive wildcards: '**/' (the slash is
required) matches 0 or more subdirectories.  It's not super convenient
since you have to avoid include cycles and including directories, but
this can be done, eg: 'include */**/*.journal'.

   The path may also be prefixed to force a specific file format,
overriding the file extension (as described in hledger.1 -> Input
files): 'include timedot:~/notes/2020*.md'.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Default year,  Next: Declaring commodities,  Prev: Including other files,  Up: DIRECTIVES

14.4 Default year
=================

You can set a default year to be used for subsequent dates which don't
specify a year.  This is a line beginning with 'Y' followed by the year.
Eg:

Y2009  ; set default year to 2009

12/15  ; equivalent to 2009/12/15
  expenses  1
  assets

Y2010  ; change default year to 2010

2009/1/30  ; specifies the year, not affected
  expenses  1
  assets

1/31   ; equivalent to 2010/1/31
  expenses  1
  assets


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Declaring commodities,  Next: Default commodity,  Prev: Default year,  Up: DIRECTIVES

14.5 Declaring commodities
==========================

The 'commodity' directive has several functions:

  1. It declares commodities which may be used in the journal.  This is
     currently not enforced, but can serve as documentation.

  2. It declares what decimal mark character (period or comma) to expect
     when parsing input - useful to disambiguate international number
     formats in your data.  (Without this, hledger will parse both
     '1,000' and '1.000' as 1).

  3. It declares a commodity's display style in output - decimal and
     digit group marks, number of decimal places, symbol placement etc.

   You are likely to run into one of the problems solved by commodity
directives, sooner or later, so it's a good idea to just always use them
to declare your commodities.

   A commodity directive is just the word 'commodity' followed by an
amount.  It may be written on a single line, like this:

; commodity EXAMPLEAMOUNT

; display AAAA amounts with the symbol on the right, space-separated,
; using period as decimal point, with four decimal places, and
; separating thousands with comma.
commodity 1,000.0000 AAAA

   or on multiple lines, using the "format" subdirective.  (In this case
the commodity symbol appears twice and should be the same in both
places.):

; commodity SYMBOL
;   format EXAMPLEAMOUNT

; display indian rupees with currency name on the left,
; thousands, lakhs and crores comma-separated,
; period as decimal point, and two decimal places.
commodity INR
  format INR 1,00,00,000.00

   The quantity of the amount does not matter; only the format is
significant.  The number must include a decimal mark: either a period or
a comma, followed by 0 or more decimal digits.

   Note hledger normally uses banker's rounding, so 0.5 displayed with
zero decimal digits is "0".  (More at Commodity display style.)

* Menu:

* Commodity error checking::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Commodity error checking,  Up: Declaring commodities

14.5.1 Commodity error checking
-------------------------------

In strict mode, enabled with the '-s'/'--strict' flag, hledger will
report an error if a commodity symbol is used that has not been declared
by a 'commodity' directive.  This works similarly to account error
checking, see the notes there for more details.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Default commodity,  Next: Declaring market prices,  Prev: Declaring commodities,  Up: DIRECTIVES

14.6 Default commodity
======================

The 'D' directive sets a default commodity, to be used for amounts
without a commodity symbol (ie, plain numbers).  This commodity will be
applied to all subsequent commodity-less amounts, or until the next 'D'
directive.  (Note, this is different from Ledger's 'D'.)

   For compatibility/historical reasons, 'D' also acts like a
'commodity' directive, setting the commodity's display style (for
output) and decimal mark (for parsing input).  As with 'commodity', the
amount must always be written with a decimal mark (period or comma).  If
both directives are used, 'commodity''s style takes precedence.

   The syntax is 'D AMOUNT'.  Eg:

; commodity-less amounts should be treated as dollars
; (and displayed with the dollar sign on the left, thousands separators and two decimal places)
D $1,000.00

1/1
  a     5  ; <- commodity-less amount, parsed as $5 and displayed as $5.00
  b


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Declaring market prices,  Next: Declaring accounts,  Prev: Default commodity,  Up: DIRECTIVES

14.7 Declaring market prices
============================

The 'P' directive declares a market price, which is an exchange rate
between two commodities on a certain date.  (In Ledger, they are called
"historical prices".)  These are often obtained from a stock exchange,
cryptocurrency exchange, or the foreign exchange market.

   Here is the format:

P DATE COMMODITYA COMMODITYBAMOUNT

   * DATE is a simple date
   * COMMODITYA is the symbol of the commodity being priced
   * COMMODITYBAMOUNT is an amount (symbol and quantity) in a second
     commodity, giving the price in commodity B of one unit of commodity
     A.

   These two market price directives say that one euro was worth 1.35 US
dollars during 2009, and $1.40 from 2010 onward:

P 2009/1/1 € $1.35
P 2010/1/1 € $1.40

   The '-V', '-X' and '--value' flags use these market prices to show
amount values in another commodity.  See Valuation.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Declaring accounts,  Next: Rewriting accounts,  Prev: Declaring market prices,  Up: DIRECTIVES

14.8 Declaring accounts
=======================

'account' directives can be used to declare accounts (ie, the places
that amounts are transferred from and to).  Though not required, these
declarations can provide several benefits:

   * They can document your intended chart of accounts, providing a
     reference.
   * They can help hledger know your accounts' types (asset, liability,
     equity, revenue, expense), useful for reports like balancesheet and
     incomestatement.
   * They control account display order in reports, allowing
     non-alphabetic sorting (eg Revenues to appear above Expenses).
   * They can store extra information about accounts (account numbers,
     notes, etc.)
   * They help with account name completion in the add command,
     hledger-iadd, hledger-web, ledger-mode etc.
   * In strict mode, they restrict which accounts may be posted to by
     transactions, which helps detect typos.

   The simplest form is just the word 'account' followed by a
hledger-style account name, eg this account directive declares the
'assets:bank:checking' account:

account assets:bank:checking

* Menu:

* Account error checking::
* Account comments::
* Account subdirectives::
* Account types::
* Account display order::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Account error checking,  Next: Account comments,  Up: Declaring accounts

14.8.1 Account error checking
-----------------------------

By default, accounts come into existence when a transaction references
them by name.  This is convenient, but it means hledger can't warn you
when you mis-spell an account name in the journal.  Usually you'll find
the error later, as an extra account in balance reports, or an incorrect
balance when reconciling.

   In strict mode, enabled with the '-s'/'--strict' flag, hledger will
report an error if any transaction uses an account name that has not
been declared by an account directive.  Some notes:

   * The declaration is case-sensitive; transactions must use the
     correct account name capitalisation.
   * The account directive's scope is "whole file and below" (see
     directives).  This means it affects all of the current file, and
     any files it includes, but not parent or sibling files.  The
     position of account directives within the file does not matter,
     though it's usual to put them at the top.
   * Accounts can only be declared in 'journal' files (but will affect
     included files in other formats).
   * It's currently not possible to declare "all possible subaccounts"
     with a wildcard; every account posted to must be declared.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Account comments,  Next: Account subdirectives,  Prev: Account error checking,  Up: Declaring accounts

14.8.2 Account comments
-----------------------

Comments, beginning with a semicolon, can be added:

   * on the same line, *after two or more spaces* (because ; is allowed
     in account names)
   * on the next lines, indented

   An example of both:

account assets:bank:checking  ; same-line comment, note 2+ spaces before ;
  ; next-line comment
  ; another with tag, acctno:12345 (not used yet)

   Same-line comments are not supported by Ledger, or hledger <1.13.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Account subdirectives,  Next: Account types,  Prev: Account comments,  Up: Declaring accounts

14.8.3 Account subdirectives
----------------------------

We also allow (and ignore) Ledger-style indented subdirectives, just for
compatibility.:

account assets:bank:checking
  format blah blah  ; <- subdirective, ignored

   Here is the full syntax of account directives:

account ACCTNAME  [ACCTTYPE] [;COMMENT]
  [;COMMENTS]
  [LEDGER-STYLE SUBDIRECTIVES, IGNORED]


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Account types,  Next: Account display order,  Prev: Account subdirectives,  Up: Declaring accounts

14.8.4 Account types
--------------------

hledger recognises five main types of account, corresponding to the
account classes in the accounting equation:

   'Asset', 'Liability', 'Equity', 'Revenue', 'Expense'.

   These account types are important for controlling which accounts
appear in the balancesheet, balancesheetequity, incomestatement reports
(and probably for other things in future).

   Additionally, we recognise the 'Cash' type, which is also an 'Asset',
and which causes accounts to appear in the cashflow report.  ("Cash"
here means liquid assets, eg bank balances but typically not investments
or receivables.)

* Menu:

* Declaring account types::
* Auto-detected account types::
* Interference from auto-detected account types::
* Old account type syntax::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Declaring account types,  Next: Auto-detected account types,  Up: Account types

14.8.4.1 Declaring account types
................................

Generally, to make these reports work you should declare your top-level
accounts and their types, using account directives with 'type:' tags.

   The tag's value should be one of: 'Asset', 'Liability', 'Equity',
'Revenue', 'Expense', 'Cash', 'A', 'L', 'E', 'R', 'X', 'C' (all case
insensitive).  The type is inherited by all subaccounts except where
they override it.  Here's a complete example:

account assets       ; type: Asset
account assets:bank  ; type: Cash
account assets:cash  ; type: Cash
account liabilities  ; type: Liability
account equity       ; type: Equity
account revenues     ; type: Revenue
account expenses     ; type: Expense


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Auto-detected account types,  Next: Interference from auto-detected account types,  Prev: Declaring account types,  Up: Account types

14.8.4.2 Auto-detected account types
....................................

If you happen to use common english top-level account names, you may not
need to declare account types, as they will be detected automatically
using the following rules:

If name matches regular            account
expression:                        type is:
-------------------------------------------------
'^assets?(:|$)'                    'Asset'
'^(debts?|liabilit(y|ies))(:|$)'   'Liability'
'^equity(:|$)'                     'Equity'
'^(income|revenue)s?(:|$)'         'Revenue'
'^expenses?(:|$)'                  'Expense'

If account type is 'Asset' and name does not contain       account type
regular expression:                                        is:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
'(investment|receivable|:A/R|:fixed)'                      'Cash'

   Even so, explicit declarations may be a good idea, for clarity and
predictability.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Interference from auto-detected account types,  Next: Old account type syntax,  Prev: Auto-detected account types,  Up: Account types

14.8.4.3 Interference from auto-detected account types
......................................................

If you assign any account type, it's a good idea to assign all of them,
to prevent any confusion from mixing declared and auto-detected types.
Although it's unlikely to happen in real life, here's an example: with
the following journal, 'balancesheetequity' shows "liabilities" in both
Liabilities and Equity sections.  Declaring another account as
'type:Liability' would fix it:

account liabilities  ; type:Equity

2020-01-01
  assets        1
  liabilities   1
  equity       -2


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Old account type syntax,  Prev: Interference from auto-detected account types,  Up: Account types

14.8.4.4 Old account type syntax
................................

In some hledger journals you might instead see this old syntax (the
letters ALERX, separated from the account name by two or more spaces);
this is deprecated and may be removed soon:

account assets       A
account liabilities  L
account equity       E
account revenues     R
account expenses     X


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Account display order,  Prev: Account types,  Up: Declaring accounts

14.8.5 Account display order
----------------------------

Account directives also set the order in which accounts are displayed,
eg in reports, the hledger-ui accounts screen, and the hledger-web
sidebar.  By default accounts are listed in alphabetical order.  But if
you have these account directives in the journal:

account assets
account liabilities
account equity
account revenues
account expenses

   you'll see those accounts displayed in declaration order, not
alphabetically:

$ hledger accounts -1
assets
liabilities
equity
revenues
expenses

   Undeclared accounts, if any, are displayed last, in alphabetical
order.

   Note that sorting is done at each level of the account tree (within
each group of sibling accounts under the same parent).  And currently,
this directive:

account other:zoo

   would influence the position of 'zoo' among 'other''s subaccounts,
but not the position of 'other' among the top-level accounts.  This
means:

   * you will sometimes declare parent accounts (eg 'account other'
     above) that you don't intend to post to, just to customize their
     display order
   * sibling accounts stay together (you couldn't display 'x:y' in
     between 'a:b' and 'a:c').


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Rewriting accounts,  Next: Default parent account,  Prev: Declaring accounts,  Up: DIRECTIVES

14.9 Rewriting accounts
=======================

You can define account alias rules which rewrite your account names, or
parts of them, before generating reports.  This can be useful for:

   * expanding shorthand account names to their full form, allowing
     easier data entry and a less verbose journal
   * adapting old journals to your current chart of accounts
   * experimenting with new account organisations, like a new hierarchy
     or combining two accounts into one
   * customising reports

   Account aliases also rewrite account names in account directives.
They do not affect account names being entered via hledger add or
hledger-web.

   See also Rewrite account names.

* Menu:

* Basic aliases::
* Regex aliases::
* Combining aliases::
* Aliases and multiple files::
* end aliases::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Basic aliases,  Next: Regex aliases,  Up: Rewriting accounts

14.9.1 Basic aliases
--------------------

To set an account alias, use the 'alias' directive in your journal file.
This affects all subsequent journal entries in the current file or its
included files.  The spaces around the = are optional:

alias OLD = NEW

   Or, you can use the '--alias 'OLD=NEW'' option on the command line.
This affects all entries.  It's useful for trying out aliases
interactively.

   OLD and NEW are case sensitive full account names.  hledger will
replace any occurrence of the old account name with the new one.
Subaccounts are also affected.  Eg:

alias checking = assets:bank:wells fargo:checking
; rewrites "checking" to "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking", or "checking:a" to "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking:a"


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Regex aliases,  Next: Combining aliases,  Prev: Basic aliases,  Up: Rewriting accounts

14.9.2 Regex aliases
--------------------

There is also a more powerful variant that uses a regular expression,
indicated by the forward slashes:

alias /REGEX/ = REPLACEMENT

   or '--alias '/REGEX/=REPLACEMENT''.

   REGEX is a case-insensitive regular expression.  Anywhere it matches
inside an account name, the matched part will be replaced by
REPLACEMENT. If REGEX contains parenthesised match groups, these can be
referenced by the usual numeric backreferences in REPLACEMENT. Eg:

alias /^(.+):bank:([^:]+):(.*)/ = \1:\2 \3
; rewrites "assets:bank:wells fargo:checking" to  "assets:wells fargo checking"

   Also note that REPLACEMENT continues to the end of line (or on
command line, to end of option argument), so it can contain trailing
whitespace.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Combining aliases,  Next: Aliases and multiple files,  Prev: Regex aliases,  Up: Rewriting accounts

14.9.3 Combining aliases
------------------------

You can define as many aliases as you like, using journal directives
and/or command line options.

   Recursive aliases - where an account name is rewritten by one alias,
then by another alias, and so on - are allowed.  Each alias sees the
effect of previously applied aliases.

   In such cases it can be important to understand which aliases will be
applied and in which order.  For (each account name in) each journal
entry, we apply:

  1. 'alias' directives preceding the journal entry, most recently
     parsed first (ie, reading upward from the journal entry, bottom to
     top)
  2. '--alias' options, in the order they appeared on the command line
     (left to right).

   In other words, for (an account name in) a given journal entry:

   * the nearest alias declaration before/above the entry is applied
     first
   * the next alias before/above that will be be applied next, and so on
   * aliases defined after/below the entry do not affect it.

   This gives nearby aliases precedence over distant ones, and helps
provide semantic stability - aliases will keep working the same way
independent of which files are being read and in which order.

   In case of trouble, adding '--debug=6' to the command line will show
which aliases are being applied when.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Aliases and multiple files,  Next: end aliases,  Prev: Combining aliases,  Up: Rewriting accounts

14.9.4 Aliases and multiple files
---------------------------------

As explained at Directives and multiple files, 'alias' directives do not
affect parent or sibling files.  Eg in this command,

hledger -f a.aliases -f b.journal

   account aliases defined in a.aliases will not affect b.journal.
Including the aliases doesn't work either:

include a.aliases

2020-01-01  ; not affected by a.aliases
  foo  1
  bar

   This means that account aliases should usually be declared at the
start of your top-most file, like this:

alias foo=Foo
alias bar=Bar

2020-01-01  ; affected by aliases above
  foo  1
  bar

include c.journal  ; also affected


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: end aliases,  Prev: Aliases and multiple files,  Up: Rewriting accounts

14.9.5 'end aliases'
--------------------

You can clear (forget) all currently defined aliases with the 'end
aliases' directive:

end aliases


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Default parent account,  Prev: Rewriting accounts,  Up: DIRECTIVES

14.10 Default parent account
============================

You can specify a parent account which will be prepended to all accounts
within a section of the journal.  Use the 'apply account' and 'end apply
account' directives like so:

apply account home

2010/1/1
    food    $10
    cash

end apply account

   which is equivalent to:

2010/01/01
    home:food           $10
    home:cash          $-10

   If 'end apply account' is omitted, the effect lasts to the end of the
file.  Included files are also affected, eg:

apply account business
include biz.journal
end apply account
apply account personal
include personal.journal

   Prior to hledger 1.0, legacy 'account' and 'end' spellings were also
supported.

   A default parent account also affects account directives.  It does
not affect account names being entered via hledger add or hledger-web.
If account aliases are present, they are applied after the default
parent account.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS,  Next: AUTO POSTINGS,  Prev: DIRECTIVES,  Up: Top

15 PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS
************************

Periodic transaction rules describe transactions that recur.  They allow
hledger to generate temporary future transactions to help with
forecasting, so you don't have to write out each one in the journal, and
it's easy to try out different forecasts.

   Periodic transactions can be a little tricky, so before you use them,
read this whole section - or at least these tips:

  1. Two spaces accidentally added or omitted will cause you trouble -
     read about this below.
  2. For troubleshooting, show the generated transactions with 'hledger
     print --forecast tag:generated' or 'hledger register --forecast
     tag:generated'.
  3. Forecasted transactions will begin only after the last
     non-forecasted transaction's date.
  4. Forecasted transactions will end 6 months from today, by default.
     See below for the exact start/end rules.
  5. period expressions can be tricky.  Their documentation needs
     improvement, but is worth studying.
  6. Some period expressions with a repeating interval must begin on a
     natural boundary of that interval.  Eg in 'weekly from DATE', DATE
     must be a monday.  '~ weekly from 2019/10/1' (a tuesday) will give
     an error.
  7. Other period expressions with an interval are automatically
     expanded to cover a whole number of that interval.  (This is done
     to improve reports, but it also affects periodic transactions.
     Yes, it's a bit inconsistent with the above.)  Eg: '~ every 10th
     day of month from 2020/01', which is equivalent to '~ every 10th
     day of month from 2020/01/01', will be adjusted to start on
     2019/12/10.

   Periodic transaction rules also have a second meaning: they are used
to define budget goals, shown in budget reports.

* Menu:

* Periodic rule syntax::
* Two spaces between period expression and description!::
* Forecasting with periodic transactions::
* Budgeting with periodic transactions::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Periodic rule syntax,  Next: Two spaces between period expression and description!,  Up: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS

15.1 Periodic rule syntax
=========================

A periodic transaction rule looks like a normal journal entry, with the
date replaced by a tilde ('~') followed by a period expression
(mnemonic: '~' looks like a recurring sine wave.):

~ monthly
    expenses:rent          $2000
    assets:bank:checking

   There is an additional constraint on the period expression: the start
date must fall on a natural boundary of the interval.  Eg 'monthly from
2018/1/1' is valid, but 'monthly from 2018/1/15' is not.

   Partial or relative dates (M/D, D, tomorrow, last week) in the period
expression can work (useful or not).  They will be relative to today's
date, unless a Y default year directive is in effect, in which case they
will be relative to Y/1/1.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Two spaces between period expression and description!,  Next: Forecasting with periodic transactions,  Prev: Periodic rule syntax,  Up: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS

15.2 Two spaces between period expression and description!
==========================================================

If the period expression is followed by a transaction description, these
must be separated by *two or more spaces*.  This helps hledger know
where the period expression ends, so that descriptions can not
accidentally alter their meaning, as in this example:

; 2 or more spaces needed here, so the period is not understood as "every 2 months in 2020"
;               ||
;               vv
~ every 2 months  in 2020, we will review
    assets:bank:checking   $1500
    income:acme inc

   So,

   * Do write two spaces between your period expression and your
     transaction description, if any.
   * Don't accidentally write two spaces in the middle of your period
     expression.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Forecasting with periodic transactions,  Next: Budgeting with periodic transactions,  Prev: Two spaces between period expression and description!,  Up: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS

15.3 Forecasting with periodic transactions
===========================================

The '--forecast' flag activates any periodic transaction rules in the
journal.  They will generate temporary recurring transactions, which are
not saved in the journal, but will appear in all reports (eg print).
This can be useful for estimating balances into the future, or
experimenting with different scenarios.  Or, it can be used as a data
entry aid: describe recurring transactions, and every so often copy the
output of 'print --forecast' into the journal.

   These transactions will have an extra tag indicating which periodic
rule generated them: 'generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR'.  And a
similar, hidden tag (beginning with an underscore) which, because it's
never displayed by print, can be used to match transactions generated
"just now": '_generated-transaction:~ PERIODICEXPR'.

   Periodic transactions are generated within some forecast period.  By
default, this

   * begins on the later of
        * the report start date if specified with -b/-p/date:
        * the day after the latest normal (non-periodic) transaction in
          the journal, or today if there are no normal transactions.

   * ends on the report end date if specified with -e/-p/date:, or 6
     months (180 days) from today.

   This means that periodic transactions will begin only after the
latest recorded transaction.  And a recorded transaction dated in the
future can prevent generation of periodic transactions.  (You can avoid
that by writing the future transaction as a one-time periodic rule
instead - put tilde before the date, eg '~ YYYY-MM-DD ...').

   Or, you can set your own arbitrary "forecast period", which can
overlap recorded transactions, and need not be in the future, by
providing an option argument, like '--forecast=PERIODEXPR'.  Note the
equals sign is required, a space won't work.  PERIODEXPR is a period
expression, which can specify the start date, end date, or both, like in
a 'date:' query.  (See also hledger.1 -> Report start & end date).  Some
examples: '--forecast=202001-202004', '--forecast=jan-',
'--forecast=2020'.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Budgeting with periodic transactions,  Prev: Forecasting with periodic transactions,  Up: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS

15.4 Budgeting with periodic transactions
=========================================

With the '--budget' flag, currently supported by the balance command,
each periodic transaction rule declares recurring budget goals for the
specified accounts.  Eg the first example above declares a goal of
spending $2000 on rent (and also, a goal of depositing $2000 into
checking) every month.  Goals and actual performance can then be
compared in budget reports.

   See also: Budgeting and Forecasting.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: AUTO POSTINGS,  Prev: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS,  Up: Top

16 AUTO POSTINGS
****************

"Automated postings" or "auto postings" are extra postings which get
added automatically to transactions which match certain queries, defined
by "auto posting rules", when you use the '--auto' flag.

   An auto posting rule looks a bit like a transaction:

= QUERY
    ACCOUNT  AMOUNT
    ...
    ACCOUNT  [AMOUNT]

   except the first line is an equals sign (mnemonic: '=' suggests
matching), followed by a query (which matches existing postings), and
each "posting" line describes a posting to be generated, and the posting
amounts can be:

   * a normal amount with a commodity symbol, eg '$2'.  This will be
     used as-is.
   * a number, eg '2'.  The commodity symbol (if any) from the matched
     posting will be added to this.
   * a numeric multiplier, eg '*2' (a star followed by a number N). The
     matched posting's amount (and total price, if any) will be
     multiplied by N.
   * a multiplier with a commodity symbol, eg '*$2' (a star, number N,
     and symbol S). The matched posting's amount will be multiplied by
     N, and its commodity symbol will be replaced with S.

   Any query term containing spaces must be enclosed in single or double
quotes, as on the command line.  Eg, note the quotes around the second
query term below:

= expenses:groceries 'expenses:dining out'
    (budget:funds:dining out)                 *-1

   Some examples:

; every time I buy food, schedule a dollar donation
= expenses:food
    (liabilities:charity)   $-1

; when I buy a gift, also deduct that amount from a budget envelope subaccount
= expenses:gifts
    assets:checking:gifts  *-1
    assets:checking         *1

2017/12/1
  expenses:food    $10
  assets:checking

2017/12/14
  expenses:gifts   $20
  assets:checking

$ hledger print --auto
2017-12-01
    expenses:food              $10
    assets:checking
    (liabilities:charity)      $-1

2017-12-14
    expenses:gifts             $20
    assets:checking
    assets:checking:gifts     -$20
    assets:checking            $20

* Menu:

* Auto postings and multiple files::
* Auto postings and dates::
* Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions::
* Auto posting tags::


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Auto postings and multiple files,  Next: Auto postings and dates,  Up: AUTO POSTINGS

16.1 Auto postings and multiple files
=====================================

An auto posting rule can affect any transaction in the current file, or
in any parent file or child file.  Note, currently it will not affect
sibling files (when multiple '-f'/'--file' are used - see #1212).


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Auto postings and dates,  Next: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions,  Prev: Auto postings and multiple files,  Up: AUTO POSTINGS

16.2 Auto postings and dates
============================

A posting date (or secondary date) in the matched posting, or (taking
precedence) a posting date in the auto posting rule itself, will also be
used in the generated posting.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions,  Next: Auto posting tags,  Prev: Auto postings and dates,  Up: AUTO POSTINGS

16.3 Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts /
=================================================================

balance assertions Currently, auto postings are added:

   * after missing amounts are inferred, and transactions are checked
     for balancedness,
   * but before balance assertions are checked.

   Note this means that journal entries must be balanced both before and
after auto postings are added.  This changed in hledger 1.12+; see #893
for background.


File: hledger_journal.info,  Node: Auto posting tags,  Prev: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions,  Up: AUTO POSTINGS

16.4 Auto posting tags
======================

Automated postings will have some extra tags:

   * 'generated-posting:= QUERY' - shows this was generated by an auto
     posting rule, and the query
   * '_generated-posting:= QUERY' - a hidden tag, which does not appear
     in hledger's output.  This can be used to match postings generated
     "just now", rather than generated in the past and saved to the
     journal.

   Also, any transaction that has been changed by auto posting rules
will have these tags added:

   * 'modified:' - this transaction was modified
   * '_modified:' - a hidden tag not appearing in the comment; this
     transaction was modified "just now".


Tag Table:
Node: Top76
Node: TRANSACTIONS2111
Ref: #transactions2229
Node: DATES3243
Ref: #dates3350
Node: Simple dates3415
Ref: #simple-dates3537
Node: Secondary dates4046
Ref: #secondary-dates4196
Node: Posting dates5532
Ref: #posting-dates5657
Node: STATUS7029
Ref: #status7137
Node: DESCRIPTION8845
Ref: #description8966
Node: Payee and note9286
Ref: #payee-and-note9396
Node: COMMENTS9731
Ref: #comments9844
Node: TAGS11038
Ref: #tags11140
Node: POSTINGS12533
Ref: #postings12648
Node: Virtual postings13674
Ref: #virtual-postings13787
Node: ACCOUNT NAMES15092
Ref: #account-names15220
Node: AMOUNTS15707
Ref: #amounts15833
Node: Digit group marks16957
Ref: #digit-group-marks17104
Node: Commodity display style18042
Ref: #commodity-display-style18218
Node: Rounding19761
Ref: #rounding19881
Node: TRANSACTION PRICES20293
Ref: #transaction-prices20450
Node: LOT PRICES LOT DATES22881
Ref: #lot-prices-lot-dates23055
Node: BALANCE ASSERTIONS23543
Ref: #balance-assertions23712
Node: Assertions and ordering24745
Ref: #assertions-and-ordering24929
Node: Assertions and included files25629
Ref: #assertions-and-included-files25868
Node: Assertions and multiple -f options26201
Ref: #assertions-and-multiple--f-options26453
Node: Assertions and commodities26585
Ref: #assertions-and-commodities26813
Node: Assertions and prices27970
Ref: #assertions-and-prices28180
Node: Assertions and subaccounts28620
Ref: #assertions-and-subaccounts28845
Node: Assertions and virtual postings29169
Ref: #assertions-and-virtual-postings29407
Node: Assertions and precision29549
Ref: #assertions-and-precision29738
Node: BALANCE ASSIGNMENTS30005
Ref: #balance-assignments30166
Node: Balance assignments and prices31330
Ref: #balance-assignments-and-prices31498
Node: DIRECTIVES31722
Ref: #directives31868
Node: Directives and multiple files37366
Ref: #directives-and-multiple-files37545
Node: Comment blocks38209
Ref: #comment-blocks38388
Node: Including other files38564
Ref: #including-other-files38740
Node: Default year39664
Ref: #default-year39829
Node: Declaring commodities40236
Ref: #declaring-commodities40415
Node: Commodity error checking42259
Ref: #commodity-error-checking42415
Node: Default commodity42672
Ref: #default-commodity42854
Node: Declaring market prices43743
Ref: #declaring-market-prices43934
Node: Declaring accounts44791
Ref: #declaring-accounts44973
Node: Account error checking46175
Ref: #account-error-checking46347
Node: Account comments47526
Ref: #account-comments47716
Node: Account subdirectives48140
Ref: #account-subdirectives48331
Node: Account types48644
Ref: #account-types48824
Node: Declaring account types49560
Ref: #declaring-account-types49745
Node: Auto-detected account types50395
Ref: #auto-detected-account-types50642
Node: Interference from auto-detected account types51539
Ref: #interference-from-auto-detected-account-types51822
Node: Old account type syntax52305
Ref: #old-account-type-syntax52508
Node: Account display order52808
Ref: #account-display-order52974
Node: Rewriting accounts54125
Ref: #rewriting-accounts54306
Node: Basic aliases55063
Ref: #basic-aliases55205
Node: Regex aliases55909
Ref: #regex-aliases56077
Node: Combining aliases56796
Ref: #combining-aliases56985
Node: Aliases and multiple files58261
Ref: #aliases-and-multiple-files58466
Node: end aliases59045
Ref: #end-aliases59198
Node: Default parent account59299
Ref: #default-parent-account59463
Node: PERIODIC TRANSACTIONS60347
Ref: #periodic-transactions60509
Node: Periodic rule syntax62426
Ref: #periodic-rule-syntax62628
Node: Two spaces between period expression and description!63332
Ref: #two-spaces-between-period-expression-and-description63647
Node: Forecasting with periodic transactions64331
Ref: #forecasting-with-periodic-transactions64632
Node: Budgeting with periodic transactions66687
Ref: #budgeting-with-periodic-transactions66922
Node: AUTO POSTINGS67331
Ref: #auto-postings67458
Node: Auto postings and multiple files69637
Ref: #auto-postings-and-multiple-files69837
Node: Auto postings and dates70046
Ref: #auto-postings-and-dates70316
Node: Auto postings and transaction balancing / inferred amounts / balance assertions70491
Ref: #auto-postings-and-transaction-balancing-inferred-amounts-balance-assertions70838
Node: Auto posting tags71180
Ref: #auto-posting-tags71391

End Tag Table