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------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda version 2.4.2.3
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.4.2.2:

Installation and infrastructure
===============================

* Added support for GHC 7.10.1.

* Removed support for GHC 7.0.4.

Language
========

* _ is no longer a valid name for a definition.  The following fails now:
  [Issue 1465]

    postulate _ : Set

* Typed bindings can now contain hiding information [Issue 1391].
  This means you can now write

    assoc : (xs {ys zs} : List A) → ((xs ++ ys) ++ zs) ≡ (xs ++ (ys ++ zs))

  instead of the longer

    assoc : (xs : List A) {ys zs : List A} → ...

  It also works with irrelevance

    .(xs {ys zs} : List A) → ...

  but of course does not make sense if there is hiding information already.
  Thus, this is (still) a parse error:

    {xs {ys zs} : List A} → ...

* The builtins for sized types no longer need accompanying postulates.
  The BUILTIN pragmas for size stuff now also declare the identifiers
  they bind to.

    {-# BUILTIN SIZEUNIV SizeUniv #-}  --  SizeUniv : SizeUniv
    {-# BUILTIN SIZE     Size     #-}  --  Size     : SizeUniv
    {-# BUILTIN SIZELT   Size<_   #-}  --  Size<_   : ..Size → SizeUniv
    {-# BUILTIN SIZESUC  ↑_       #-}  --  ↑_       : Size → Size
    {-# BUILTIN SIZEINF  ∞        #-}  --  ∞       : Size

  Size and Size< now live in the new universe SizeUniv.
  It is forbidden to build function spaces in this universe,
  in order to prevent the malicious assumption of a size predecessor

    pred : (i : Size) → Size< i

  [Issue 1428].

* Unambiguous notations (coming from syntax declarations) that resolve
  to ambiguous names are now parsed unambiguously [Issue 1194].

* If only some instances of an overloaded name have a given
  associated notation (coming from syntax declarations), then this
  name can only be resolved to the given instances of the
  name, not to other instances [Issue 1194].

  Previously, if different instances of an overloaded name had
  /different/ associated notations, then none of the notations could
  be used. Now all of them can be used.

  Note that notation identity does not only involve the right-hand
  side of the syntax declaration. For instance, the following
  notations are not seen as identical, because the implicit argument
  names are different:

    module A where

      data D : Set where
        c : {x y : D} → D

      syntax c {x = a} {y = b} = a ∙ b

    module B where

      data D : Set where
        c : {y x : D} → D

      syntax c {y = a} {x = b} = a ∙ b

* If an overloaded operator is in scope with at least two distinct
  fixities, then it gets the default fixity [Issue 1436].

  Similarly, if two or more identical notations for a given overloaded
  name are in scope, and these notations do not all have the
  same fixity, then they get the default fixity.

Type checking
=============

* Functions of varying arity can now have with-clauses and use rewrite.
  Example:

    NPred : Nat → Set
    NPred 0       = Bool
    NPred (suc n) = Nat → NPred n

    const : Bool → ∀{n} → NPred n
    const b {0}       = b
    const b {suc n} m = const b {n}

    allOdd : ∀ n → NPred n
    allOdd 0 = true
    allOdd (suc n) m with even m
    ... | true  = const false
    ... | false = allOdd n

* Function defined by copattern matching can now have with-clauses
  and use rewrite.  Example:

    {-# OPTIONS --copatterns #-}

    record Stream (A : Set) : Set where
      coinductive
      constructor delay
      field
        force : A × Stream A
    open Stream

    map : ∀{A B} → (A → B) → Stream A → Stream B
    force (map f s) with force s
    ... | a , as = f a , map f as

    record Bisim {A B} (R : A → B → Set) (s : Stream A) (t : Stream B) : Set where
      coinductive
      constructor ~delay
      field
        ~force : let a , as = force s
                     b , bs = force t
                 in  R a b × Bisim R as bs
    open Bisim

    SEq : ∀{A} (s t : Stream A) → Set
    SEq = Bisim (_≡_)

    -- Slightly weird definition of symmetry to demonstrate rewrite.

    ~sym' : ∀{A} {s t : Stream A} → SEq s t → SEq t s
    ~force (~sym' {s = s} {t} p) with force s | force t | ~force p
    ... | a , as | b , bs | r , q rewrite r = refl , ~sym' q

* Instances can now be defined by copattern matching. [Issue 1413]
  The following example extends the one in
  [Abel, Pientka, Thibodeau, Setzer, POPL 2013, Section 2.2]:

    {-# OPTIONS --copatterns #-}

    -- The Monad type class

    record Monad (M : Set → Set) : Set1 where
      field
        return : {A : Set}   → A → M A
        _>>=_  : {A B : Set} → M A → (A → M B) → M B
    open Monad {{...}}

    -- The State newtype

    record State (S A : Set) : Set where
      field
        runState : S → A × S
    open State

    -- State is an instance of Monad

    instance
      stateMonad : {S : Set} → Monad (State S)
      runState (return {{stateMonad}} a  ) s  = a , s    -- NEW
      runState (_>>=_  {{stateMonad}} m k) s₀ =          -- NEW
        let a , s₁ = runState m s₀
        in  runState (k a) s₁

    -- stateMonad fulfills the monad laws

    leftId : {A B S : Set}(a : A)(k : A → State S B) →
      (return a >>= k) ≡ k a
    leftId a k = refl

    rightId : {A B S : Set}(m : State S A) →
      (m >>= return) ≡ m
    rightId m = refl

    assoc : {A B C S : Set}(m : State S A)(k : A → State S B)(l : B → State S C) →
       ((m >>= k) >>= l) ≡ (m >>= λ a → k a >>= l)
    assoc m k l = refl


Emacs mode
==========

* The new menu option "Switch to another version of Agda" tries to do
  what it says.

* Changed feature: Interactively split result.

  [ This is as before: ]
  Make-case (C-c C-c) with no variables given tries to split on the
  result to introduce projection patterns.  The hole needs to be of
  record type, of course.

    test : {A B : Set} (a : A) (b : B) → A × B
    test a b = ?

  Result-splitting ? will produce the new clauses:

    proj₁ (test a b) = ?
    proj₂ (test a b) = ?

  [ This has changed: ]
  If hole is of function type, make-case will introduce only pattern
  variables (as much as it can).

    testFun : {A B : Set} (a : A) (b : B) → A × B
    testFun = ?

  Result-splitting ? will produce the new clause:

    testFun a b = ?

  A second invocation of make-case will then introduce projection patterns.

Error messages
==============

* Agda now suggests corrections of misspelled options, e.g.

    {-# OPTIONS
      --dont-termination-check
      --without-k
      --senf-gurke
      #-}

    Unrecognized options:
    --dont-termination-check (did you mean --no-termination-check ?)
    --without-k (did you mean --without-K ?)
    --senf-gurke

  Nothing close to --senf-gurke, I am afraid.

Compiler backends
=================

* The Epic backend has been disabled [Issue 1481].

Bug fixes
=========

* Fixed bug with unquoteDecl not working in instance blocks [Issue 1491].

* Other issues fixed ( see https://code.google.com/p/agda/issues )
  1497
  1500

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda version 2.4.2.2
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.4.2.1:

Bug fixes
=========

* Compilation on Windows fixed.

* Other issues fixed ( see https://code.google.com/p/agda/issues )
  1332
  1353
  1360
  1366
  1369

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda version 2.4.2.1
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.4.2:

Pragmas and options
===================

* New pragma {-# TERMINATING #-} replacing {-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}

  Complements the existing pragma {-# NON_TERMINATING #-}.
  Skips termination check for the associated definitions and marks
  them as terminating.  Thus, it is a replacement for
  {-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-} with the same semantics.

  You can no longer use pragma {-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-} to skip
  the termination check, but must label your definitions as either
  {-# TERMINATING #-} or {-# NON_TERMINATING #-} instead.

  Note: {-# OPTION --no-termination-check #-} labels all your
  definitions as {-# TERMINATING #-}, putting you in the danger zone
  of a loop in the type checker.

Language
========

* Referring to a local variable shadowed by module opening is now
  an error.  Previous behavior was preferring the local over the
  imported definitions. [Issue 1266]

  Note that module parameters are locals as well as variables bound by
  λ, dependent function type, patterns, and let.

  Example:

    module M where
      A = Set1

    test : (A : Set) → let open M in A

  The last A produces an error, since it could refer to the local
  variable A or to the definition imported from module M.

* `with` on a variable bound by a module telescope or a pattern of a
  parent function is now forbidden.  [Issue 1342]

    data Unit : Set where
      unit : Unit

    id : (A : Set) → A → A
    id A a = a

    module M (x : Unit) where

      dx : Unit → Unit
      dx unit = x

      g : ∀ u → x ≡ dx u
      g with x
      g | unit  = id (∀ u → unit ≡ dx u) ?

  Even though this code looks right, Agda complains about the type
  expression `∀ u → unit ≡ dx u`.  If you ask Agda what should go
  there instead, it happily tells you that it wants
  `∀ u → unit ≡ dx u`. In fact what you do not see and Agda
  will never show you is that the two expressions actually differ in
  the invisible first argument to `dx`, which is visible only outside
  module `M`.  What Agda wants is an invisible `unit` after `dx`, but all
  you can write is an invisible `x` (which is inserted behind the
  scenes).

  To avoid those kinds of paradoxes, `with` is now outlawed on module
  parameters.  This should ensure that the invisible arguments are
  always exactly the module parameters.

  Since a `where` block is desugared as module with pattern variables
  of the parent clause as module parameters, the same strikes you for
  uses of `with` on pattern variables of the parent function.

    f : Unit → Unit
    f x = unit
      where
        dx : Unit → Unit
        dx unit = x

        g : ∀ u → x ≡ dx u
        g with x
        g | unit  = id ((u : Unit) → unit ≡ dx u) ?

  The `with` on pattern variable `x` of the parent clause `f x = unit`
  is outlawed now.

Type checking
=============

* Termination check failure is now a proper error.

  We no longer continue type checking after termination check failures.
  Use pragmas {-# NON_TERMINATING #-} and {-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
  near the offending definitions if you want to do so.
  Or switch off the termination checker altogether with
  {-# OPTIONS --no-termination-check #-} (at your own risk!).

* (Since Agda 2.4.2:) Termination checking --without-K restricts
  structural descent to arguments ending in data types or `Size`.
  Likewise, guardedness is only tracked when result type is data or
  record type.

    mutual
      data WOne : Set where wrap : FOne → WOne
      FOne = ⊥ → WOne

    noo : (X : Set) → (WOne ≡ X) → X → ⊥
    noo .WOne refl (wrap f) = noo FOne iso f

  `noo` is rejected since at type `X` the structural descent
  `f < wrap f` is discounted --without-K.

    data Pandora : Set where
      C : ∞ ⊥ → Pandora

    loop : (A : Set) → A ≡ Pandora → A
    loop .Pandora refl = C (♯ (loop ⊥ foo))

  `loop` is rejected since guardedness is not tracked at type `A`
  --without-K.

  See issues 1023, 1264, 1292.

Termination checking
====================

* The termination checker can now recognize simple subterms in dot
  patterns.

    data Subst : (d : Nat) → Set where
      c₁ : ∀ {d} → Subst d → Subst d
      c₂ : ∀ {d₁ d₂} → Subst d₁ → Subst d₂ → Subst (suc d₁ + d₂)

    postulate
      comp : ∀ {d₁ d₂} → Subst d₁ → Subst d₂ → Subst (d₁ + d₂)

    lookup : ∀ d → Nat → Subst d → Set₁
    lookup d             zero    (c₁ ρ)             = Set
    lookup d             (suc v) (c₁ ρ)             = lookup d v ρ
    lookup .(suc d₁ + d₂) v      (c₂ {d₁} {d₂} ρ σ) = lookup (d₁ + d₂) v (comp ρ σ)

  The dot pattern here is actually normalized, so it is

    suc (d₁ + d₂)

  and the corresponding recursive call argument is (d₁ + d₂).
  In such simple cases, Agda can now recognize that the pattern is
  constructor applied to call argument, which is valid descent.

  Note however, that Agda only looks for syntactic equality when
  identifying subterms, since it is not allowed to normalize terms on
  the rhs during termination checking.

  Actually writing the dot pattern has no effect, this works as well,
  and looks pretty magical... ;-)

    hidden : ∀{d} → Nat → Subst d → Set₁
    hidden zero    (c₁ ρ)   = Set
    hidden (suc v) (c₁ ρ)   = hidden v ρ
    hidden v       (c₂ ρ σ) = hidden v (comp ρ σ)

Tools
=====

LaTeX-backend
-------------

* Fixed the issue of identifiers containing operators being typeset with
  excessive math spacing.

Bug fixes
=========

* Issue 1194

* Issue 836:  Fields and constructors can be qualified by the
  record/data *type* as well as by their record/data module.
  This now works also for record/data type imported from
  parametrized modules:

    module M (_ : Set₁) where

      record R : Set₁ where
        field
          X : Set

    open M Set using (R)  -- rather than using (module R)

    X : R → Set
    X = R.X

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda version 2.4.2
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.4.0.2:

Pragmas and options
===================

* New option: --with-K.

  This can be used to override a global --without-K in a file, by
  adding a pragma {-# OPTIONS --with-K #-}.

* New pragma {-# NON_TERMINATING #-}

  This is a safer version of NO_TERMINATION_CHECK which doesn't treat the
  affected functions as terminating. This means that NON_TERMINATING functions
  do not reduce during type checking. They do reduce at run-time and when
  invoking C-c C-n at top-level (but not in a hole).

Language
========

* Instance search is now more efficient and recursive (see issue 938)
  (but without termination check yet).

  A new keyword `instance' has been introduced (in the style of
  `abstract' and  `private') which must now be used for every
  definition/postulate that has to be taken into account during instance
  resolution. For example:

    record RawMonoid (A : Set) : Set where
      field
        nil  : A
        _++_ : A -> A -> A

    open RawMonoid {{...}}

    instance
      rawMonoidList : {A : Set} -> RawMonoid (List A)
      rawMonoidList = record { nil = []; _++_ = List._++_ }

      rawMonoidMaybe : {A : Set} {{m : RawMonoid A}} -> RawMonoid (Maybe A)
      rawMonoidMaybe {A} = record { nil = nothing ; _++_ = catMaybe }
        where
          catMaybe : Maybe A -> Maybe A -> Maybe A
          catMaybe nothing mb = mb
          catMaybe ma nothing = ma
          catMaybe (just a) (just b) = just (a ++ b)

  Moreover, each type of an instance must end in (something that reduces
  to) a named type (e.g. a record, a datatype or a postulate). This
  allows us to build a simple index structure

    data/record name  -->  possible instances

  that speeds up instance search.

  Instance search takes into account all local bindings and all global
  'instance' bindings and the search is recursive. For instance,
  searching for

    ? : RawMonoid (Maybe (List A))

  will consider the candidates {rawMonoidList, rawMonoidMaybe}, fail to
  unify the first one, succeeding with the second one

    ? = rawMonoidMaybe {A = List A} {{m = ?m}} : RawMonoid (Maybe (List A))

  and continue with goal

    ?m : RawMonoid (List A)

  This will then find

    ?m = rawMonoidList {A = A}

  and putting together we have the solution.

  Be careful that there is no termination check for now, you can easily
  make Agda loop by declaring the identity function as an instance. But
  it shouldn’t be possible to make Agda loop by only declaring
  structurally recursive instances (whatever that means).

  Additionally:

  * Uniqueness of instances is up to definitional equality (see issue 899).

  * Instances of the following form are allowed:

        EqSigma : {A : Set} {B : A → Set} {{EqA : Eq A}}
                  {{EqB : {a : A} → Eq (B a)}}
                  → Eq (Σ A B)

    When searching recursively for an instance of type
    `{a : A} → Eq (B a)', a lambda will automatically be introduced and
    instance search will search for something of type `Eq (B a)' in
    the context extended by `a : A'. When searching for an instance, the
    `a' argument does not have to be implicit, but in the definition of
    EqSigma, instance search will only be able to use EqB if `a' is implicit.

  * There is no longer any attempt to solve irrelevant metas by instance
    search.

  * Constructors of records and datatypes are automatically added to the
    instance table.

* You can now use 'quote' in patterns.

  For instance, here is a function that unquotes a (closed) natural number
  term.

    unquoteNat : Term → Maybe Nat
    unquoteNat (con (quote Nat.zero) [])            = just zero
    unquoteNat (con (quote Nat.suc) (arg _ n ∷ [])) = fmap suc (unquoteNat n)
    unquoteNat _                                    = nothing

* The builtin constructors AGDATERMUNSUPPORTED and AGDASORTUNSUPPORTED are now
  translated to meta variables when unquoting.

* New syntactic sugar 'tactic e' and 'tactic e | e1 | .. | en'.

  It desugars as follows and makes it less unwieldy to call reflection-based
  tactics.

    tactic e                --> quoteGoal g in unquote (e g)
    tactic e | e1 | .. | en --> quoteGoal g in unquote (e g) e1 .. en

  Note that in the second form the tactic function should generate a function
  from a number of new subgoals to the original goal. The type of e should be
  Term -> Term in both cases.

* New reflection builtins for literals.

  The Term data type AGDATERM now needs an additional constructor AGDATERMLIT
  taking a reflected literal defined as follows (with appropriate builtin
  bindings for the types Nat, Float, etc).

    data Literal : Set where
      nat    : Nat    → Literal
      float  : Float  → Literal
      char   : Char   → Literal
      string : String → Literal
      qname  : QName  → Literal

    {-# BUILTIN AGDALITERAL   Literal #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDALITNAT    nat     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDALITFLOAT  float   #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDALITCHAR   char    #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDALITSTRING string  #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDALITQNAME  qname   #-}

  When quoting (quoteGoal or quoteTerm) literals will be mapped to the
  AGDATERMLIT constructor. Previously natural number literals were quoted
  to suc/zero application and other literals were quoted to
  AGDATERMUNSUPPORTED.

* New reflection builtins for function definitions.

  AGDAFUNDEF should now map to a data type defined as follows
  (with {-# BUILTIN QNAME       QName   #-}
        {-# BUILTIN ARG         Arg     #-}
        {-# BUILTIN AGDATERM    Term    #-}
        {-# BUILTIN AGDATYPE    Type    #-}
        {-# BUILTIN AGDALITERAL Literal #-}).

    data Pattern : Set where
      con    : QName → List (Arg Pattern) → Pattern
      dot    : Pattern
      var    : Pattern
      lit    : Literal → Pattern
      proj   : QName → Pattern
      absurd : Pattern

    {-# BUILTIN AGDAPATTERN   Pattern #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDAPATCON    con     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDAPATDOT    dot     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDAPATVAR    var     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDAPATLIT    lit     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDAPATPROJ   proj    #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDAPATABSURD absurd  #-}

    data Clause : Set where
      clause        : List (Arg Pattern) → Term → Clause
      absurd-clause : List (Arg Pattern) → Clause

    {-# BUILTIN AGDACLAUSE       Clause        #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDACLAUSECLAUSE clause        #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDACLAUSEABSURD absurd-clause #-}

    data FunDef : Set where
      fun-def : Type → List Clause → FunDef

    {-# BUILTIN AGDAFUNDEF    FunDef  #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDAFUNDEFCON fun-def #-}

* New reflection builtins for extended (pattern-matching) lambda.

  The AGDATERM data type has been augmented with a constructor

    AGDATERMEXTLAM : List AGDACLAUSE → List (ARG AGDATERM) → AGDATERM

  Absurd lambdas (λ ()) are quoted to extended lambdas with an absurd clause.

* Unquoting declarations.

  You can now define (recursive) functions by reflection using the new
  unquoteDecl declaration

    unquoteDecl x = e

  Here e should have type AGDAFUNDEF and evaluate to a closed value. This value
  is then spliced in as the definition of x. In the body e, x has type QNAME
  which lets you splice in recursive definitions.

  Standard modifiers, such as fixity declarations, can be applied to x as
  expected.

* Quoted levels

  Universe levels are now quoted properly instead of being quoted to
  AGDASORTUNSUPPORTED. Setω  still gets an unsupported sort, however.

* Module applicants can now be operator applications. Example:

    postulate
      [_] : A -> B

    module M (b : B) where

    module N (a : A) = M [ a ]

  [See Issue 1245.]

* Minor change in module application semantics. [Issue 892]

  Previously re-exported functions were not redefined when instantiating a
  module. For instance

    module A where f = ...
    module B (X : Set) where
      open A public
    module C = B Nat

  In this example C.f would be an alias for A.f, so if both A and C were opened
  f would not be ambiguous. However, this behaviour is not correct when A and B
  share some module parameters (issue 892). To fix this C now defines its own
  copy of f (which evaluates to A.f), which means that opening A and C results
  in an ambiguous f.

Type checking
=============

* Recursive records need to be declared as either inductive or coinductive.
  'inductive' is no longer default for recursive records.
  Examples:

    record _×_ (A B : Set) : Set where
      constructor _,_
      field
        fst : A
        snd : B

    record Tree (A : Set) : Set where
      inductive
      constructor tree
      field
        elem     : A
        subtrees : List (Tree A)

    record Stream (A : Set) : Set where
      coinductive
      constructor _::_
      field
        head : A
        tail : Stream A

  If you are using old-style (musical) coinduction, a record may have
  to be declared as inductive, paradoxically.

    record Stream (A : Set) : Set where
      inductive -- YES, THIS IS INTENDED !
      constructor _∷_
      field
        head : A
        tail : ∞ (Stream A)

  This is because the ``coinduction'' happens in the use of `∞' and not
  in the use of `record'.

Tools
=====

Emacs mode
----------

* A new menu option "Display" can be used to display the version of
  the running Agda process.

LaTeX-backend
-------------

* New experimental option ``references'' has been added. When specified,
  i.e.:

      \usepackage[references]{agda}

  a new command called \AgdaRef is provided, which lets you reference
  previously typeset commands, e.g.:

      Let us postulate \AgdaRef{apa}.

      \begin{code}
      postulate
        apa : Set
      \end{code}

  Above ``apa'' will be typeset (highlighted) the same in the text as in
  the code, provided that the LaTeX output is post-processed using
  src/data/postprocess-latex.pl, e.g.:

    cp $(dirname $(dirname $(agda-mode locate)))/postprocess-latex.pl .
    agda -i. --latex Example.lagda
    cd latex/
    perl ../postprocess-latex.pl Example.tex > Example.processed
    mv Example.processed Example.tex
    xelatex Example.tex

  Mix-fix and unicode should work as expected (unicode requires
  XeLaTeX/LuaLaTeX), but there are limitations:

    + Overloading identifiers should be avoided, if multiples exist
      \AgdaRef will typeset according to the first it finds.

    + Only the current module is used, should you need to reference
      identifiers in other modules then you need to specify which other
      module manually, i.e. \AgdaRef[module]{identifier}.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.4.0.2
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.4.0.1:

* The Agda input mode now supports alphabetical super and subscripts,
  in addition to the numerical ones that were already present.
  [Issue 1240]

* New feature: Interactively split result.

  Make case (C-c C-c) with no variables given tries to split on the
  result to introduce projection patterns.  The hole needs to be of
  record type, of course.

    test : {A B : Set} (a : A) (b : B) → A × B
    test a b = ?

  Result-splitting ? will produce the new clauses:

    proj₁ (test a b) = ?
    proj₂ (test a b) = ?

  If hole is of function type ending in a record type, the necessary
  pattern variables will be introduced before the split.  Thus, the
  same result can be obtained by starting from:

    test : {A B : Set} (a : A) (b : B) → A × B
    test = ?

* The so far undocumented ETA pragma now throws an error if applied to
  definitions that are not records.

  ETA can be used to force eta-equality at recursive record types,
  for which eta is not enabled automatically by Agda.
  Here is such an example:

    mutual
      data Colist (A : Set) : Set where
        [] : Colist A
        _∷_ : A → ∞Colist A → Colist A

      record ∞Colist (A : Set) : Set where
        coinductive
        constructor delay
        field       force : Colist A

    open ∞Colist

    {-# ETA ∞Colist #-}

    test : {A : Set} (x : ∞Colist A) → x ≡ delay (force x)
    test x = refl

  Note:  Unsafe use of ETA can make Agda loop, e.g. by triggering
  infinite eta expansion!

* Bugs fixed (see https://code.google.com/p/agda/issues):
  1203
  1205
  1209
  1213
  1214
  1216
  1225
  1226
  1231
  1233
  1239
  1241
  1243

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.4.0.1
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.4.0:

* The option --compile-no-main has been renamed to --no-main.

* COMPILED_DATA pragmas can now be given for records.

* Various bug fixes.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.4.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.3.2.2:

Installation and infrastructure
===============================

* A new module called Agda.Primitive has been introduced. This module
  is available to all users, even if the standard library is not used.
  Currently the module contains level primitives and their
  representation in Haskell when compiling with MAlonzo:

    infixl 6 _⊔_

    postulate
      Level : Set
      lzero : Level
      lsuc  : (ℓ : Level) → Level
      _⊔_   : (ℓ₁ ℓ₂ : Level) → Level

    {-# COMPILED_TYPE Level ()      #-}
    {-# COMPILED lzero ()           #-}
    {-# COMPILED lsuc  (\_ -> ())   #-}
    {-# COMPILED _⊔_   (\_ _ -> ()) #-}

    {-# BUILTIN LEVEL     Level  #-}
    {-# BUILTIN LEVELZERO lzero  #-}
    {-# BUILTIN LEVELSUC  lsuc   #-}
    {-# BUILTIN LEVELMAX  _⊔_    #-}

  To bring these declarations into scope you can use a declaration
  like the following one:

    open import Agda.Primitive using (Level; lzero; lsuc; _⊔_)

  The standard library reexports these primitives (using the names
  zero and suc instead of lzero and lsuc) from the Level module.

  Existing developments using universe polymorphism might now trigger
  the following error message:

    Duplicate binding for built-in thing LEVEL, previous binding to
    .Agda.Primitive.Level

  To fix this problem, please remove the duplicate bindings.

  Technical details (perhaps relevant to those who build Agda
  packages):

  The include path now always contains a directory <DATADIR>/lib/prim,
  and this directory is supposed to contain a subdirectory Agda
  containing a file Primitive.agda.

  The standard location of <DATADIR> is system- and
  installation-specific.  E.g., in a cabal --user installation of
  Agda-2.3.4 on a standard single-ghc Linux system it would be
  $HOME/.cabal/share/Agda-2.3.4 or something similar.

  The location of the <DATADIR> directory can be configured at
  compile-time using Cabal flags (--datadir and --datasubdir).
  The location can also be set at run-time, using the Agda_datadir
  environment variable.

Pragmas and options
===================

* Pragma NO_TERMINATION_CHECK placed within a mutual block is now
  applied to the whole mutual block (rather than being discarded
  silently).  Adding to the uses 1.-4. outlined in the release notes
  for 2.3.2 we allow:

  3a. Skipping an old-style mutual block: Somewhere within 'mutual'
      block before a type signature or first function clause.

       mutual
         {-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
         c : A
         c = d

         d : A
         d = c

* New option --no-pattern-matching

  Disables all forms of pattern matching (for the current file).
  You can still import files that use pattern matching.

* New option -v profile:7

  Prints some stats on which phases Agda spends how much time.
  (Number might not be very reliable, due to garbage collection
  interruptions, and maybe due to laziness of Haskell.)

* New option --no-sized-types

  Option --sized-types is now default.
  --no-sized-types will turn off an extra (inexpensive) analysis on
  data types used for subtyping of sized types.

Language
========

* Experimental feature: quoteContext

  There is a new keyword 'quoteContext' that gives users access to the
  list of names in the current local context. For instance:

    open import Data.Nat
    open import Data.List
    open import Reflection

    foo : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
    foo 0 m = 0
    foo (suc n) m = quoteContext xs in ?

  In the remaining goal, the list xs will consist of two names, n and
  m, corresponding to the two local variables. At the moment it is not
  possible to access let bound variables -- this feature may be added
  in the future.

* Experimental feature: Varying arity.
  Function clauses may now have different arity, e.g.,

    Sum : ℕ → Set
    Sum 0       = ℕ
    Sum (suc n) = ℕ → Sum n

    sum : (n : ℕ) → ℕ → Sum n
    sum 0       acc   = acc
    sum (suc n) acc m = sum n (m + acc)

  or,

    T : Bool → Set
    T true  = Bool
    T false = Bool → Bool

    f : (b : Bool) → T b
    f false true  = false
    f false false = true
    f true = true

  This feature is experimental.  Yet unsupported:
  * Varying arity and 'with'.
  * Compilation of functions with varying arity to Haskell, JS, or Epic.

* Experimental feature: copatterns.  (Activated with option --copatterns)

  We can now define a record by explaining what happens if you project
  the record.  For instance:

    {-# OPTIONS --copatterns #-}

    record _×_ (A B : Set) : Set where
      constructor _,_
      field
        fst : A
        snd : B
    open _×_

    pair : {A B : Set} → A → B → A × B
    fst (pair a b) = a
    snd (pair a b) = b

    swap : {A B : Set} → A × B → B × A
    fst (swap p) = snd p
    snd (swap p) = fst p

    swap3 : {A B C : Set} → A × (B × C) → C × (B × A)
    fst (swap3 t)       = snd (snd t)
    fst (snd (swap3 t)) = fst (snd t)
    snd (snd (swap3 t)) = fst t

  Taking a projection on the left hand side (lhs) is called a
  projection pattern, applying to a pattern is called an application
  pattern.  (Alternative terms: projection/application copattern.)

  In the first example, the symbol 'pair', if applied to variable
  patterns a and b and then projected via fst, reduces to a.
  'pair' by itself does not reduce.

  A typical application are coinductive records such as streams:

    record Stream (A : Set) : Set where
      coinductive
      field
        head : A
        tail : Stream A
    open Stream

    repeat : {A : Set} (a : A) -> Stream A
    head (repeat a) = a
    tail (repeat a) = repeat a

  Again, 'repeat a' by itself will not reduce, but you can take
  a projection (head or tail) and then it will reduce to the
  respective rhs.  This way, we get the lazy reduction behavior
  necessary to avoid looping corecursive programs.

  Application patterns do not need to be trivial (i.e., variable
  patterns), if we mix with projection patterns.  E.g., we can have

    nats : Nat -> Stream Nat
    head (nats zero) = zero
    tail (nats zero) = nats zero
    head (nats (suc x)) = x
    tail (nats (suc x)) = nats x

  Here is an example (not involving coinduction) which demostrates
  records with fields of function type:

    -- The State monad

    record State (S A : Set) : Set where
      constructor state
      field
        runState : S → A × S
    open State

    -- The Monad type class

    record Monad (M : Set → Set) : Set1 where
      constructor monad
      field
        return : {A : Set}   → A → M A
        _>>=_  : {A B : Set} → M A → (A → M B) → M B


    -- State is an instance of Monad
    -- Demonstrates the interleaving of projection and application patterns

    stateMonad : {S : Set} → Monad (State S)
    runState (Monad.return stateMonad a  ) s  = a , s
    runState (Monad._>>=_  stateMonad m k) s₀ =
      let a , s₁ = runState m s₀
      in  runState (k a) s₁

    module MonadLawsForState {S : Set} where

      open Monad (stateMonad {S})

      leftId : {A B : Set}(a : A)(k : A → State S B) →
        (return a >>= k) ≡ k a
      leftId a k = refl

      rightId : {A B : Set}(m : State S A) →
        (m >>= return) ≡ m
      rightId m = refl

      assoc : {A B C : Set}(m : State S A)(k : A → State S B)(l : B → State S C) →
        ((m >>= k) >>= l) ≡ (m >>= λ a → (k a >>= l))
      assoc m k l = refl

  Copatterns are yet experimental and the following does not work:

  * Copatterns and 'with' clauses.

  * Compilation of copatterns to Haskell, JS, or Epic.

  * Projections generated by
      open R {{...}}
    are not handled properly on lhss yet.

  * Conversion checking is slower in the presence of copatterns,
    since stuck definitions of record type do no longer count
    as neutral, since they can become unstuck by applying a projection.
    Thus, comparing two neutrals currently requires comparing all
    they projections, which repeats a lot of work.

* Top-level module no longer required.

  The top-level module can be omitted from an Agda file. The module name is
  then inferred from the file name by dropping the path and the .agda
  extension. So, a module defined in /A/B/C.agda would get the name C.

  You can also suppress only the module name of the top-level module by writing

    module _ where

  This works also for parameterised modules.

* Module parameters are now always hidden arguments in projections.
  For instance:

    module M (A : Set) where

      record Prod (B : Set) : Set where
        constructor _,_
        field
          fst : A
          snd : B
      open Prod public

    open M

  Now, the types of fst and snd are

    fst : {A : Set}{B : Set} → Prod A B → A
    snd : {A : Set}{B : Set} → Prod A B → B

  Until 2.3.2, they were

    fst : (A : Set){B : Set} → Prod A B → A
    snd : (A : Set){B : Set} → Prod A B → B

  This change is a step towards symmetry of constructors and projections.
  (Constructors always took the module parameters as hidden arguments).

* Telescoping lets: Local bindings are now accepted in telescopes
  of modules, function types, and lambda-abstractions.

  The syntax of telescopes as been extended to support 'let':

    id : (let ★ = Set) (A : ★) → A → A
    id A x = x

  In particular one can now 'open' modules inside telescopes:

   module Star where
     ★ : Set₁
     ★ = Set

   module MEndo (let open Star) (A : ★) where
     Endo : ★
     Endo = A → A

  Finally a shortcut is provided for opening modules:

    module N (open Star) (A : ★) (open MEndo A) (f : Endo) where
      ...

  The semantics of the latter is

    module _ where
      open Star
      module _ (A : ★) where
        open MEndo A
        module N (f : Endo) where
          ...

  The semantics of telescoping lets in function types and lambda
  abstractions is just expanding them into ordinary lets.

* More liberal left-hand sides in lets [Issue 1028]:

    You can now write left-hand sides with arguments also for let bindings
    without a type signature. For instance,

      let f x = suc x in f zero

    Let bound functions still can't do pattern matching though.

* Ambiguous names in patterns are now optimistically resolved in favor
  of constructors. [Issue 822] In particular, the following succeeds now:

    module M where

      data D : Set₁ where
        [_] : Set → D

    postulate [_] : Set → Set

    open M

    Foo : _ → Set
    Foo [ A ] = A

* Anonymous where-modules are opened public. [Issue 848]

    <clauses>
    f args = rhs
      module _ telescope where
        body
    <more clauses>

  means the following (not proper Agda code, since you cannot put a
  module in-between clauses)

    <clauses>
    module _ {arg-telescope} telescope where
      body

    f args = rhs
    <more clauses>

  Example:

    A : Set1
    A = B module _ where
      B : Set1
      B = Set

    C : Set1
    C = B

* Builtin ZERO and SUC have been merged with NATURAL.

  When binding the NATURAL builtin, ZERO and SUC are bound to the appropriate
  constructors automatically. This means that instead of writing

    {-# BUILTIN NATURAL Nat #-}
    {-# BUILTIN ZERO zero #-}
    {-# BUILTIN SUC suc #-}

  you just write

    {-# BUILTIN NATURAL Nat #-}

* Pattern synonym can now have implicit arguments. [Issue 860]

  For example,

    pattern tail=_ {x} xs = x ∷ xs

    len : ∀ {A} → List A → Nat
    len []         = 0
    len (tail= xs) = 1 + len xs

* Syntax declarations can now have implicit arguments. [Issue 400]

  For example

    id : ∀ {a}{A : Set a} -> A -> A
    id x = x

    syntax id {A} x = x ∈ A

* Minor syntax changes

  * -} is now parsed as end-comment even if no comment was begun.
    As a consequence, the following definition gives a parse error

      f : {A- : Set} -> Set
      f {A-} = A-

    because Agda now sees ID(f) LBRACE ID(A) END-COMMENT, and no
    longer ID(f) LBRACE ID(A-) RBRACE.

    The rational is that the previous lexing was to context-sensitive,
    attempting to comment-out f using {- and -} lead to a parse error.

  * Fixities (binding strengths) can now be negative numbers as
    well. [Issue 1109]

      infix -1 _myop_

  * Postulates are now allowed in mutual blocks. [Issue 977]

  * Empty where blocks are now allowed. [Issue 947]

  * Pattern synonyms are now allowed in parameterised modules. [Issue 941]

  * Empty hiding and renaming lists in module directives are now allowed.

  * Module directives using, hiding, renaming and public can now appear in
    arbitrary order. Multiple using/hiding/renaming directives are allowed, but
    you still cannot have both using and hiding (because that doesn't make
    sense). [Issue 493]

Goal and error display
======================

* The error message "Refuse to construct infinite term" has been
  removed, instead one gets unsolved meta variables.  Reason: the
  error was thrown over-eagerly. [Issue 795]

* If an interactive case split fails with message

    Since goal is solved, further case distinction is not supported;
    try `Solve constraints' instead

  then the associated interaction meta is assigned to a solution.
  Press C-c C-= (Show constraints) to view the solution and C-c C-s
  (Solve constraints) to apply it. [Issue 289]

Type checking
=============

* [ issue 376 ] Implemented expansion of bound record variables during meta assignment.
  Now Agda can solve for metas X that are applied to projected variables, e.g.:

    X (fst z) (snd z) = z

    X (fst z)         = fst z

  Technically, this is realized by substituting (x , y) for z with fresh
  bound variables x and y.  Here the full code for the examples:

    record Sigma (A : Set)(B : A -> Set) : Set where
      constructor _,_
      field
        fst : A
        snd : B fst
    open Sigma

    test : (A : Set) (B : A -> Set) ->
      let X : (x : A) (y : B x) -> Sigma A B
          X = _
      in  (z : Sigma A B) -> X (fst z) (snd z) ≡ z
    test A B z = refl

    test' : (A : Set) (B : A -> Set) ->
      let X : A -> A
          X = _
      in  (z : Sigma A B) -> X (fst z) ≡ fst z
    test' A B z = refl

  The fresh bound variables are named fst(z) and snd(z) and can appear
  in error messages, e.g.:

    fail : (A : Set) (B : A -> Set) ->
      let X : A -> Sigma A B
          X = _
      in  (z : Sigma A B) -> X (fst z) ≡ z
    fail A B z = refl

  results in error:

    Cannot instantiate the metavariable _7 to solution fst(z) , snd(z)
    since it contains the variable snd(z) which is not in scope of the
    metavariable or irrelevant in the metavariable but relevant in the
    solution
    when checking that the expression refl has type _7 A B (fst z) ≡ z

* Dependent record types and definitions by copatterns require
  reduction with previous function clauses while checking the
  current clause. [Issue 907]

  For a simple example, consider

    test : ∀ {A} → Σ Nat λ n → Vec A n
    proj₁ test = zero
    proj₂ test = []

  For the second clause, the lhs and rhs are typed as

    proj₂ test : Vec A (proj₁ test)
    []         : Vec A zero

  In order for these types to match, we have to reduce the lhs type
  with the first function clause.

  Note that termination checking comes after type checking, so be
  careful to avoid non-termination!  Otherwise, the type checker
  might get into an infinite loop.

* The implementation of the primitive primTrustMe has changed.
  It now only reduces to REFL if the two arguments x and y have
  the same computational normal form.  Before, it reduced when
  x and y were definitionally equal, which included type-directed
  equality laws such as eta-equality.  Yet because reduction is
  untyped, calling conversion from reduction lead to Agda crashes
  [Issue 882].

  The amended description of primTrustMe is (cf. release notes for 2.2.6):

    primTrustMe : {A : Set} {x y : A} → x ≡ y

  Here _≡_ is the builtin equality (see BUILTIN hooks for equality,
  above).

  If x and y have the same computational normal form, then
  primTrustMe {x = x} {y = y} reduces to refl.

  A note on primTrustMe's runtime behavior:
  The MAlonzo compiler replaces all uses of primTrustMe with the
  REFL builtin, without any check for definitional equality. Incorrect
  uses of primTrustMe can potentially lead to segfaults or similar
  problems of the compiled code.

* Implicit patterns of record type are now only eta-expanded if there
  is a record constructor. [Issues 473, 635]

    data D : Set where
      d : D

    data P : D → Set where
      p : P d

    record Rc : Set where
      constructor c
      field f : D

    works : {r : Rc} → P (Rc.f r) → Set
    works p = D

  This works since the implicit pattern {r} is eta-expanded to
  {c x} which allows the type of p to reduce to P x and x to be
  unified with d.  The corresponding explicit version is:

    works' : (r : Rc) → P (Rc.f r) → Set
    works' (c .d) p = D

  However, if the record constructor is removed, the same example will
  fail:

    record R : Set where
      field f : D

    fails : {r : R} → P (R.f r) → Set
    fails p = D

    -- d != R.f r of type D
    -- when checking that the pattern p has type P (R.f r)

  The error is justified since there is no pattern we could write down
  for r.  It would have to look like

    record { f = .d }

  but anonymous record patterns are not part of the language.

* Absurd lambdas at different source locations are no longer
  different. [Issue 857]
  In particular, the following code type-checks now:

    absurd-equality : _≡_ {A = ⊥ → ⊥} (λ()) λ()
    absurd-equality = refl

  Which is a good thing!

* Printing of named implicit function types.

  When printing terms in a context with bound variables Agda renames new
  bindings to avoid clashes with the previously bound names. For instance, if A
  is in scope, the type (A : Set) → A is printed as (A₁ : Set) → A₁. However,
  for implicit function types the name of the binding matters, since it can be
  used when giving implicit arguments.

  For this situation, the following new syntax has been introduced:
  {x = y : A} → B is an implicit function type whose bound variable (in scope
  in B) is y, but where the name of the argument is x for the purposes of
  giving it explicitly. For instance, with A in scope, the type {A : Set} → A
  is now printed as {A = A₁ : Set} → A₁.

  This syntax is only used when printing and is currently not being parsed.

* Changed the semantics of --without-K. [Issue 712, Issue 865, Issue 1025]

  New specification of --without-K:

  When --without-K is enabled, the unification of indices for pattern matching
  is restricted in two ways:

  1. Reflexive equations of the form x == x are no longer solved, instead Agda
     gives an error when such an equation is encountered.

  2. When unifying two same-headed constructor forms 'c us' and 'c vs' of type
     'D pars ixs', the datatype indices ixs (but not the parameters) have to
     be *self-unifiable*, i.e. unification of ixs with itself should succeed
     positively. This is a nontrivial requirement because of point 1.

  Examples:

  * The J rule is accepted.

      J : {A : Set} (P : {x y : A} → x ≡ y → Set) →
          (∀ x → P (refl x)) →
          ∀ {x y} (x≡y : x ≡ y) → P x≡y
      J P p (refl x) = p x

    This definition is accepted since unification of x with y doesn't require
    deletion or injectivity.

  * The K rule is rejected.

      K : {A : Set} (P : {x : A} → x ≡ x → Set) →
          (∀ x → P (refl {x = x})) →
         ∀ {x} (x≡x : x ≡ x) → P x≡x
      K P p refl = p _

    Definition is rejected with the following error:

      Cannot eliminate reflexive equation x = x of type A because K has
      been disabled.
      when checking that the pattern refl has type x ≡ x

  * Symmetry of the new criterion.

      test₁ : {k l m : ℕ} → k + l ≡ m → ℕ
      test₁ refl = zero

      test₂ : {k l m : ℕ} → k ≡ l + m → ℕ
      test₂ refl = zero

    Both versions are now accepted (previously only the first one was).

  * Handling of parameters.

      cons-injective : {A : Set} (x y : A) → (x ∷ []) ≡ (y ∷ []) → x ≡ y
      cons-injective x .x refl = refl

    Parameters are not unified, so they are ignored by the new criterion.

  * A larger example: antisymmetry of ≤.

      data _≤_ : ℕ → ℕ → Set where
        lz : (n : ℕ) → zero ≤ n
        ls : (m n : ℕ) → m ≤ n → suc m ≤ suc n

      ≤-antisym : (m n : ℕ) → m ≤ n → n ≤ m → m ≡ n
      ≤-antisym .zero    .zero    (lz .zero) (lz .zero)   = refl
      ≤-antisym .(suc m) .(suc n) (ls m n p) (ls .n .m q) =
                   cong suc (≤-antisym m n p q)

  * [ Issue 1025 ]

      postulate mySpace : Set
      postulate myPoint : mySpace

      data Foo : myPoint ≡ myPoint → Set where
        foo : Foo refl

      test : (i : foo ≡ foo) → i ≡ refl
      test refl = {!!}

    When applying injectivity to the equation "foo ≡ foo" of type "Foo refl",
    it is checked that the index refl of type "myPoint ≡ myPoint" is
    self-unifiable. The equation "refl ≡ refl" again requires injectivity, so
    now the index myPoint is checked for self-unifiability, hence the error:

      Cannot eliminate reflexive equation myPoint = myPoint of type
      mySpace because K has been disabled.
      when checking that the pattern refl has type foo ≡ foo

Termination checking
====================

* A buggy facility coined "matrix-shaped orders" that supported
  uncurried functions (which take tuples of arguments instead of one
  argument after another) has been removed from the termination
  checker. [Issue 787]

* Definitions which fail the termination checker are not unfolded any
  longer to avoid loops or stack overflows in Agda.  However, the
  termination checker for a mutual block is only invoked after
  type-checking, so there can still be loops if you define a
  non-terminating function.  But termination checking now happens
  before the other supplementary checks: positivity, polarity,
  injectivity and projection-likeness.
  Note that with the pragma {-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-} you can make
  Agda treat any function as terminating.

* Termination checking of functions defined by 'with' has been improved.

  Cases which previously required --termination-depth
  to pass the termination checker (due to use of 'with') no longer
  need the flag. For example

    merge : List A → List A → List A
    merge [] ys = ys
    merge xs [] = xs
    merge (x ∷ xs) (y ∷ ys) with x ≤ y
    merge (x ∷ xs) (y ∷ ys)    | false = y ∷ merge (x ∷ xs) ys
    merge (x ∷ xs) (y ∷ ys)    | true  = x ∷ merge xs (y ∷ ys)

  This failed to termination check previously, since the 'with' expands to an
  auxiliary function merge-aux:

    merge-aux x y xs ys false = y ∷ merge (x ∷ xs) ys
    merge-aux x y xs ys true  = x ∷ merge xs (y ∷ ys)

  This function makes a call to merge in which the size of one of the arguments
  is increasing. To make this pass the termination checker now inlines the
  definition of merge-aux before checking, thus effectively termination
  checking the original source program.

  As a result of this transformation doing 'with' on a variable no longer
  preserves termination. For instance, this does not termination check:

    bad : Nat → Nat
    bad n with n
    ... | zero  = zero
    ... | suc m = bad m

* The performance of the termination checker has been improved.  For
  higher --termination-depth the improvement is significant.
  While the default --termination-depth is still 1, checking with
  higher --termination-depth should now be feasible.

Compiler backends
=================

* The MAlonzo compiler backend now has support for compiling modules
  that are not full programs (i.e. don't have a main function). The
  goal is that you can write part of a program in Agda and the rest in
  Haskell, and invoke the Agda functions from the Haskell code. The
  following features were added for this reason:

  * A new command-line option --compile-no-main: the command

      agda --compile-no-main Test.agda

    will compile Test.agda and all its dependencies to Haskell and
    compile the resulting Haskell files with --make, but (unlike
    --compile) not tell GHC to treat Test.hs as the main module. This
    type of compilation can be invoked from emacs by customizing the
    agda2-backend variable to value MAlonzoNoMain and then calling
    "C-c C-x C-c" as before.

  * A new pragma COMPILED_EXPORT was added as part of the MAlonzo FFI.
    If we have an Agda file containing the following:

       module A.B where

       test : SomeType
       test = someImplementation

       {-# COMPILED_EXPORT test someHaskellId #-}

    then test will be compiled to a Haskell function called
    someHaskellId in module MAlonzo.Code.A.B that can be invoked from
    other Haskell code. Its type will be translated according to the
    normal MAlonzo rules.

Tools
=====

Emacs mode
----------

* A new goal command "Helper Function Type" (C-c C-h) has been added.

  If you write an application of an undefined function in a goal, the Helper
  Function Type command will print the type that the function needs to have in
  order for it to fit the goal. The type is also added to the Emacs kill-ring
  and can be pasted into the buffer using C-y.

  The application must be of the form "f args" where f is the name of the
  helper function you want to create. The arguments can use all the normal
  features like named implicits or instance arguments.

  Example:

    Here's a start on a naive reverse on vectors:

      reverse : ∀ {A n} → Vec A n → Vec A n
      reverse [] = []
      reverse (x ∷ xs) = {!snoc (reverse xs) x!}

    Calling C-c C-h in the goal prints

      snoc : ∀ {A} {n} → Vec A n → A → Vec A (suc n)

* A new command "Explain why a particular name is in scope" (C-c C-w) has been
  added. [Issue207]

  This command can be called from a goal or from the top-level and will as the
  name suggests explain why a particular name is in scope.

  For each definition or module that the given name can refer to a trace is
  printed of all open statements and module applications leading back to the
  original definition of the name.

  For example, given

    module A (X : Set₁) where
      data Foo : Set where
        mkFoo : Foo
    module B (Y : Set₁) where
      open A Y public
    module C = B Set
    open C

  Calling C-c C-w on mkFoo at the top-level prints

    mkFoo is in scope as
    * a constructor Issue207.C._.Foo.mkFoo brought into scope by
      - the opening of C at Issue207.agda:13,6-7
      - the application of B at Issue207.agda:11,12-13
      - the application of A at Issue207.agda:9,8-9
      - its definition at Issue207.agda:6,5-10

  This command is useful if Agda complains about an ambiguous name and you need
  to figure out how to hide the undesired interpretations.

* Improvements to the "make case" command (C-c C-c)

  - One can now also split on hidden variables, using the name
    (starting with .) with which they are printed.
    Use C-c C-, to see all variables in context.

  - Concerning the printing of generated clauses:

  * Uses named implicit arguments to improve readability.

  * Picks explicit occurrences over implicit ones when there is a choice of
    binding site for a variable.

  * Avoids binding variables in implicit positions by replacing dot patterns
    that uses them by wildcards (._).

* Key bindings for lots of "mathematical" characters (examples: 𝐴𝑨𝒜𝓐𝔄)
  have been added to the Agda input method.
  Example: type \MiA\MIA\McA\MCA\MfA to get 𝐴𝑨𝒜𝓐𝔄.

  Note: \McB does not exist in unicode (as well as others in that style),
  but the \MC (bold) alphabet is complete.

* Key bindings for "blackboard bold" B (𝔹) and 0-9 (𝟘-𝟡) have been added
  to the Agda input method (\bb and \b[0-9]).

* Key bindings for controlling simplification/normalisation:

  [TODO: Simplification should be explained somewhere.]

  Commands like "Goal type and context" (C-c C-,) could previously be
  invoked in two ways. By default the output was normalised, but if a
  prefix argument was used (for instance via C-u C-c C-,), then no
  explicit normalisation was performed. Now there are three options:

  * By default (C-c C-,) the output is simplified.

  * If C-u is used exactly once (C-u C-c C-,), then the result is
    neither (explicitly) normalised nor simplified.

  * If C-u is used twice (C-u C-u C-c C-,), then the result is
    normalised.

  [TODO: As part of the release of Agda 2.3.4 the key binding page on
  the wiki should be updated.]

LaTeX-backend
-------------

* Two new color scheme options were added to agda.sty:

  \usepackage[bw]{agda}, which highlights in black and white;
  \usepackage[conor]{agda}, which highlights using Conor's colors.

  The default (no options passed) is to use the standard colors.

* If agda.sty cannot be found by the latex environment, it is now
  copied into the latex output directory ('latex' by default) instead
  of the working directory. This means that the commands needed to
  produce a PDF now is

    agda --latex -i . <file>.lagda
    cd latex
    pdflatex <file>.tex

* The LaTeX-backend has been made more tool agnostic, in particular
  XeLaTeX and LuaLaTeX should now work. Here is a small example
  (test/latex-backend/succeed/UnicodeInput.lagda):

    \documentclass{article}
    \usepackage{agda}
    \begin{document}

    \begin{code}
    data αβγδεζθικλμνξρστυφχψω : Set₁ where

    postulate
      →⇒⇛⇉⇄↦⇨↠⇀⇁ : Set
    \end{code}

    \[
    ∀X [ ∅ ∉ X ⇒ ∃f:X ⟶  ⋃ X\ ∀A ∈ X (f(A) ∈ A) ]
    \]
    \end{document}

  Compiled as follows, it should produce a nice looking PDF (tested with
  TeX Live 2012):

    agda --latex <file>.lagda
    cd latex
    xelatex <file>.tex (or lualatex <file>.tex)

  If symbols are missing or xelatex/lualatex complains about the font
  missing, try setting a different font using:

    \setmathfont{<math-font>}

  Use the fc-list tool to list available fonts.

* Add experimental support for hyperlinks to identifiers

  If the hyperref latex package is loaded before the agda package and
  the links option is passed to the agda package, then the agda package
  provides a function called \AgdaTarget. Identifiers which have been
  declared targets, by the user, will become clickable hyperlinks in the
  rest of the document. Here is a small example
  (test/latex-backend/succeed/Links.lagda):

    \documentclass{article}
    \usepackage{hyperref}
    \usepackage[links]{agda}
    \begin{document}

    \AgdaTarget{ℕ}
    \AgdaTarget{zero}
    \begin{code}
    data ℕ : Set where
      zero  : ℕ
      suc   : ℕ → ℕ
    \end{code}

    See next page for how to define \AgdaFunction{two} (doesn't turn into a
    link because the target hasn't been defined yet). We could do it
    manually though; \hyperlink{two}{\AgdaDatatype{two}}.

    \newpage

    \AgdaTarget{two}
    \hypertarget{two}{}
    \begin{code}
    two : ℕ
    two = suc (suc zero)
    \end{code}

    \AgdaInductiveConstructor{zero} is of type
    \AgdaDatatype{ℕ}. \AgdaInductiveConstructor{suc} has not been defined to
    be a target so it doesn't turn into a link.

    \newpage

    Now that the target for \AgdaFunction{two} has been defined the link
    works automatically.

    \begin{code}
    data Bool : Set where
      true false : Bool
    \end{code}

    The AgdaTarget command takes a list as input, enabling several
    targets to be specified as follows:

    \AgdaTarget{if, then, else, if\_then\_else\_}
    \begin{code}
    if_then_else_ : {A : Set} → Bool → A → A → A
    if true  then t else f = t
    if false then t else f = f
    \end{code}

    \newpage

    Mixfix identifier need their underscores escaped:
    \AgdaFunction{if\_then\_else\_}.

    \end{document}

  The boarders around the links can be suppressed using hyperref's
  hidelinks option:

    \usepackage[hidelinks]{hyperref}

  Note that the current approach to links does not keep track of scoping
  or types, and hence overloaded names might create links which point to
  the wrong place. Therefore it is recommended to not overload names
  when using the links option at the moment, this might get fixed in the
  future.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.3.2.2
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.3.2.1:

* Fixed a bug that sometimes made it tricky to use the Emacs mode on
  Windows [issue 757].

* Made Agda build with newer versions of some libraries.

* Fixed a bug that caused ambiguous parse error messages [issue 147].

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.3.2.1
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.3.2:

Installation
============

* Made it possible to compile Agda with more recent versions of
  hashable, QuickCheck and Win32.

* Excluded mtl-2.1.

Type checking
=============

* Fixed bug in the termination checker (issue 754).

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.3.2
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.3.0:

Installation
============

* The Agda-executable package has been removed.

  The executable is now provided as part of the Agda package.

* The Emacs mode no longer depends on haskell-mode or GHCi.

* Compilation of Emacs mode Lisp files.

  You can now compile the Emacs mode Lisp files by running "agda-mode
  compile". This command is run by "make install".

  Compilation can, in some cases, give a noticeable speedup.

  WARNING: If you reinstall the Agda mode without recompiling the
  Emacs Lisp files, then Emacs may continue using the old, compiled
  files.

Pragmas and options
===================

* The --without-K check now reconstructs constructor parameters.

  New specification of --without-K:

  If the flag is activated, then Agda only accepts certain
  case-splits. If the type of the variable to be split is D pars ixs,
  where D is a data (or record) type, pars stands for the parameters,
  and ixs the indices, then the following requirements must be
  satisfied:

  * The indices ixs must be applications of constructors (or literals)
    to distinct variables. Constructors are usually not applied to
    parameters, but for the purposes of this check constructor
    parameters are treated as other arguments.

  * These distinct variables must not be free in pars.

* Irrelevant arguments are printed as _ by default now.  To turn on
  printing of irrelevant arguments, use option

    --show-irrelevant

* New: Pragma NO_TERMINATION_CHECK to switch off termination checker
  for individual function definitions and mutual blocks.

  The pragma must precede a function definition or a mutual block.
  Examples (see test/succeed/NoTerminationCheck.agda):

  1. Skipping a single definition: before type signature.

       {-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
       a : A
       a = a

  2. Skipping a single definition: before first clause.

       b : A
       {-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
       b = b

  3. Skipping an old-style mutual block: Before 'mutual' keyword.

       {-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
       mutual
         c : A
         c = d

         d : A
         d = c

  4. Skipping a new-style mutual block: Anywhere before a type
     signature or first function clause in the block

       i : A
       j : A

       i = j
       {-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
       j = i

  The pragma cannot be used in --safe mode.

Language
========

* Let binding record patterns

    record _×_ (A B : Set) : Set where
      constructor _,_
      field
        fst : A
        snd : B
    open _×_

    let (x , (y , z)) = t
    in  u

  will now be interpreted as

    let x = fst t
        y = fst (snd t)
        z = snd (snd t)
    in  u

  Note that the type of t needs to be inferable.  If you need to provide
  a type signature, you can write the following:

    let a : ...
        a = t
        (x , (y , z)) = a
    in  u

* Pattern synonyms

  A pattern synonym is a declaration that can be used on the left hand
  side (when pattern matching) as well as the right hand side (in
  expressions). For example:

  pattern z    = zero
  pattern ss x = suc (suc x)

  f : ℕ -> ℕ
  f z       = z
  f (suc z) = ss z
  f (ss n)  = n

  Pattern synonyms are implemented by substitution on the abstract
  syntax, so definitions are scope-checked but not type-checked. They
  are particularly useful for universe constructions.

* Qualified mixfix operators

  It is now possible to use a qualified mixfix operator by qualifying the first
  part of the name. For instance

    import Data.Nat as Nat
    import Data.Bool as Bool

    two = Bool.if true then 1 Nat.+ 1 else 0

* Sections [Issue 735].  Agda now parses anonymous modules as sections:

    module _ {a} (A : Set a) where

      data List : Set a where
        []  : List
        _∷_ : (x : A) (xs : List) → List

    module _ {a} {A : Set a} where

      _++_ : List A → List A → List A
      []       ++ ys = ys
      (x ∷ xs) ++ ys = x ∷ (xs ++ ys)

    test : List Nat
    test = (5 ∷ []) ++ (3 ∷ [])

  In general, now the syntax

    module _ parameters where
      declarations

  is accepted and has the same effect as

    private
      module M parameters where
        declarations
    open M public

  for a fresh name M.

* Instantiating a module in an open import statement [Issue 481].  Now accepted:

    open import Path.Module args [using/hiding/renaming (...)]

  This only brings the imported identifiers from Path.Module into scope,
  not the module itself!  Consequently, the following is pointless, and raises
  an error:

    import Path.Module args [using/hiding/renaming (...)]

  You can give a private name M to the instantiated module via

    import Path.Module args as M [using/hiding/renaming (...)]
    open import Path.Module args as M [using/hiding/renaming (...)]

  Try to avoid 'as' as part of the arguments.  'as' is not a keyword;
  the following can be legal, although slightly obfuscated Agda code:

    open import as as as as as as

* Implicit module parameters can be given by name. E.g.

    open M {namedArg = bla}

  This feature has been introduced in Agda 2.3.0 already.

* Multiple type signatures sharing a same type can now be written as a single
  type signature.

    one two : ℕ
    one = suc zero
    two = suc one

Goal and error display
======================

* Meta-variables that were introduced by hidden argument `arg' are now
  printed as _arg_number instead of just _number.  [Issue 526]

* Agda expands identifiers in anonymous modules when printing.
  Should make some goals nicer to read. [Issue 721]

* When a module identifier is ambiguous, Agda tells you if one
  of them is a data type module.  [Issues 318, 705]

Type checking
=============

* Improved coverage checker.  The coverage checker splits on
  arguments that have constructor or literal pattern, committing
  to the left-most split that makes progress.
  Consider the lookup function for vectors:

    data Fin : Nat → Set where
      zero : {n : Nat} → Fin (suc n)
      suc  : {n : Nat} → Fin n → Fin (suc n)

    data Vec (A : Set) : Nat → Set where
      []  : Vec A zero
      _∷_ : {n : Nat} → A → Vec A n → Vec A (suc n)

    _!!_ : {A : Set}{n : Nat} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
    (x ∷ xs) !! zero  = x
    (x ∷ xs) !! suc i = xs !! i

  In Agda up to 2.3.0, this definition is rejected unless we add
  an absurd clause

    [] !! ()

  This is because the coverage checker committed on splitting
  on the vector argument, even though this inevitably lead to
  failed coverage, because a case for the empty vector [] is missing.

  The improvement to the coverage checker consists on committing
  only on splits that have a chance of covering, since all possible
  constructor patterns are present.  Thus, Agda will now split
  first on the Fin argument, since cases for both zero and suc are
  present.  Then, it can split on the Vec argument, since the
  empty vector is already ruled out by instantiating n to a suc _.

* Instance arguments resolution will now consider candidates which
  still expect hidden arguments. For example:

    record Eq (A : Set) : Set where
      field eq : A → A → Bool

    open Eq {{...}}

    eqFin : {n : ℕ} → Eq (Fin n)
    eqFin = record { eq = primEqFin }

    testFin : Bool
    testFin = eq fin1 fin2

  The type-checker will now resolve the instance argument of the eq
  function to eqFin {_}. This is only done for hidden arguments, not
  instance arguments, so that the instance search stays non-recursive.

* Constraint solving: Upgraded Miller patterns to record patterns. [Issue 456]

  Agda now solves meta-variables that are applied to record patterns.
  A typical (but here, artificial) case is:

    record Sigma (A : Set)(B : A -> Set) : Set where
      constructor _,_
      field
        fst : A
        snd : B fst

    test : (A : Set)(B : A -> Set) ->
      let X : Sigma A B -> Sigma A B
          X = _
      in  (x : A)(y : B x) -> X (x , y) ≡ (x , y)
    test A B x y = refl

  This yields a constraint of the form

    _X A B (x , y) := t[x,y]

  (with t[x,y] = (x, y)) which is not a Miller pattern.
  However, Agda now solves this as

    _X A B z := t[fst z,snd z].

* Changed: solving recursive constraints.  [Issue 585]

  Until 2.3.0, Agda sometimes inferred values that did not pass the
  termination checker later, or would even make Agda loop.  To prevent this,
  the occurs check now also looks into the definitions of the current mutual
  block, to avoid constructing recursive solutions.  As a consequence, also
  terminating recursive solutions are no longer found automatically.

  This effects a programming pattern where the recursively computed
  type of a recursive function is left to Agda to solve.

    mutual

      T : D -> Set
      T pattern1 = _
      T pattern2 = _

      f : (d : D) -> T d
      f pattern1 = rhs1
      f pattern2 = rhs2

  This might no longer work from now on.
  See examples test/fail/Issue585*.agda

* Less eager introduction of implicit parameters.  [Issue 679]

  Until Agda 2.3.0, trailing hidden parameters were introduced eagerly
  on the left hand side of a definition.  For instance, one could not
  write

    test : {A : Set} -> Set
    test = \ {A} -> A

  because internally, the hidden argument {A : Set} was added to the
  left-hand side, yielding

    test {_} = \ {A} -> A

  which raised a type error.  Now, Agda only introduces the trailing
  implicit parameters it has to, in order to maintain uniform function
  arity.  For instance, in

    test : Bool -> {A B C : Set} -> Set
    test true {A}      = A
    test false {B = B} = B

  Agda will introduce parameters A and B in all clauses, but not C,
  resulting in

    test : Bool -> {A B C : Set} -> Set
    test true  {A} {_}     = A
    test false {_} {B = B} = B

  Note that for checking where-clauses, still all hidden trailing
  parameters are in scope.  For instance:

    id : {i : Level}{A : Set i} -> A -> A
    id = myId
      where myId : forall {A} -> A -> A
            myId x = x

  To be able to fill in the meta variable _1 in

    myId : {A : Set _1} -> A -> A

  the hidden parameter {i : Level} needs to be in scope.

  As a result of this more lazy introduction of implicit parameters,
  the following code now passes.

    data Unit : Set where
      unit : Unit

    T : Unit → Set
    T unit = {u : Unit} → Unit

    test : (u : Unit) → T u
    test unit with unit
    ... | _ = λ {v} → v

  Before, Agda would eagerly introduce the hidden parameter {v} as
  unnamed left-hand side parameter, leaving no way to refer to it.

  The related issue 655 has also been addressed.  It is now possible
  to make `synonym' definitions

    name = expression

  even when the type of expression begins with a hidden quantifier.
  Simple example:

    id2 = id

  That resulted in unsolved metas until 2.3.0.

* Agda detects unused arguments and ignores them during equality
  checking. [Issue 691, solves also issue 44.]

  Agda's polarity checker now assigns 'Nonvariant' to arguments
  that are not actually used (except for absurd matches).  If
  f's first argument is Nonvariant, then f x is definitionally equal
  to f y regardless of x and y.  It is similar to irrelevance, but
  does not require user annotation.

  For instance, unused module parameters do no longer get in the way:

    module M (x : Bool) where

      not : Bool → Bool
      not true  = false
      not false = true

    open M true
    open M false renaming (not to not′)

    test : (y : Bool) → not y ≡ not′ y
    test y = refl

  Matching against record or absurd patterns does not count as `use',
  so we get some form of proof irrelevance:

    data ⊥ : Set where
    record ⊤ : Set where
      constructor trivial

    data Bool : Set where
      true false : Bool

    True : Bool → Set
    True true  = ⊤
    True false = ⊥

    fun : (b : Bool) → True b → Bool
    fun true  trivial = true
    fun false ()

    test : (b : Bool) → (x y : True b) → fun b x ≡ fun b y
    test b x y = refl

  More examples in test/succeed/NonvariantPolarity.agda.

  Phantom arguments:  Parameters of record and data types are considered
  `used' even if they are not actually used.  Consider:

    False : Nat → Set
    False zero    = ⊥
    False (suc n) = False n

    module Invariant where
      record Bla (n : Nat)(p : False n) : Set where

    module Nonvariant where
      Bla : (n : Nat) → False n → Set
      Bla n p = ⊤

  Even though record `Bla' does not use its parameters n and p, they
  are considered as used, allowing "phantom type" techniques.

  In contrast, the arguments of function `Bla' are recognized as unused.
  The following code type-checks if we open Invariant but leaves unsolved
  metas if we open Nonvariant.

    drop-suc : {n : Nat}{p : False n} → Bla (suc n) p → Bla n p
    drop-suc _ = _

    bla : (n : Nat) → {p : False n} → Bla n p → ⊥
    bla zero {()} b
    bla (suc n) b = bla n (drop-suc b)

  If `Bla' is considered invariant, the hidden argument in the recursive
  call can be inferred to be `p'.  If it is considered non-variant, then
  `Bla n X = Bla n p' does not entail `X = p' and the hidden argument
  remains unsolved.  Since `bla' does not actually use its hidden argument,
  its value is not important and it could be searched for.
  Unfortunately, polarity analysis of `bla' happens only after type
  checking, thus, the information that `bla' is non-variant in `p' is
  not available yet when meta-variables are solved.
  (See test/fail/BrokenInferenceDueToNonvariantPolarity.agda)

* Agda now expands simple definitions (one clause, terminating)
  to check whether a function is constructor headed. [Issue 747]
  For instance, the following now also works:

    MyPair : Set -> Set -> Set
    MyPair A B = Pair A B

    Vec : Set -> Nat -> Set
    Vec A zero    = Unit
    Vec A (suc n) = MyPair A (Vec A n)

  Here, Unit and Pair are data or record types.

Compiler backends
=================

* -Werror is now overridable.

  To enable compilation of Haskell modules containing warnings, the
  -Werror flag for the MAlonzo backend has been made overridable. If,
  for example, --ghc-flag=-Wwarn is passed when compiling, one can get
  away with things like:

    data PartialBool : Set where
      true : PartialBool

    {-# COMPILED_DATA PartialBool Bool True #-}

  The default behavior remains as it used to be and rejects the above
  program.

Tools
=====

Emacs mode
----------

* Asynchronous Emacs mode.

  One can now use Emacs while a buffer is type-checked. If the buffer
  is edited while the type-checker runs, then syntax highlighting will
  not be updated when type-checking is complete.

* Interactive syntax highlighting.

  The syntax highlighting is updated while a buffer is type-checked:

  • At first the buffer is highlighted in a somewhat crude way
    (without go-to-definition information for overloaded
    constructors).

  • If the highlighting level is "interactive", then the piece of code
    that is currently being type-checked is highlighted as such. (The
    default is "non-interactive".)

  • When a mutual block has been type-checked it is highlighted
    properly (this highlighting includes warnings for potential
    non-termination).

  The highlighting level can be controlled via the new configuration
  variable agda2-highlight-level.

* Multiple case-splits can now be performed in one go.

  Consider the following example:

    _==_ : Bool → Bool → Bool
    b₁ == b₂ = {!!}

  If you split on "b₁ b₂", then you get the following code:

    _==_ : Bool → Bool → Bool
    true == true = {!!}
    true == false = {!!}
    false == true = {!!}
    false == false = {!!}

  The order of the variables matters. Consider the following code:

    lookup : ∀ {a n} {A : Set a} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
    lookup xs i = {!!}

  If you split on "xs i", then you get the following code:

    lookup : ∀ {a n} {A : Set a} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
    lookup [] ()
    lookup (x ∷ xs) zero = {!!}
    lookup (x ∷ xs) (suc i) = {!!}

  However, if you split on "i xs", then you get the following code
  instead:

    lookup : ∀ {a n} {A : Set a} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
    lookup (x ∷ xs) zero = ?
    lookup (x ∷ xs) (suc i) = ?

  This code is rejected by Agda 2.3.0, but accepted by 2.3.2 thanks
  to improved coverage checking (see above).

* The Emacs mode now presents information about which module is
  currently being type-checked.

* New global menu entry: Information about the character at point.

  If this entry is selected, then information about the character at
  point is displayed, including (in many cases) information about how
  to type the character.

* Commenting/uncommenting the rest of the buffer.

  One can now comment or uncomment the rest of the buffer by typing
  C-c C-x M-; or by selecting the menu entry "Comment/uncomment the
  rest of the buffer".

* The Emacs mode now uses the Agda executable instead of GHCi.

  The *ghci* buffer has been renamed to *agda2*.

  A new configuration variable has been introduced:
  agda2-program-name, the name of the Agda executable (by default
  agda).

  The variable agda2-ghci-options has been replaced by
  agda2-program-args: extra arguments given to the Agda executable (by
  default none).

  If you want to limit Agda's memory consumption you can add some
  arguments to agda2-program-args, for instance +RTS -M1.5G -RTS.

* The Emacs mode no longer depends on haskell-mode.

  Users who have customised certain haskell-mode variables (such as
  haskell-ghci-program-args) may want to update their configuration.

LaTeX-backend
-------------

An experimental LaTeX-backend which does precise highlighting a la the
HTML-backend and code alignment a la lhs2TeX has been added.

Here is a sample input literate Agda file:

  \documentclass{article}

  \usepackage{agda}

  \begin{document}

  The following module declaration will be hidden in the output.

  \AgdaHide{
  \begin{code}
  module M where
  \end{code}
  }

  Two or more spaces can be used to make the backend align stuff.

  \begin{code}
  data ℕ : Set where
    zero  : ℕ
    suc   : ℕ → ℕ

  _+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
  zero   + n = n
  suc m  + n = suc (m + n)
  \end{code}

  \end{document}

To produce an output PDF issue the following commands:

  agda --latex -i . <file>.lagda
  pdflatex latex/<file>.tex

Only the top-most module is processed, like with lhs2tex and unlike with
the HTML-backend. If you want to process imported modules you have to
call agda --latex manually on each of those modules.

There are still issues related to formatting, see the bug tracker for
more information:

  https://code.google.com/p/agda/issues/detail?id=697

The default agda.sty might therefore change in backwards-incompatible
ways, as work proceeds in trying to resolve those problems.


Implemented features:

  * Two or more spaces can be used to force alignment of things, like
    with lhs2tex. See example above.

  * The highlighting information produced by the type checker is used to
    generate the output. For example, the data declaration in the example
    above, produces:

      \AgdaKeyword{data} \AgdaDatatype{ℕ} \AgdaSymbol{:}
          \AgdaPrimitiveType{Set} \AgdaKeyword{where}

    These latex commands are defined in agda.sty (which is imported by
    \usepackage{agda}) and cause the highlighting.

  * The latex-backend checks if agda.sty is found by the latex
    environment, if it isn't a default agda.sty is copied from Agda's
    data-dir into the working directory (and thus made available to the
    latex environment).

    If the default agda.sty isn't satisfactory (colors, fonts, spacing,
    etc) then the user can modify it and make put it somewhere where the
    latex environment can find it. Hopefully most aspects should be
    modifiable via agda.sty rather than having to tweak the
    implementation.

  * --latex-dir can be used to change the default output directory.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.3.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.2.10:

Language
========

* New more liberal syntax for mutually recursive definitions.

  It is no longer necessary to use the 'mutual' keyword to define
  mutually recursive functions or datatypes. Instead, it is enough to
  declare things before they are used. Instead of

    mutual
      f : A
      f = a[f, g]

      g : B[f]
      g = b[f, g]

  you can now write

    f : A
    g : B[f]
    f = a[f, g]
    g = b[f, g].

  With the new style you have more freedom in choosing the order in
  which things are type checked (previously type signatures were
  always checked before definitions). Furthermore you can mix
  arbitrary declarations, such as modules and postulates, with
  mutually recursive definitions.

  For data types and records the following new syntax is used to
  separate the declaration from the definition:

    -- Declaration.
    data Vec (A : Set) : Nat → Set  -- Note the absence of 'where'.

    -- Definition.
    data Vec A where
      []   : Vec A zero
      _::_ : {n : Nat} → A → Vec A n → Vec A (suc n)

    -- Declaration.
    record Sigma (A : Set) (B : A → Set) : Set

    -- Definition.
    record Sigma A B where
      constructor _,_
      field fst : A
            snd : B fst

  When making separated declarations/definitions private or abstract
  you should attach the 'private' keyword to the declaration and the
  'abstract' keyword to the definition. For instance, a private,
  abstract function can be defined as

    private
      f : A
    abstract
      f = e

  Finally it may be worth noting that the old style of mutually
  recursive definitions is still supported (it basically desugars into
  the new style).

* Pattern matching lambdas.

  Anonymous pattern matching functions can be defined using the syntax

    \ { p11 .. p1n -> e1 ; ... ; pm1 .. pmn -> em }

  (where, as usual, \ and -> can be replaced by λ and →). Internally
  this is translated into a function definition of the following form:

    .extlam p11 .. p1n = e1
    ...
    .extlam pm1 .. pmn = em

  This means that anonymous pattern matching functions are generative.
  For instance, refl will not be accepted as an inhabitant of the type

    (λ { true → true ; false → false }) ≡
    (λ { true → true ; false → false }),

  because this is equivalent to extlam1 ≡ extlam2 for some distinct
  fresh names extlam1 and extlam2.

  Currently the 'where' and 'with' constructions are not allowed in
  (the top-level clauses of) anonymous pattern matching functions.

  Examples:

    and : Bool → Bool → Bool
    and = λ { true x → x ; false _ → false }

    xor : Bool → Bool → Bool
    xor = λ { true  true  → false
            ; false false → false
            ; _     _     → true
            }

    fst : {A : Set} {B : A → Set} → Σ A B → A
    fst = λ { (a , b) → a }

    snd : {A : Set} {B : A → Set} (p : Σ A B) → B (fst p)
    snd = λ { (a , b) → b }

* Record update syntax.

  Assume that we have a record type and a corresponding value:

    record MyRecord : Set where
      field
        a b c : ℕ

    old : MyRecord
    old = record { a = 1; b = 2; c = 3 }

  Then we can update (some of) the record value's fields in the
  following way:

    new : MyRecord
    new = record old { a = 0; c = 5 }

  Here new normalises to record { a = 0; b = 2; c = 5 }. Any
  expression yielding a value of type MyRecord can be used instead of
  old.

  Record updating is not allowed to change types: the resulting value
  must have the same type as the original one, including the record
  parameters. Thus, the type of a record update can be inferred if the type
  of the original record can be inferred.

  The record update syntax is expanded before type checking. When the
  expression

    record old { upd-fields }

  is checked against a record type R, it is expanded to

    let r = old in record { new-fields },

  where old is required to have type R and new-fields is defined as
  follows: for each field x in R,

    - if x = e is contained in upd-fields then x = e is included in
      new-fields, and otherwise
    - if x is an explicit field then x = R.x r is included in
      new-fields, and
    - if x is an implicit or instance field, then it is omitted from
      new-fields.

  (Instance arguments are explained below.) The reason for treating
  implicit and instance fields specially is to allow code like the
  following:

    record R : Set where
      field
        {length} : ℕ
        vec      : Vec ℕ length
        -- More fields…

    xs : R
    xs = record { vec = 0 ∷ 1 ∷ 2 ∷ [] }

    ys = record xs { vec = 0 ∷ [] }

  Without the special treatment the last expression would need to
  include a new binding for length (for instance "length = _").

* Record patterns which do not contain data type patterns, but which
  do contain dot patterns, are no longer rejected.

* When the --without-K flag is used literals are now treated as
  constructors.

* Under-applied functions can now reduce.

  Consider the following definition:

    id : {A : Set} → A → A
    id x = x

  Previously the expression id would not reduce. This has been changed
  so that it now reduces to λ x → x. Usually this makes little
  difference, but it can be important in conjunction with 'with'. See
  issue 365 for an example.

* Unused AgdaLight legacy syntax (x y : A; z v : B) for telescopes has
  been removed.

Universe polymorphism
---------------------

* Universe polymorphism is now enabled by default.
  Use --no-universe-polymorphism to disable it.

* Universe levels are no longer defined as a data type.

  The basic level combinators can be introduced in the following way:

  postulate
    Level : Set
    zero  : Level
    suc   : Level → Level
    max   : Level → Level → Level

  {-# BUILTIN LEVEL     Level #-}
  {-# BUILTIN LEVELZERO zero  #-}
  {-# BUILTIN LEVELSUC  suc   #-}
  {-# BUILTIN LEVELMAX  max   #-}

* The BUILTIN equality is now required to be universe-polymorphic.

* trustMe is now universe-polymorphic.

Meta-variables and unification
------------------------------

* Unsolved meta-variables are now frozen after every mutual block.
  This means that they cannot be instantiated by subsequent code. For
  instance,

    one : Nat
    one = _

    bla : one ≡ suc zero
    bla = refl

  leads to an error now, whereas previously it lead to the
  instantiation of _ with "suc zero". If you want to make use of the
  old behaviour, put the two definitions in a mutual block.

  All meta-variables are unfrozen during interactive editing, so that
  the user can fill holes interactively. Note that type-checking of
  interactively given terms is not perfect: Agda sometimes refuses to
  load a file, even though no complaints were raised during the
  interactive construction of the file. This is because certain checks
  (for instance, positivity) are only invoked when a file is loaded.

* Record types can now be inferred.

  If there is a unique known record type with fields matching the
  fields in a record expression, then the type of the expression will
  be inferred to be the record type applied to unknown parameters.

  If there is no known record type with the given fields the type
  checker will give an error instead of producing lots of unsolved
  meta-variables.

  Note that "known record type" refers to any record type in any
  imported module, not just types which are in scope.

* The occurrence checker distinguishes rigid and strongly rigid
  occurrences [Reed, LFMTP 2009; Abel & Pientka, TLCA 2011].

  The completeness checker now accepts the following code:

    h : (n : Nat) → n ≡ suc n → Nat
    h n ()

  Internally this generates a constraint _n = suc _n where the
  meta-variable _n occurs strongly rigidly, i.e. on a constructor path
  from the root, in its own defining term tree. This is never
  solvable.

  Weakly rigid recursive occurrences may have a solution [Jason Reed's
  PhD thesis, page 106]:

    test : (k : Nat) →
           let X : (Nat → Nat) → Nat
               X = _
           in
           (f : Nat → Nat) → X f ≡ suc (f (X (λ x → k)))
    test k f = refl

  The constraint _X k f = suc (f (_X k (λ x → k))) has the solution
  _X k f = suc (f (suc k)), despite the recursive occurrence of _X.
  Here _X is not strongly rigid, because it occurs under the bound
  variable f. Previously Agda rejected this code; now it instead
  complains about an unsolved meta-variable.

* Equation constraints involving the same meta-variable in the head
  now trigger pruning [Pientka, PhD, Sec. 3.1.2; Abel & Pientka, TLCA
  2011]. Example:

    same : let X : A → A → A → A × A
               X = _
           in {x y z : A} → X x y y ≡ (x , y)
                          × X x x y ≡ X x y y
    same = refl , refl

  The second equation implies that X cannot depend on its second
  argument. After pruning the first equation is linear and can be
  solved.

* Instance arguments.

  A new type of hidden function arguments has been added: instance
  arguments. This new feature is based on influences from Scala's
  implicits and Agda's existing implicit arguments.

  Plain implicit arguments are marked by single braces: {…}. Instance
  arguments are instead marked by double braces: {{…}}. Example:

    postulate
      A : Set
      B : A → Set
      a : A
      f : {{a : A}} → B a

  Instead of the double braces you can use the symbols ⦃ and ⦄, but
  these symbols must in many cases be surrounded by whitespace. (If
  you are using Emacs and the Agda input method, then you can conjure
  up the symbols by typing "\{{" and "\}}", respectively.)

  Instance arguments behave as ordinary implicit arguments, except for
  one important aspect: resolution of arguments which are not provided
  explicitly. For instance, consider the following code:

    test = f

  Here Agda will notice that f's instance argument was not provided
  explicitly, and try to infer it. All definitions in scope at f's
  call site, as well as all variables in the context, are considered.
  If exactly one of these names has the required type (A), then the
  instance argument will be instantiated to this name.

  This feature can be used as an alternative to Haskell type classes.
  If we define

    record Eq (A : Set) : Set where
      field equal : A → A → Bool,

  then we can define the following projection:

    equal : {A : Set} {{eq : Eq A}} → A → A → Bool
    equal {{eq}} = Eq.equal eq

  Now consider the following expression:

    equal false false ∨ equal 3 4

  If the following Eq "instances" for Bool and ℕ are in scope, and no
  others, then the expression is accepted:

    eq-Bool : Eq Bool
    eq-Bool = record { equal = … }

    eq-ℕ : Eq ℕ
    eq-ℕ = record { equal = … }

  A shorthand notation is provided to avoid the need to define
  projection functions manually:

    module Eq-with-implicits = Eq {{...}}

  This notation creates a variant of Eq's record module, where the
  main Eq argument is an instance argument instead of an explicit one.
  It is equivalent to the following definition:

    module Eq-with-implicits {A : Set} {{eq : Eq A}} = Eq eq

  Note that the short-hand notation allows you to avoid naming the
  "-with-implicits" module:

    open Eq {{...}}

  Instance argument resolution is not recursive. As an example,
  consider the following "parametrised instance":

    eq-List : {A : Set} → Eq A → Eq (List A)
    eq-List {A} eq = record { equal = eq-List-A }
      where
      eq-List-A : List A → List A → Bool
      eq-List-A []       []       = true
      eq-List-A (a ∷ as) (b ∷ bs) = equal a b ∧ eq-List-A as bs
      eq-List-A _        _        = false

  Assume that the only Eq instances in scope are eq-List and eq-ℕ.
  Then the following code does not type-check:

    test = equal (1 ∷ 2 ∷ []) (3 ∷ 4 ∷ [])

  However, we can make the code work by constructing a suitable
  instance manually:

    test′ = equal (1 ∷ 2 ∷ []) (3 ∷ 4 ∷ [])
      where eq-List-ℕ = eq-List eq-ℕ

  By restricting the "instance search" to be non-recursive we avoid
  introducing a new, compile-time-only evaluation model to Agda.

  For more information about instance arguments, see Devriese &
  Piessens [ICFP 2011]. Some examples are also available in the
  examples/instance-arguments subdirectory of the Agda distribution.

Irrelevance
-----------

* Dependent irrelevant function types.

  Some examples illustrating the syntax of dependent irrelevant
  function types:

    .(x y : A) → B    .{x y z : A} → B
    ∀ x .y → B        ∀ x .{y} {z} .v → B

  The declaration

    f : .(x : A) → B[x]
    f x = t[x]

  requires that x is irrelevant both in t[x] and in B[x]. This is
  possible if, for instance, B[x] = B′ x, with B′ : .A → Set.

  Dependent irrelevance allows us to define the eliminator for the
  Squash type:

    record Squash (A : Set) : Set where
      constructor squash
      field
        .proof : A

    elim-Squash : {A : Set} (P : Squash A → Set)
                  (ih : .(a : A) → P (squash a)) →
                  (a⁻ : Squash A) → P a⁻
    elim-Squash P ih (squash a) = ih a

  Note that this would not type-check with
  (ih : (a : A) -> P (squash a)).

* Records with only irrelevant fields.

  The following now works:

    record IsEquivalence {A : Set} (_≈_ : A → A → Set) : Set where
      field
        .refl  : Reflexive _≈_
        .sym   : Symmetric _≈_
        .trans : Transitive _≈_

    record Setoid : Set₁ where
      infix 4 _≈_
      field
        Carrier        : Set
        _≈_            : Carrier → Carrier → Set
        .isEquivalence : IsEquivalence _≈_

      open IsEquivalence isEquivalence public

  Previously Agda complained about the application
  IsEquivalence isEquivalence, because isEquivalence is irrelevant and
  the IsEquivalence module expected a relevant argument. Now, when
  record modules are generated for records consisting solely of
  irrelevant arguments, the record parameter is made irrelevant:

    module IsEquivalence {A : Set} {_≈_ : A → A → Set}
                         .(r : IsEquivalence {A = A} _≈_) where
      …

* Irrelevant things are no longer erased internally. This means that
  they are printed as ordinary terms, not as "_" as before.

* The new flag --experimental-irrelevance enables irrelevant universe
  levels and matching on irrelevant data when only one constructor is
  available. These features are very experimental and likely to change
  or disappear.

Reflection
----------

* The reflection API has been extended to mirror features like
  irrelevance, instance arguments and universe polymorphism, and to
  give (limited) access to definitions. For completeness all the
  builtins and primitives are listed below:

    -- Names.

    postulate Name : Set

    {-# BUILTIN QNAME Name #-}

    primitive
      -- Equality of names.
      primQNameEquality : Name → Name → Bool

    -- Is the argument visible (explicit), hidden (implicit), or an
    -- instance argument?

    data Visibility : Set where
      visible hidden instance : Visibility

    {-# BUILTIN HIDING   Visibility #-}
    {-# BUILTIN VISIBLE  visible    #-}
    {-# BUILTIN HIDDEN   hidden     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN INSTANCE instance   #-}

    -- Arguments can be relevant or irrelevant.

    data Relevance : Set where
      relevant irrelevant : Relevance

    {-# BUILTIN RELEVANCE  Relevance  #-}
    {-# BUILTIN RELEVANT   relevant   #-}
    {-# BUILTIN IRRELEVANT irrelevant #-}

    -- Arguments.

    data Arg A : Set where
      arg : (v : Visibility) (r : Relevance) (x : A) → Arg A

    {-# BUILTIN ARG    Arg #-}
    {-# BUILTIN ARGARG arg #-}

    -- Terms.

    mutual
      data Term : Set where
        -- Variable applied to arguments.
        var     : (x : ℕ) (args : List (Arg Term)) → Term
        -- Constructor applied to arguments.
        con     : (c : Name) (args : List (Arg Term)) → Term
        -- Identifier applied to arguments.
        def     : (f : Name) (args : List (Arg Term)) → Term
        -- Different kinds of λ-abstraction.
        lam     : (v : Visibility) (t : Term) → Term
        -- Pi-type.
        pi      : (t₁ : Arg Type) (t₂ : Type) → Term
        -- A sort.
        sort    : Sort → Term
        -- Anything else.
        unknown : Term

      data Type : Set where
        el : (s : Sort) (t : Term) → Type

      data Sort : Set where
        -- A Set of a given (possibly neutral) level.
        set     : (t : Term) → Sort
        -- A Set of a given concrete level.
        lit     : (n : ℕ) → Sort
        -- Anything else.
        unknown : Sort

    {-# BUILTIN AGDASORT            Sort    #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATYPE            Type    #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERM            Term    #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMVAR         var     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMCON         con     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMDEF         def     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMLAM         lam     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMPI          pi      #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMSORT        sort    #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMUNSUPPORTED unknown #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATYPEEL          el      #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDASORTSET         set     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDASORTLIT         lit     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDASORTUNSUPPORTED unknown #-}

    postulate
      -- Function definition.
      Function  : Set
      -- Data type definition.
      Data-type : Set
      -- Record type definition.
      Record    : Set

    {-# BUILTIN AGDAFUNDEF    Function  #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDADATADEF   Data-type #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDARECORDDEF Record    #-}

    -- Definitions.

    data Definition : Set where
      function     : Function  → Definition
      data-type    : Data-type → Definition
      record′      : Record    → Definition
      constructor′ : Definition
      axiom        : Definition
      primitive′   : Definition

    {-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITION                Definition   #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONFUNDEF          function     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONDATADEF         data-type    #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONRECORDDEF       record′      #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONDATACONSTRUCTOR constructor′ #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONPOSTULATE       axiom        #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONPRIMITIVE       primitive′   #-}

    primitive
      -- The type of the thing with the given name.
      primQNameType        : Name → Type
      -- The definition of the thing with the given name.
      primQNameDefinition  : Name → Definition
      -- The constructors of the given data type.
      primDataConstructors : Data-type → List Name

  As an example the expression

    primQNameType (quote zero)

  is definitionally equal to

    el (lit 0) (def (quote ℕ) [])

  (if zero is a constructor of the data type ℕ).

* New keyword: unquote.

  The construction "unquote t" converts a representation of an Agda term
  to actual Agda code in the following way:

  1. The argument t must have type Term (see the reflection API above).

  2. The argument is normalised.

  3. The entire construction is replaced by the normal form, which is
     treated as syntax written by the user and type-checked in the
     usual way.

  Examples:

    test : unquote (def (quote ℕ) []) ≡ ℕ
    test = refl

    id : (A : Set) → A → A
    id = unquote (lam visible (lam visible (var 0 [])))

    id-ok : id ≡ (λ A (x : A) → x)
    id-ok = refl

* New keyword: quoteTerm.

  The construction "quoteTerm t" is similar to "quote n", but whereas
  quote is restricted to names n, quoteTerm accepts terms t. The
  construction is handled in the following way:

  1. The type of t is inferred. The term t must be type-correct.

  2. The term t is normalised.

  3. The construction is replaced by the Term representation (see the
     reflection API above) of the normal form. Any unsolved metavariables
     in the term are represented by the "unknown" term constructor.

  Examples:

    test₁ : quoteTerm (λ {A : Set} (x : A) → x) ≡
            lam hidden (lam visible (var 0 []))
    test₁ = refl

    -- Local variables are represented as de Bruijn indices.
    test₂ : (λ {A : Set} (x : A) → quoteTerm x) ≡ (λ x → var 0 [])
    test₂ = refl

    -- Terms are normalised before being quoted.
    test₃ : quoteTerm (0 + 0) ≡ con (quote zero) []
    test₃ = refl

Compiler backends
=================

MAlonzo
-------

* The MAlonzo backend's FFI now handles universe polymorphism in a
  better way.

  The translation of Agda types and kinds into Haskell now supports
  universe-polymorphic postulates. The core changes are that the
  translation of function types has been changed from

    T[[ Pi (x : A) B ]] =
      if A has a Haskell kind then
        forall x. () -> T[[ B ]]
      else if x in fv B then
        undef
      else
        T[[ A ]] -> T[[ B ]]

  into

    T[[ Pi (x : A) B ]] =
      if x in fv B then
        forall x. T[[ A ]] -> T[[ B ]]  -- Note: T[[A]] not Unit.
      else
        T[[ A ]] -> T[[ B ]],

  and that the translation of constants (postulates, constructors and
  literals) has been changed from

    T[[ k As ]] =
      if COMPILED_TYPE k T then
        T T[[ As ]]
      else
        undef

  into

    T[[ k As ]] =
      if COMPILED_TYPE k T then
        T T[[ As ]]
      else if COMPILED k E then
        ()
      else
        undef.

  For instance, assuming a Haskell definition

    type AgdaIO a b = IO b,

  we can set up universe-polymorphic IO in the following way:

    postulate
      IO     : ∀ {ℓ} → Set ℓ → Set ℓ
      return : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → A → IO A
      _>>=_  : ∀ {a b} {A : Set a} {B : Set b} →
               IO A → (A → IO B) → IO B

    {-# COMPILED_TYPE IO AgdaIO              #-}
    {-# COMPILED return  (\_ _ -> return)    #-}
    {-# COMPILED _>>=_   (\_ _ _ _ -> (>>=)) #-}

  This is accepted because (assuming that the universe level type is
  translated to the Haskell unit type "()")

    (\_ _ -> return)
      : forall a. () -> forall b. () -> b -> AgdaIO a b
      = T [[ ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → A → IO A ]]

  and

    (\_ _ _ _ -> (>>=))
      : forall a. () -> forall b. () ->
          forall c. () -> forall d. () ->
            AgdaIO a c -> (c -> AgdaIO b d) -> AgdaIO b d
      = T [[ ∀ {a b} {A : Set a} {B : Set b} →
               IO A → (A → IO B) → IO B ]].

Epic
----

* New Epic backend pragma: STATIC.

  In the Epic backend, functions marked with the STATIC pragma will be
  normalised before compilation. Example usage:

    {-# STATIC power #-}

    power : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
    power 0       x = 1
    power 1       x = x
    power (suc n) x = power n x * x

  Occurrences of "power 4 x" will be replaced by "((x * x) * x) * x".

* Some new optimisations have been implemented in the Epic backend:

  - Removal of unused arguments.

  A worker/wrapper transformation is performed so that unused
  arguments can be removed by Epic's inliner. For instance, the map
  function is transformed in the following way:

    map_wrap : (A B : Set) → (A → B) → List A → List B
    map_wrap A B f xs = map_work f xs

    map_work f []       = []
    map_work f (x ∷ xs) = f x ∷ map_work f xs

  If map_wrap is inlined (which it will be in any saturated call),
  then A and B disappear in the generated code.

  Unused arguments are found using abstract interpretation. The bodies
  of all functions in a module are inspected to decide which variables
  are used. The behaviour of postulates is approximated based on their
  types. Consider return, for instance:

    postulate return : {A : Set} → A → IO A

  The first argument of return can be removed, because it is of type
  Set and thus cannot affect the outcome of a program at runtime.

  - Injection detection.

  At runtime many functions may turn out to be inefficient variants of
  the identity function. This is especially true after forcing.
  Injection detection replaces some of these functions with more
  efficient versions. Example:

    inject : {n : ℕ} → Fin n → Fin (1 + n)
    inject {suc n} zero    = zero
    inject {suc n} (suc i) = suc (inject {n} i)

  Forcing removes the Fin constructors' ℕ arguments, so this function
  is an inefficient identity function that can be replaced by the
  following one:

    inject {_} x = x

  To actually find this function, we make the induction hypothesis
  that inject is an identity function in its second argument and look
  at the branches of the function to decide if this holds.

  Injection detection also works over data type barriers. Example:

    forget : {A : Set} {n : ℕ} → Vec A n → List A
    forget []       = []
    forget (x ∷ xs) = x ∷ forget xs

  Given that the constructor tags (in the compiled Epic code) for
  Vec.[] and List.[] are the same, and that the tags for Vec._∷_ and
  List._∷_ are also the same, this is also an identity function. We
  can hence replace the definition with the following one:

    forget {_} xs = xs

  To get this to apply as often as possible, constructor tags are
  chosen /after/ injection detection has been run, in a way to make as
  many functions as possible injections.

  Constructor tags are chosen once per source file, so it may be
  advantageous to define conversion functions like forget in the same
  module as one of the data types. For instance, if Vec.agda imports
  List.agda, then the forget function should be put in Vec.agda to
  ensure that vectors and lists get the same tags (unless some other
  injection function, which puts different constraints on the tags, is
  prioritised).

  - Smashing.

  This optimisation finds types whose values are inferable at runtime:

    * A data type with only one constructor where all fields are
      inferable is itself inferable.
    * Set ℓ is inferable (as it has no runtime representation).

  A function returning an inferable data type can be smashed, which
  means that it is replaced by a function which simply returns the
  inferred value.

  An important example of an inferable type is the usual propositional
  equality type (_≡_). Any function returning a propositional equality
  can simply return the reflexivity constructor directly without
  computing anything.

  This optimisation makes more arguments unused. It also makes the
  Epic code size smaller, which in turn speeds up compilation.

JavaScript
----------

* ECMAScript compiler backend.

  A new compiler backend is being implemented, targetting ECMAScript
  (also known as JavaScript), with the goal of allowing Agda programs
  to be run in browsers or other ECMAScript environments.

  The backend is still at an experimental stage: the core language is
  implemented, but many features are still missing.

  The ECMAScript compiler can be invoked from the command line using
  the flag --js:

    agda --js --compile-dir=<DIR> <FILE>.agda

  Each source <FILE>.agda is compiled into an ECMAScript target
  <DIR>/jAgda.<TOP-LEVEL MODULE NAME>.js. The compiler can also be
  invoked using the Emacs mode (the variable agda2-backend controls
  which backend is used).

  Note that ECMAScript is a strict rather than lazy language. Since
  Agda programs are total, this should not impact program semantics,
  but it may impact their space or time usage.

  ECMAScript does not support algebraic datatypes or pattern-matching.
  These features are translated to a use of the visitor pattern. For
  instance, the standard library's List data type and null function
  are translated into the following code:

    exports["List"] = {};
    exports["List"]["[]"] = function (x0) {
        return x0["[]"]();
      };
    exports["List"]["_∷_"] = function (x0) {
        return function (x1) {
          return function (x2) {
            return x2["_∷_"](x0, x1);
          };
        };
      };

    exports["null"] = function (x0) {
        return function (x1) {
          return function (x2) {
            return x2({
              "[]": function () {
                return jAgda_Data_Bool["Bool"]["true"];
              },
              "_∷_": function (x3, x4) {
                return jAgda_Data_Bool["Bool"]["false"];
              }
            });
          };
        };
      };

  Agda records are translated to ECMAScript objects, preserving field
  names.

  Top-level Agda modules are translated to ECMAScript modules,
  following the common.js module specification. A top-level Agda
  module "Foo.Bar" is translated to an ECMAScript module
  "jAgda.Foo.Bar".

  The ECMAScript compiler does not compile to Haskell, so the pragmas
  related to the Haskell FFI (IMPORT, COMPILED_DATA and COMPILED) are
  not used by the ECMAScript backend. Instead, there is a COMPILED_JS
  pragma which may be applied to any declaration. For postulates,
  primitives, functions and values, it gives the ECMAScript code to be
  emitted by the compiler. For data types, it gives a function which
  is applied to a value of that type, and a visitor object. For
  instance, a binding of natural numbers to ECMAScript integers
  (ignoring overflow errors) is:

    data ℕ : Set where
      zero : ℕ
      suc  : ℕ → ℕ

    {-# COMPILED_JS ℕ function (x,v) {
        if (x < 1) { return v.zero(); } else { return v.suc(x-1); }
      } #-}
    {-# COMPILED_JS zero 0 #-}
    {-# COMPILED_JS suc function (x) { return x+1; } #-}

    _+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
    zero  + n = n
    suc m + n = suc (m + n)

    {-# COMPILED_JS _+_ function (x) { return function (y) {
                          return x+y; };
      } #-}

  To allow FFI code to be optimised, the ECMAScript in a COMPILED_JS
  declaration is parsed, using a simple parser that recognises a pure
  functional subset of ECMAScript, consisting of functions, function
  applications, return, if-statements, if-expressions,
  side-effect-free binary operators (no precedence, left associative),
  side-effect-free prefix operators, objects (where all member names
  are quoted), field accesses, and string and integer literals.
  Modules may be imported using the require("<module-id>") syntax: any
  impure code, or code outside the supported fragment, can be placed
  in a module and imported.

Tools
=====

* New flag --safe, which can be used to type-check untrusted code.

  This flag disables postulates, primTrustMe, and "unsafe" OPTION
  pragmas, some of which are known to make Agda inconsistent.

  Rejected pragmas:

    --allow-unsolved-metas
    --experimental-irrelevance
    --guardedness-preserving-type-construtors
    --injective-type-constructors
    --no-coverage-check
    --no-positivity-check
    --no-termination-check
    --sized-types
    --type-in-type

  Note that, at the moment, it is not possible to define the universe
  level or coinduction primitives when --safe is used (because they
  must be introduced as postulates). This can be worked around by
  type-checking trusted files in a first pass, without using --safe,
  and then using --safe in a second pass. Modules which have already
  been type-checked are not re-type-checked just because --safe is
  used.

* Dependency graphs.

  The new flag --dependency-graph=FILE can be used to generate a DOT
  file containing a module dependency graph. The generated file (FILE)
  can be rendered using a tool like dot.

* The --no-unreachable-check flag has been removed.

* Projection functions are highlighted as functions instead of as
  fields. Field names (in record definitions and record values) are
  still highlighted as fields.

* Support for jumping to positions mentioned in the information
  buffer has been added.

* The "make install" command no longer installs Agda globally (by
  default).

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.10
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.2.8:

Language
--------

* New flag: --without-K.

  This flag makes pattern matching more restricted. If the flag is
  activated, then Agda only accepts certain case-splits. If the type
  of the variable to be split is D pars ixs, where D is a data (or
  record) type, pars stands for the parameters, and ixs the indices,
  then the following requirements must be satisfied:

  * The indices ixs must be applications of constructors to distinct
    variables.

  * These variables must not be free in pars.

  The intended purpose of --without-K is to enable experiments with a
  propositional equality without the K rule. Let us define
  propositional equality as follows:

    data _≡_ {A : Set} : A → A → Set where
      refl : ∀ x → x ≡ x

  Then the obvious implementation of the J rule is accepted:

    J : {A : Set} (P : {x y : A} → x ≡ y → Set) →
        (∀ x → P (refl x)) →
        ∀ {x y} (x≡y : x ≡ y) → P x≡y
    J P p (refl x) = p x

  The same applies to Christine Paulin-Mohring's version of the J rule:

    J′ : {A : Set} {x : A} (P : {y : A} → x ≡ y → Set) →
         P (refl x) →
         ∀ {y} (x≡y : x ≡ y) → P x≡y
    J′ P p (refl x) = p

  On the other hand, the obvious implementation of the K rule is not
  accepted:

    K : {A : Set} (P : {x : A} → x ≡ x → Set) →
        (∀ x → P (refl x)) →
        ∀ {x} (x≡x : x ≡ x) → P x≡x
    K P p (refl x) = p x

  However, we have /not/ proved that activation of --without-K ensures
  that the K rule cannot be proved in some other way.

* Irrelevant declarations.

  Postulates and functions can be marked as irrelevant by prefixing
  the name with a dot when the name is declared. Example:

    postulate
      .irrelevant : {A : Set} → .A → A

  Irrelevant names may only be used in irrelevant positions or in
  definitions of things which have been declared irrelevant.

  The axiom irrelevant above can be used to define a projection from
  an irrelevant record field:

    data Subset (A : Set) (P : A → Set) : Set where
      _#_ : (a : A) → .(P a) → Subset A P

    elem : ∀ {A P} → Subset A P → A
    elem (a # p) = a

    .certificate : ∀ {A P} (x : Subset A P) → P (elem x)
    certificate (a # p) = irrelevant p

  The right-hand side of certificate is relevant, so we cannot define

    certificate (a # p) = p

  (because p is irrelevant). However, certificate is declared to be
  irrelevant, so it can use the axiom irrelevant. Furthermore the
  first argument of the axiom is irrelevant, which means that
  irrelevant p is well-formed.

  As shown above the axiom irrelevant justifies irrelevant
  projections. Previously no projections were generated for irrelevant
  record fields, such as the field certificate in the following
  record type:

    record Subset (A : Set) (P : A → Set) : Set where
      constructor _#_
      field
        elem         : A
        .certificate : P elem

  Now projections are generated automatically for irrelevant fields
  (unless the flag --no-irrelevant-projections is used). Note that
  irrelevant projections are highly experimental.

* Termination checker recognises projections.

  Projections now preserve sizes, both in patterns and expressions.
  Example:

    record Wrap (A : Set) : Set where
      constructor wrap
      field
        unwrap : A

    open Wrap public

    data WNat : Set where
      zero : WNat
      suc  : Wrap WNat → WNat

    id : WNat → WNat
    id zero    = zero
    id (suc w) = suc (wrap (id (unwrap w)))

  In the structural ordering unwrap w ≤ w. This means that

    unwrap w ≤ w < suc w,

  and hence the recursive call to id is accepted.

  Projections also preserve guardedness.

Tools
-----

* Hyperlinks for top-level module names now point to the start of the
  module rather than to the declaration of the module name. This
  applies both to the Emacs mode and to the output of agda --html.

* Most occurrences of record field names are now highlighted as
  "fields". Previously many occurrences were highlighted as
  "functions".

* Emacs mode: It is no longer possible to change the behaviour of the
  TAB key by customising agda2-indentation.

* Epic compiler backend.

  A new compiler backend is being implemented. This backend makes use
  of Edwin Brady's language Epic
  (http://www.cs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~eb/epic.php) and its compiler. The
  backend should handle most Agda code, but is still at an
  experimental stage: more testing is needed, and some things written
  below may not be entirely true.

  The Epic compiler can be invoked from the command line using the
  flag --epic:

    agda --epic --epic-flag=<EPIC-FLAG> --compile-dir=<DIR> <FILE>.agda

  The --epic-flag flag can be given multiple times; each flag is given
  verbatim to the Epic compiler (in the given order). The resulting
  executable is named after the main module and placed in the
  directory specified by the --compile-dir flag (default: the project
  root). Intermediate files are placed in a subdirectory called Epic.

  The backend requires that there is a definition named main. This
  definition should be a value of type IO Unit, but at the moment this
  is not checked (so it is easy to produce a program which segfaults).
  Currently the backend represents actions of type IO A as functions
  from Unit to A, and main is applied to the unit value.

  The Epic compiler compiles via C, not Haskell, so the pragmas
  related to the Haskell FFI (IMPORT, COMPILED_DATA and COMPILED) are
  not used by the Epic backend. Instead there is a new pragma
  COMPILED_EPIC. This pragma is used to give Epic code for postulated
  definitions (Epic code can in turn call C code). The form of the
  pragma is {-# COMPILED_EPIC def code #-}, where def is the name of
  an Agda postulate and code is some Epic code which should include
  the function arguments, return type and function body. As an example
  the IO monad can be defined as follows:

    postulate
      IO     : Set → Set
      return : ∀ {A} → A → IO A
      _>>=_  : ∀ {A B} → IO A → (A → IO B) → IO B

    {-# COMPILED_EPIC return (u : Unit, a : Any) -> Any =
                        ioreturn(a) #-}
    {-# COMPILED_EPIC
          _>>=_ (u1 : Unit, u2 : Unit, x : Any, f : Any) -> Any =
            iobind(x,f) #-}

  Here ioreturn and iobind are Epic functions which are defined in the
  file AgdaPrelude.e which is always included.

  By default the backend will remove so-called forced constructor
  arguments (and case-splitting on forced variables will be
  rewritten). This optimisation can be disabled by using the flag
  --no-forcing.

  All data types which look like unary natural numbers after forced
  constructor arguments have been removed (i.e. types with two
  constructors, one nullary and one with a single recursive argument)
  will be represented as "BigInts". This applies to the standard Fin
  type, for instance.

  The backend supports Agda's primitive functions and the BUILTIN
  pragmas. If the BUILTIN pragmas for unary natural numbers are used,
  then some operations, like addition and multiplication, will use
  more efficient "BigInt" operations.

  If you want to make use of the Epic backend you need to install some
  dependencies, see the README.

* The Emacs mode can compile using either the MAlonzo or the Epic
  backend. The variable agda2-backend controls which backend is used.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.8
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.2.6:

Language
--------

* Record pattern matching.

  It is now possible to pattern match on named record constructors.
  Example:

    record Σ (A : Set) (B : A → Set) : Set where
      constructor _,_
      field
        proj₁ : A
        proj₂ : B proj₁

    map : {A B : Set} {P : A → Set} {Q : B → Set}
          (f : A → B) → (∀ {x} → P x → Q (f x)) →
          Σ A P → Σ B Q
    map f g (x , y) = (f x , g y)

  The clause above is internally translated into the following one:

    map f g p = (f (Σ.proj₁ p) , g (Σ.proj₂ p))

  Record patterns containing data type patterns are not translated.
  Example:

    add : ℕ × ℕ → ℕ
    add (zero  , n) = n
    add (suc m , n) = suc (add (m , n))

  Record patterns which do not contain data type patterns, but which
  do contain dot patterns, are currently rejected. Example:

    Foo : {A : Set} (p₁ p₂ : A × A) → proj₁ p₁ ≡ proj₁ p₂ → Set₁
    Foo (x , y) (.x , y′) refl = Set

* Proof irrelevant function types.

  Agda now supports irrelevant non-dependent function types:

    f : .A → B

  This type implies that f does not depend computationally on its
  argument. One intended use case is data structures with embedded
  proofs, like sorted lists:

    postulate
      _≤_ : ℕ → ℕ → Set
      p₁  : 0 ≤ 1
      p₂  : 0 ≤ 1

    data SList (bound : ℕ) : Set where
      []    : SList bound
      scons : (head : ℕ) →
              .(head ≤ bound) →
              (tail : SList head) →
              SList bound

  The effect of the irrelevant type in the signature of scons is that
  scons's second argument is never inspected after Agda has ensured
  that it has the right type. It is even thrown away, leading to
  smaller term sizes and hopefully some gain in efficiency. The
  type-checker ignores irrelevant arguments when checking equality, so
  two lists can be equal even if they contain different proofs:

    l₁ : SList 1
    l₁ = scons 0 p₁ []

    l₂ : SList 1
    l₂ = scons 0 p₂ []

    l₁≡l₂ : l₁ ≡ l₂
    l₁≡l₂ = refl

  Irrelevant arguments can only be used in irrelevant contexts.
  Consider the following subset type:

    data Subset (A : Set) (P : A → Set) : Set where
      _#_ : (elem : A) → .(P elem) → Subset A P

  The following two uses are fine:

    elimSubset : ∀ {A C : Set} {P} →
                 Subset A P → ((a : A) → .(P a) → C) → C
    elimSubset (a # p) k = k a p

    elem : {A : Set} {P : A → Set} → Subset A P → A
    elem (x # p) = x

  However, if we try to project out the proof component, then Agda
  complains that "variable p is declared irrelevant, so it cannot be
  used here":

    prjProof : ∀ {A P} (x : Subset A P) → P (elem x)
    prjProof (a # p) = p

  Matching against irrelevant arguments is also forbidden, except in
  the case of irrefutable matches (record constructor patterns which
  have been translated away). For instance, the match against the
  pattern (p , q) here is accepted:

    elim₂ : ∀ {A C : Set} {P Q : A → Set} →
            Subset A (λ x → Σ (P x) (λ _ → Q x)) →
            ((a : A) → .(P a) → .(Q a) → C) → C
    elim₂ (a # (p , q)) k = k a p q

  Absurd matches () are also allowed.

  Note that record fields can also be irrelevant. Example:

    record Subset (A : Set) (P : A → Set) : Set where
      constructor _#_
      field
        elem   : A
        .proof : P elem

  Irrelevant fields are never in scope, neither inside nor outside the
  record. This means that no record field can depend on an irrelevant
  field, and furthermore projections are not defined for such fields.
  Irrelevant fields can only be accessed using pattern matching, as in
  elimSubset above.

  Irrelevant function types were added very recently, and have not
  been subjected to much experimentation yet, so do not be surprised
  if something is changed before the next release. For instance,
  dependent irrelevant function spaces (.(x : A) → B) might be added
  in the future.

* Mixfix binders.

  It is now possible to declare user-defined syntax that binds
  identifiers. Example:

    postulate
      State  : Set → Set → Set
      put    : ∀ {S} → S → State S ⊤
      get    : ∀ {S} → State S S
      return : ∀ {A S} → A → State S A
      bind   : ∀ {A B S} → State S B → (B → State S A) → State S A

    syntax bind e₁ (λ x → e₂) = x ← e₁ , e₂

    increment : State ℕ ⊤
    increment = x ← get ,
                put (1 + x)

  The syntax declaration for bind implies that x is in scope in e₂,
  but not in e₁.

  You can give fixity declarations along with syntax declarations:

    infixr 40 bind
    syntax bind e₁ (λ x → e₂) = x ← e₁ , e₂

  The fixity applies to the syntax, not the name; syntax declarations
  are also restricted to ordinary, non-operator names. The following
  declaration is disallowed:

    syntax _==_ x y = x === y

  Syntax declarations must also be linear; the following declaration
  is disallowed:

    syntax wrong x = x + x

  Syntax declarations were added very recently, and have not been
  subjected to much experimentation yet, so do not be surprised if
  something is changed before the next release.

* Prop has been removed from the language.

  The experimental sort Prop has been disabled. Any program using Prop
  should typecheck if Prop is replaced by Set₀. Note that Prop is still
  a keyword.

* Injective type constructors off by default.

  Automatic injectivity of type constructors has been disabled (by
  default). To enable it, use the flag --injective-type-constructors,
  either on the command line or in an OPTIONS pragma. Note that this
  flag makes Agda anti-classical and possibly inconsistent:

    Agda with excluded middle is inconsistent
    http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.agda/1367

  See test/succeed/InjectiveTypeConstructors.agda for an example.

* Termination checker can count.

  There is a new flag --termination-depth=N accepting values N >= 1
  (with N = 1 being the default) which influences the behavior of the
  termination checker. So far, the termination checker has only
  distinguished three cases when comparing the argument of a recursive
  call with the formal parameter of the callee.

    < : the argument is structurally smaller than the parameter
    = : they are equal
    ? : the argument is bigger or unrelated to the parameter

  This behavior, which is still the default (N = 1), will not
  recognise the following functions as terminating.

    mutual

      f : ℕ → ℕ
      f zero          = zero
      f (suc zero)    = zero
      f (suc (suc n)) = aux n

      aux : ℕ → ℕ
      aux m = f (suc m)

  The call graph

    f --(<)--> aux --(?)--> f

  yields a recursive call from f to f via aux where the relation of
  call argument to callee parameter is computed as "unrelated"
  (composition of < and ?).

  Setting N >= 2 allows a finer analysis: n has two constructors less
  than suc (suc n), and suc m has one more than m, so we get the call
  graph:

    f --(-2)--> aux --(+1)--> f

  The indirect call f --> f is now labeled with (-1), and the
  termination checker can recognise that the call argument is
  decreasing on this path.

  Setting the termination depth to N means that the termination
  checker counts decrease up to N and increase up to N-1. The default,
  N=1, means that no increase is counted, every increase turns to
  "unrelated".

  In practice, examples like the one above sometimes arise when "with"
  is used. As an example, the program

    f : ℕ → ℕ
    f zero          = zero
    f (suc zero)    = zero
    f (suc (suc n)) with zero
    ... | _ = f (suc n)

  is internally represented as

    mutual

      f : ℕ → ℕ
      f zero          = zero
      f (suc zero)    = zero
      f (suc (suc n)) = aux n zero

      aux : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
      aux m k = f (suc m)

  Thus, by default, the definition of f using "with" is not accepted
  by the termination checker, even though it looks structural (suc n
  is a subterm of suc suc n). Now, the termination checker is
  satisfied if the option "--termination-depth=2" is used.

  Caveats:

  - This is an experimental feature, hopefully being replaced by
    something smarter in the near future.

  - Increasing the termination depth will quickly lead to very long
    termination checking times. So, use with care. Setting termination
    depth to 100 by habit, just to be on the safe side, is not a good
    idea!

  - Increasing termination depth only makes sense for linear data
    types such as ℕ and Size. For other types, increase cannot be
    recognised. For instance, consider a similar example with lists.

      data List : Set where
	nil  : List
	cons : ℕ → List → List

      mutual
	f : List → List
	f nil                  = nil
	f (cons x nil)         = nil
	f (cons x (cons y ys)) = aux y ys

	aux : ℕ → List → List
	aux z zs = f (cons z zs)

    Here the termination checker compares cons z zs to z and also to
    zs. In both cases, the result will be "unrelated", no matter how
    high we set the termination depth. This is because when comparing
    cons z zs to zs, for instance, z is unrelated to zs, thus,
    cons z zs is also unrelated to zs. We cannot say it is just "one
    larger" since z could be a very large term. Note that this points
    to a weakness of untyped termination checking.

    To regain the benefit of increased termination depth, we need to
    index our lists by a linear type such as ℕ or Size. With
    termination depth 2, the above example is accepted for vectors
    instead of lists.

* The codata keyword has been removed. To use coinduction, use the
  following new builtins: INFINITY, SHARP and FLAT. Example:

    {-# OPTIONS --universe-polymorphism #-}

    module Coinduction where

    open import Level

    infix 1000 ♯_

    postulate
      ∞  : ∀ {a} (A : Set a) → Set a
      ♯_ : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → A → ∞ A
      ♭  : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → ∞ A → A

    {-# BUILTIN INFINITY ∞  #-}
    {-# BUILTIN SHARP    ♯_ #-}
    {-# BUILTIN FLAT     ♭  #-}

  Note that (non-dependent) pattern matching on SHARP is no longer
  allowed.

  Note also that strange things might happen if you try to combine the
  pragmas above with COMPILED_TYPE, COMPILED_DATA or COMPILED pragmas,
  or if the pragmas do not occur right after the postulates.

  The compiler compiles the INFINITY builtin to nothing (more or
  less), so that the use of coinduction does not get in the way of FFI
  declarations:

    data Colist (A : Set) : Set where
      []  : Colist A
      _∷_ : (x : A) (xs : ∞ (Colist A)) → Colist A

    {-# COMPILED_DATA Colist [] [] (:) #-}

* Infinite types.

  If the new flag --guardedness-preserving-type-constructors is used,
  then type constructors are treated as inductive constructors when we
  check productivity (but only in parameters, and only if they are
  used strictly positively or not at all). This makes examples such as
  the following possible:

    data Rec (A : ∞ Set) : Set where
      fold : ♭ A → Rec A

    -- Σ cannot be a record type below.

    data Σ (A : Set) (B : A → Set) : Set where
      _,_ : (x : A) → B x → Σ A B

    syntax Σ A (λ x → B) = Σ[ x ∶ A ] B

    -- Corecursive definition of the W-type.

    W : (A : Set) → (A → Set) → Set
    W A B = Rec (♯ (Σ[ x ∶ A ] (B x → W A B)))

    syntax W A (λ x → B) = W[ x ∶ A ] B

    sup : {A : Set} {B : A → Set} (x : A) (f : B x → W A B) → W A B
    sup x f = fold (x , f)

    W-rec : {A : Set} {B : A → Set}
            (P : W A B → Set) →
            (∀ {x} {f : B x → W A B} → (∀ y → P (f y)) → P (sup x f)) →
            ∀ x → P x
    W-rec P h (fold (x , f)) = h (λ y → W-rec P h (f y))

    -- Induction-recursion encoded as corecursion-recursion.

    data Label : Set where
      ′0 ′1 ′2 ′σ ′π ′w : Label

    mutual

      U : Set
      U = Σ Label U′

      U′ : Label → Set
      U′ ′0 = ⊤
      U′ ′1 = ⊤
      U′ ′2 = ⊤
      U′ ′σ = Rec (♯ (Σ[ a ∶ U ] (El a → U)))
      U′ ′π = Rec (♯ (Σ[ a ∶ U ] (El a → U)))
      U′ ′w = Rec (♯ (Σ[ a ∶ U ] (El a → U)))

      El : U → Set
      El (′0 , _)            = ⊥
      El (′1 , _)            = ⊤
      El (′2 , _)            = Bool
      El (′σ , fold (a , b)) = Σ[ x ∶ El a ]  El (b x)
      El (′π , fold (a , b)) =   (x : El a) → El (b x)
      El (′w , fold (a , b)) = W[ x ∶ El a ]  El (b x)

    U-rec : (P : ∀ u → El u → Set) →
            P (′1 , _) tt →
            P (′2 , _) true →
            P (′2 , _) false →
            (∀ {a b x y} →
             P a x → P (b x) y → P (′σ , fold (a , b)) (x , y)) →
            (∀ {a b f} →
             (∀ x → P (b x) (f x)) → P (′π , fold (a , b)) f) →
            (∀ {a b x f} →
             (∀ y → P (′w , fold (a , b)) (f y)) →
             P (′w , fold (a , b)) (sup x f)) →
            ∀ u (x : El u) → P u x
    U-rec P P1 P2t P2f Pσ Pπ Pw = rec
      where
      rec : ∀ u (x : El u) → P u x
      rec (′0 , _)            ()
      rec (′1 , _)            _              = P1
      rec (′2 , _)            true           = P2t
      rec (′2 , _)            false          = P2f
      rec (′σ , fold (a , b)) (x , y)        = Pσ (rec _ x) (rec _ y)
      rec (′π , fold (a , b)) f              = Pπ (λ x → rec _ (f x))
      rec (′w , fold (a , b)) (fold (x , f)) = Pw (λ y → rec _ (f y))

  The --guardedness-preserving-type-constructors extension is based on
  a rather operational understanding of ∞/♯_; it's not yet clear if
  this extension is consistent.

* Qualified constructors.

  Constructors can now be referred to qualified by their data type.
  For instance, given

    data Nat : Set where
      zero : Nat
      suc  : Nat → Nat

    data Fin : Nat → Set where
      zero : ∀ {n} → Fin (suc n)
      suc  : ∀ {n} → Fin n → Fin (suc n)

  you can refer to the constructors unambiguously as Nat.zero,
  Nat.suc, Fin.zero, and Fin.suc (Nat and Fin are modules containing
  the respective constructors). Example:

    inj : (n m : Nat) → Nat.suc n ≡ suc m → n ≡ m
    inj .m m refl = refl

  Previously you had to write something like

    inj : (n m : Nat) → _≡_ {Nat} (suc n) (suc m) → n ≡ m

  to make the type checker able to figure out that you wanted the
  natural number suc in this case.

* Reflection.

  There are two new constructs for reflection:

    - quoteGoal x in e

      In e the value of x will be a representation of the goal type
      (the type expected of the whole expression) as an element in a
      datatype of Agda terms (see below). For instance,

      example : ℕ
      example = quoteGoal x in {! at this point x = def (quote ℕ) [] !}

    - quote x : Name

      If x is the name of a definition (function, datatype, record, or
      a constructor), quote x gives you the representation of x as a
      value in the primitive type Name (see below).

  Quoted terms use the following BUILTINs and primitives (available
  from the standard library module Reflection):

    -- The type of Agda names.

    postulate Name : Set

    {-# BUILTIN QNAME Name #-}

    primitive primQNameEquality : Name → Name → Bool

    -- Arguments.

    Explicit? = Bool

    data Arg A : Set where
      arg : Explicit? → A → Arg A

    {-# BUILTIN ARG    Arg #-}
    {-# BUILTIN ARGARG arg #-}

    -- The type of Agda terms.

    data Term : Set where
      var     : ℕ → List (Arg Term) → Term
      con     : Name → List (Arg Term) → Term
      def     : Name → List (Arg Term) → Term
      lam     : Explicit? → Term → Term
      pi      : Arg Term → Term → Term
      sort    : Term
      unknown : Term

    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERM            Term    #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMVAR         var     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMCON         con     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMDEF         def     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMLAM         lam     #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMPI          pi      #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMSORT        sort    #-}
    {-# BUILTIN AGDATERMUNSUPPORTED unknown #-}

  Reflection may be useful when working with internal decision
  procedures, such as the standard library's ring solver.

* Minor record definition improvement.

  The definition of a record type is now available when type checking
  record module definitions. This means that you can define things
  like the following:

    record Cat : Set₁ where
      field
        Obj  : Set
        _=>_ : Obj → Obj → Set
        -- ...

      -- not possible before:
      op : Cat
      op = record { Obj = Obj; _=>_ = λ A B → B => A }

Tools
-----

* The "Goal type and context" command now shows the goal type before
  the context, and the context is shown in reverse order. The "Goal
  type, context and inferred type" command has been modified in a
  similar way.

* Show module contents command.

  Given a module name M the Emacs mode can now display all the
  top-level modules and names inside M, along with types for the
  names. The command is activated using C-c C-o or the menus.

* Auto command.

  A command which searches for type inhabitants has been added. The
  command is invoked by pressing C-C C-a (or using the goal menu).
  There are several flags and parameters, e.g. '-c' which enables
  case-splitting in the search. For further information, see the Agda
  wiki:

    http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Main.Auto

* HTML generation is now possible for a module with unsolved
  meta-variables, provided that the --allow-unsolved-metas flag is
  used.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.6
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.2.4:

Language
--------

* Universe polymorphism (experimental extension).

  To enable universe polymorphism give the flag
  --universe-polymorphism on the command line or (recommended) as an
  OPTIONS pragma.

  When universe polymorphism is enabled Set takes an argument which is
  the universe level. For instance, the type of universe polymorphic
  identity is

    id : {a : Level} {A : Set a} → A → A.

  The type Level is isomorphic to the unary natural numbers and should be
  specified using the BUILTINs LEVEL, LEVELZERO, and LEVELSUC:

    data Level : Set where
      zero : Level
      suc  : Level → Level

    {-# BUILTIN LEVEL     Level #-}
    {-# BUILTIN LEVELZERO zero  #-}
    {-# BUILTIN LEVELSUC  suc   #-}

  There is an additional BUILTIN LEVELMAX for taking the maximum of two
  levels:

    max : Level → Level → Level
    max  zero    m      = m
    max (suc n)  zero   = suc n
    max (suc n) (suc m) = suc (max n m)

    {-# BUILTIN LEVELMAX max #-}

  The non-polymorphic universe levels Set, Set₁ and so on are sugar
  for Set zero, Set (suc zero), etc.

  At present there is no automatic lifting of types from one level to
  another. It can still be done (rather clumsily) by defining types
  like the following one:

    data Lifted {a} (A : Set a) : Set (suc a) where
      lift : A → Lifted A

  However, it is likely that automatic lifting is introduced at some
  point in the future.

* Multiple constructors, record fields, postulates or primitives can
  be declared using a single type signature:

    data Bool : Set where
      false true : Bool

    postulate
      A B : Set

* Record fields can be implicit:

    record R : Set₁ where
      field
        {A}         : Set
        f           : A → A
        {B C} D {E} : Set
        g           : B → C → E

  By default implicit fields are not printed.

* Record constructors can be defined:

    record Σ (A : Set) (B : A → Set) : Set where
      constructor _,_
      field
        proj₁ : A
        proj₂ : B proj₁

  In this example _,_ gets the type

     (proj₁ : A) → B proj₁ → Σ A B.

  For implicit fields the corresponding constructor arguments become
  implicit.

  Note that the constructor is defined in the /outer/ scope, so any
  fixity declaration has to be given outside the record definition.
  The constructor is not in scope inside the record module.

  Note also that pattern matching for records has not been implemented
  yet.

* BUILTIN hooks for equality.

  The data type

    data _≡_ {A : Set} (x : A) : A → Set where
      refl : x ≡ x

  can be specified as the builtin equality type using the following
  pragmas:

    {-# BUILTIN EQUALITY _≡_  #-}
    {-# BUILTIN REFL     refl #-}

  The builtin equality is used for the new rewrite construct and
  the primTrustMe primitive described below.

* New rewrite construct.

  If eqn : a ≡ b, where _≡_ is the builtin equality (see above) you
  can now write

    f ps rewrite eqn = rhs

  instead of

    f ps with a | eqn
    ... | ._ | refl = rhs

  The rewrite construct has the effect of rewriting the goal and the
  context by the given equation (left to right).

  You can rewrite using several equations (in sequence) by separating
  them with vertical bars (|):

    f ps rewrite eqn₁ | eqn₂ | … = rhs

  It is also possible to add with clauses after rewriting:

    f ps rewrite eqns with e
    ... | p = rhs

  Note that pattern matching happens before rewriting—if you want to
  rewrite and then do pattern matching you can use a with after the
  rewrite.

  See test/succeed/Rewrite.agda for some examples.

* A new primitive, primTrustMe, has been added:

    primTrustMe : {A : Set} {x y : A} → x ≡ y

  Here _≡_ is the builtin equality (see BUILTIN hooks for equality,
  above).

  If x and y are definitionally equal, then
  primTrustMe {x = x} {y = y} reduces to refl.

  Note that the compiler replaces all uses of primTrustMe with the
  REFL builtin, without any check for definitional equality. Incorrect
  uses of primTrustMe can potentially lead to segfaults or similar
  problems.

  For an example of the use of primTrustMe, see Data.String in version
  0.3 of the standard library, where it is used to implement decidable
  equality on strings using the primitive boolean equality.

* Changes to the syntax and semantics of IMPORT pragmas, which are
  used by the Haskell FFI. Such pragmas must now have the following
  form:

    {-# IMPORT <module name> #-}

  These pragmas are interpreted as /qualified/ imports, so Haskell
  names need to be given qualified (unless they come from the Haskell
  prelude).

* The horizontal tab character (U+0009) is no longer treated as white
  space.

* Line pragmas are no longer supported.

* The --include-path flag can no longer be used as a pragma.

* The experimental and incomplete support for proof irrelevance has
  been disabled.

Tools
-----

* New "intro" command in the Emacs mode. When there is a canonical way
  of building something of the goal type (for instance, if the goal
  type is a pair), the goal can be refined in this way. The command
  works for the following goal types:

    - A data type where only one of its constructors can be used to
      construct an element of the goal type. (For instance, if the
      goal is a non-empty vector, a "cons" will be introduced.)

    - A record type. A record value will be introduced. Implicit
      fields will not be included unless showing of implicit arguments
      is switched on.

    - A function type. A lambda binding as many variables as possible
      will be introduced. The variable names will be chosen from the
      goal type if its normal form is a dependent function type,
      otherwise they will be variations on "x". Implicit lambdas will
      only be inserted if showing of implicit arguments is switched
      on.

  This command can be invoked by using the refine command (C-c C-r)
  when the goal is empty. (The old behaviour of the refine command in
  this situation was to ask for an expression using the minibuffer.)

* The Emacs mode displays "Checked" in the mode line if the current
  file type checked successfully without any warnings.

* If a file F is loaded, and this file defines the module M, it is an
  error if F is not the file which defines M according to the include
  path.

  Note that the command-line tool and the Emacs mode define the
  meaning of relative include paths differently: the command-line tool
  interprets them relative to the current working directory, whereas
  the Emacs mode interprets them relative to the root directory of the
  current project. (As an example, if the module A.B.C is loaded from
  the file <some-path>/A/B/C.agda, then the root directory is
  <some-path>.)

* It is an error if there are several files on the include path which
  match a given module name.

* Interface files are relocatable. You can move around source trees as
  long as the include path is updated in a corresponding way. Note
  that a module M may be re-typechecked if its time stamp is strictly
  newer than that of the corresponding interface file (M.agdai).

* Type-checking is no longer done when an up-to-date interface exists.
  (Previously the initial module was always type-checked.)

* Syntax highlighting files for Emacs (.agda.el) are no longer used.
  The --emacs flag has been removed. (Syntax highlighting information
  is cached in the interface files.)

* The Agate and Alonzo compilers have been retired. The options
  --agate, --alonzo and --malonzo have been removed.

* The default directory for MAlonzo output is the project's root
  directory. The --malonzo-dir flag has been renamed to --compile-dir.

* Emacs mode: C-c C-x C-d no longer resets the type checking state.
  C-c C-x C-r can be used for a more complete reset. C-c C-x C-s
  (which used to reload the syntax highlighting information) has been
  removed. C-c C-l can be used instead.

* The Emacs mode used to define some "abbrevs", unless the user
  explicitly turned this feature off. The new default is /not/ to add
  any abbrevs. The old default can be obtained by customising
  agda2-mode-abbrevs-use-defaults (a customisation buffer can be
  obtained by typing M-x customize-group agda2 RET after an Agda file
  has been loaded).

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.4
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.2.2:

* Change to the semantics of "open import" and "open module". The
  declaration

    open import M <using/hiding/renaming>

  now translates to

    import A
    open A <using/hiding/renaming>

  instead of

    import A <using/hiding/renaming>
    open A.

  The same translation is used for "open module M = E …". Declarations
  involving the keywords as or public are changed in a corresponding
  way ("as" always goes with import, and "public" always with open).

  This change means that import directives do not affect the qualified
  names when open import/module is used. To get the old behaviour you
  can use the expanded version above.

* Names opened publicly in parameterised modules no longer inherit the
  module parameters. Example:

    module A where
      postulate X : Set

    module B (Y : Set) where
      open A public

  In Agda 2.2.2 B.X has type (Y : Set) → Set, whereas in Agda 2.2.4
  B.X has type Set.

* Previously it was not possible to export a given constructor name
  through two different "open public" statements in the same module.
  This is now possible.

* Unicode subscript digits are now allowed for the hierarchy of
  universes (Set₀, Set₁, …): Set₁ is equivalent to Set1.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.2
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.2.0:

Tools
-----

* The --malonzodir option has been renamed to --malonzo-dir.

* The output of agda --html is by default placed in a directory called
  "html".

Infrastructure
--------------

* The Emacs mode is included in the Agda Cabal package, and installed
  by cabal install. The recommended way to enable the Emacs mode is to
  include the following code in .emacs:

    (load-file (let ((coding-system-for-read 'utf-8))
                    (shell-command-to-string "agda-mode locate")))

------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Important changes since 2.1.2 (which was released 2007-08-16):

Language
--------

* Exhaustive pattern checking. Agda complains if there are missing
  clauses in a function definition.

* Coinductive types are supported. This feature is under
  development/evaluation, and may change.

  http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/agda.php?n=ReferenceManual.Codatatypes

* Another experimental feature: Sized types, which can make it easier
  to explain why your code is terminating.

* Improved constraint solving for functions with constructor headed
  right hand sides.

  http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/agda.php?n=ReferenceManual.FindingTheValuesOfImplicitArguments

* A simple, well-typed foreign function interface, which allows use of
  Haskell functions in Agda code.

  http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Docs.FFI

* The tokens forall, -> and \ can be written as ∀, → and λ.

* Absurd lambdas: λ () and λ {}.

  http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.agda/440

* Record fields whose values can be inferred can be omitted.

* Agda complains if it spots an unreachable clause, or if a pattern
  variable "shadows" a hidden constructor of matching type.

  http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.agda/720

Tools
-----

* Case-split: The user interface can replace a pattern variable with
  the corresponding constructor patterns. You get one new left-hand
  side for every possible constructor.

  http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Main.QuickGuideToEditingTypeCheckingAndCompilingAgdaCode

* The MAlonzo compiler.

  http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Docs.MAlonzo

* A new Emacs input method, which contains bindings for many Unicode
  symbols, is by default activated in the Emacs mode.

  http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Docs.UnicodeInput

* Highlighted, hyperlinked HTML can be generated from Agda source
  code.

  http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Main.HowToGenerateWebPagesFromSourceCode

* The command-line interactive mode (agda -I) is no longer supported,
  but should still work.

  http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.agda/245

* Reload times when working on large projects are now considerably
  better.

  http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.agda/551

Libraries
---------

* A standard library is under development.

  http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Libraries.StandardLibrary

Documentation
-------------

* The Agda wiki is better organised. It should be easier for a
  newcomer to find relevant information now.

  http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/

Infrastructure
--------------

* Easy-to-install packages for Windows and Debian/Ubuntu have been
  prepared.

  http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Main.Download

* Agda 2.2.0 is available from Hackage.

  http://hackage.haskell.org/